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Cognition,9780131552715
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Cognition

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131552715

ISBN10:
0131552716
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $133.20
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Summary

Providing a comprehensive, approachable treatment of current cognitive psychology, this fourth edition of a classic volume, formerly entitled Human Memory and Cognition, maintains the direct style that has proved so popular in the past. Neurocognitive evidence is integrated throughout, and the book balances empirical evidence, theory, and explanations of important points with sufficient detail so that readers learn not only cognitive psychology, but also how experiments are designed and interpreted and how theories are tested.Chapter topics include an introduction to cognitive psychology; the cognitive science approach; perception and pattern recognition; attention; short-term, working memory; learning and remembering; knowing; using knowledge in the real world; language; comprehension: written and spoken language; decisions, judgments, and reasoning; and problem solving.For individuals interested in cognitive psychology and memory.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Cognitive Psychology: An Introduction
1(33)
Thinking About Thinking
4(5)
Memory and Cognition Defined
9(3)
An Introductory History of Cognitive Psychology
12(17)
Anticipations of Psychology
14(1)
Early Psychology
15(4)
Behaviorism and Neobehaviorism
19(3)
Dissatisfaction with Behaviorism: The Winds of Change
22(7)
Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing: The New Direction
29(5)
The Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology
31(3)
The Cognitive Science Approach
34(40)
Guiding Principles
35(1)
Themes
36(1)
Measuring Information Processes
37(7)
Getting Started
37(1)
Time and Accuracy Measures
38(4)
Guiding Analogies
42(2)
The Information-Processing Approach
44(7)
The Standard Theory
44(1)
A Process Model
45(3)
The Strict Information Processing Approach
48(1)
Some Difficulties
49(2)
The Modern Cognitive Approach: Cognitive Science
51(3)
Updating the Standard Theory
51(2)
Fixing the Narrowness
53(1)
Neurocognition: The Brain and Cognition Together
54(17)
Basic Neurology
56(3)
Brain Anatomy
59(3)
Principles of Functioning
62(2)
Split Brain Research and Lateralization
64(1)
Methods of Investigation
65(6)
Neural Net Models: Connectionism
71(3)
Perception and Pattern Recognition
74(48)
Visual Perception
75(17)
Gathering Visual Information
79(3)
Visual Sensory Memory
82(7)
The Argument About Iconic Memory
89(2)
A Summary for Visual Sensory Memory
91(1)
Pattern Recognition: Written Language
92(13)
The Template Approach
93(1)
Visual Feature Detection
93(3)
Beyond Features: Conceptually Driven Pattern Recognition
96(5)
Connectionism Modeling
101(4)
Object Recognition and Agnosia
105(8)
Recognition by Components
106(3)
Agnosia
109(2)
Implications for Cognitive Science
111(2)
Auditory Perception
113(9)
Auditory Sensory Memory
115(4)
Auditory Pattern Recognition
119(3)
Attention
122(41)
Multiple Meanings of Attention
123(1)
Basics of Attention
124(2)
Basic Input Attentional Processes
126(10)
Alertness and Arousal
126(2)
