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The psychology of human memory and cognition is fascinating, dealing with questions and ideas that are inherently interesting, such as how we think, reason, remember, and use language.Chapter topics include an introduction to cognitive psychology; the cognitive science approach; perception and pattern recognition; attention; short-term, working memory; learning and remembering; knowing; using knowledge in the real world; language; comprehension: written and spoken language; decisions, judgments, and reasoning; and problem solving.For individuals interested in cognitive psychology and memory.

Table of Contents

1. Cognitive Psychology : An Introduction


Thinking About Thinking


Memory and Cognition Defined


An Introductory History of Cognitive Psychology


    Anticipations of Psychology

    Early Psychology

    Behaviorism and Neobehaviorism

    Dissatifaction with Behaviorism: The Winds of Change


Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing


    The New Direction

     The Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology


2. The Cognitive Science Approach


    Guiding Principles



Measuring Information Processes


    Getting Started

    Time and Accuracy Measures

    Guiding Analogies


The Information-Processing Approach


    The Standard Theory

    A Process Model

    The Strict Information Processing Approach

    Some Difficulties


The Modern Cognitive Approach: Cognitive Science


    Updating the Standard Theory

    Fixing the Narrowness


Neurocognition: The Brain and Cognition Together


    Basic Neurology

    Brain Anatomy

    Principles of Functioning

    Split Brain Research and Lateralization

    Methods of Investigation


Neural Net Models: Connectionism


3. Perception and Pattern Recognition


Visual Perception


    Gathering Visual Information

    Visual Sensory Memory

    The Early parts of a Fixation

     A Summary for Visual Sensory Memory

    Trans-saccadic Memory


Pattern Recognition: Written Language


Gestalt Grouping Principles

The Template Approach

Visual Feature Detection

Beyond Features: Conceptually Driven Pattern Recognition

Connectionist Modeling


Object Recognition and Agnosia


    Recognition by Components


    Implications for Cognitive Science


Auditory Perception


    Auditory Sensory Memory

    Auditory Pattern Recognition


4. Attention


    Multiple Meaning of Attention

    Basics of Attention


Basic Input Attentional Processes


    Alertness and Arousal

    Orienting Response and Attention Capture

    Spotlight Attention and Visual Search

    Contrasting Input and Controlled Attention

    Hemineglect: An Attention Deficit


Controlled, Voluntary Attention


    Selective Attention and the Cocktail Party Effect

    Selection Models


Attention as a Mental Resource


    Automatic and Conscious Processing Theories

    A Synthesis for Attention and Automaticity

    Disadvantages of Automaticity



5. Short-Term Working Memory



Short-Term Memory: A Limited Capacity Bottleneck

The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two

Forgetting from Short-Term Memory


Short-Term Memory Retrieval

Serial Position Effects

Short-Term Memory Scanning: The Sternberg Task


Working Memory

The Components of Working Memory

The Central Executive

The Phonological Loop

The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

The Episodic Buffer


Assessing Working Memory

The Dual Task Method

Working Memory Span


The Role of Working Memory in Cognition

Working Memory and Attention

Working Memory and Long-Term Memory

Working Memory and Reasoning

Sometimes Small Working Memory Spans are Better



6. Learning and Remembering


Preliminary Issues


    Mnemonic Devices

    The Ebbinghaus Tradition of Memory Research



Storing Information in Episodic Memory



    Frequency of Rehearsal

    Two Kinds of Rehearsal

    Depth of Processing

    Challenges to