Reflexive Attention and the Orienting Response
128(1)
Spotlight Attention and Visual Search
129(4)
Contrasting Input and Controlled Attention
133(3)
Controlled, Voluntary Attention
136(11)
Selective Attention and the Cocktail Party Effect
138(1)
Selection Models
139(8)
Attention as a Mental Resource
147(11)
Automatic and Conscious Processing Theories
148(5)
A Synthesis for Attention and Automaticity
153(3)
Disadvantages of Automaticity
156(2)
A Disorder of Attention: Hemineglect
158(5)
Short-Term Working Memory
163(47)
Short-Term Memory: A Limited-Capacity Bottleneck
166(9)
The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two
166(3)
The Brown-Peterson Task: Decay from Short-Term Memory
169(1)
Interference versus Decay in Short-Term Memory
170(5)
Short-Term Memory and Recall
175(5)
Free versus Serial Recall
176(1)
Serial Position Effects
176(2)
Rehearsal Buffer
178(2)
Retrieval from Short-Term Memory
180(5)
Recognition Tasks
180(1)
Short-Term Memory Scanning: The Sternberg Task
180(5)
Multiple Codes in Short-Term Memory
185(5)
Verbal Codes
185(1)
Semantic Codes
186(1)
Visual Codes
187(2)
Other Codes
189(1)
Working Memory
190(20)
Early Neuropsychological Evidence
191(1)
The Components of Working Memory
191(3)
The Dual Task Method Applied to Working Memory
194(1)
Testing the Working Memory Model
194(5)
Neuropsychological Evidence
199(2)
Individual Differences Approach to Working Memory
201(6)
Overview
207(3)
Learning and Remembering
210(48)
Preliminary Issues
213(9)
Mnemonic Devices
213(3)
The Ebbinghaus Tradition of Memory Research
216(4)
Metamemory
220(2)
Storing Information in Episodic Memory
222(16)
Rehearsal
223(1)
Frequency of Rehearsal
223(2)
Two Kinds of Rehearsal
225(1)
Depth of Processing
226(1)
Challenges to Depth of Processing
227(1)
Defining Levels
227(3)
Organization in Storage
230(4)
Imagery
234(2)
Storage Summary: Encoding Specificity
236(2)
Retrieving Episodic Information
238(10)
Decay
238(1)
Interference
238(4)
Retrieval Failure
242(2)
Retrieval Cues and Encoding Specificity
244(4)
Amnesia and Implicit Memory
248(10)
Dissociation of Episodic and Semantic Memory
249(2)
Anterograde Amnesia
251(3)
Implicit and Explicit Memory
254(4)
Knowing
258(50)
Semantic Memory
260(22)
The Collins and Quillian (and Loftus) Model
261(4)
Smith's Feature Comparison Model
265(2)
Empirical Tests of Semantic Memory Models
267(2)
Clashing Models and Explanations
269(4)
Semantic Relatedness
273(9)
Categorization, Classification, and Prototypes
282(5)
Concept Formation
282(1)
Natural Language Concepts
282(3)
Internal Structure and the Power of Categorization
285(2)
Priming in Semantic Memory
287(11)
Nuts and Bolts of Priming Tasks
287(3)
Empirical Demonstrations of Priming
290(1)
Priming in Other Tasks
291(2)
Priming Is Automatic
293(3)
Priming Is an Implicit Process
296(2)
Context, Connectionism, and the Brain
298(10)
Context
298(3)
Connectionism
301(2)
Connectionism and the Brain
303(5)
Using Knowledge in the Real World
308(54)
The Seven Sins of Memory
310(1)
Reconstructive Memory and Semantic Integration
311(11)
Bartlett's Research
312(2)
Schemata
314(2)
Semantic Integration
316(4)
Technical and Content Accuracy
320(2)
Propositions
322(12)
The Nature of Propositions
322(4)
Strengths of Propositional Theories
326(2)
Rules for Deriving Propositions
328(2)
Are Propositions Real?
330(4)
Propositions, Semantic Networks, and Scripts
334(7)
Scripts
335(4)
Evidence of Scripts
339(2)
False Memories, Eyewitness Memory, and ``Forgotten Memories''
341(12)
False Memories
341(3)
Leading Questions and Memory Distortion
344(2)
The Misinformation Effect
346(1)
Source Misattribution and Misinformation Acceptance
347(4)
Stronger Memory Distortion Effects
351(1)
Repressed and Recovered Memories
352(1)
Autobiographical Memories
353(9)
The Bahrick Work
354(3)
The Relationship of Laboratory to Real-World Memory
357(1)
The Irony of Memory
358(4)
Language
362(53)
Linguistic Universals and Functions
364(12)
Defining Language
364(1)
Universals of Language
365(5)
Animal Communication Systems
370(2)
Five Levels of Analysis, a Critical Distinction, and Whorf's Hypothesis
372(4)
Phonology: The Sounds of Language
376(11)
Sounds in Isolation
376(5)
Combining Phonemes into Words
381(1)
Speech Perception and Context
382(3)
A Final Puzzle
385(2)
Syntax: The Ordering of Words and Phrases
387(10)
Chomsky's Transformational Grammar
389(4)
Limitations of the Transformational Grammar Approach
393(1)
The Cognitive Role of Syntax
394(3)
Lexical and Semantic Factors: The Meaning in Language
397(10)
Morphemes
398(1)
The Lexical Representation
399(1)
Case Grammar
399(3)
Interaction of Syntax and Semantics
402(2)
Evidence for the Semantic Grammar Approaches
404(2)
Case Grammar, Propositions, and Comprehension
406(1)
Brain and Language
407(8)
Aphasia
407(4)
Generalizing from Aphasia
411(1)
Language in the Intact Brain
412(3)
Comprehension: Written and Spoken Language
415(46)
Getting Started: An Overview
416(14)
Conceptual and Rule Knowledge
416(2)
Traditional Comprehension Research
418(3)
Online Comprehension Tasks
421(1)
Comprehension as Mental Structure Building
422(7)
A Situation Model Approach to Comprehension
429(1)
Reference, Inference, and Memory
430(7)
Reference
430(1)
Implication and Inference
431(1)
Simple Reference and Inference
431(2)
Inferences During Comprehension
433(1)
The Processes and Extent of Drawing Inferences
434(3)
Reading
437(12)
Gaze Duration Procedures
437(4)
Basic Online Reading Effects
441(2)
A Model of Reading
443(4)
Summary
447(2)
Spoken Language and Conversation
449(12)
The Structure of Conversations
450(1)
Cognitive Conversational Characteristics
451(4)
Empirical Effects in Conversation
455(6)
Decisions, Judgments, and Reasoning
461(55)
Formal Logic and Reasoning
463(10)
Syllogisms
463(3)
Conditional Reasoning: If P Then Q
466(6)
Hypothesis Testing
472(1)
Decisions
473(9)
Decisions About Physical Differences
474(1)
Decisions About Symbolic Differences
475(6)
Decisions About Geographic Distances
481(1)
Decisions and Reasoning Under Uncertainty
482(23)
Algorithms and Heuristics
483(3)
Heuristics, Biases, and Fallacies
486(1)
The Representativeness Heuristic
487(5)
The Availability Heuristic
492(2)
The Simulation Heuristic
494(1)
The Undoing Heuristic: Counterfactual Reasoning
495(5)
Adaptive Thinking and ``Fast, Frugal'' Heuristics
500(1)
The Ongoing Debate
501(4)
Limitations in Reasoning
505(11)
Limited Domain Knowledge
505(6)
Limitations in Processing Resources
511(3)
Appendix: Algorithms for Coin Tosses and Hospital Births
514(1)
Coin Tosses
514(1)
Hospital Births
515(1)
Problem Solving
516(49)
The Status of the Problem-Solving Area
518(1)
Gestalt Psychology and Problem Solving
519(7)
Early Gestalt Research
520(2)
Difficulties in Problem Solving
522(4)
Insight and Analogy
526(11)
Insight
526(4)
Analogy
530(4)
Neurocognition in Analogy and Insight
534(3)
Basics of Problem Solving
537(8)
Characteristics of Problem Solving
538(1)
A Vocabulary of Problem Solving
539(6)
Means--End Analysis: A Fundamental Heuristic
545(10)
The Basics of Means--End Analysis
546(1)
Means--End Analysis and the Tower of Hanoi
546(4)
General Problem Solver
550(2)
Adaptive Control of Thought
552(3)
Improving Your Problem Solving
555(10)
Increase Your Domain Knowledge
555(1)
Automate Some Components of the Problem-Solving Solution
556(1)
Follow a Systematic Plan
556(1)
Draw Inferences
557(1)
Develop Subgoals
557(1)
Work Backward
558(1)
Search for Contradictions
558(1)
Search for Relations Among Problems
559(1)
Find a Different Problem Representation
559(2)
If All Else Fails, Try Practice
561(4)
Glossary 565(12)
References 577(32)
Photo Credits 609(4)
Name Index 613(7)
Subject Index 620


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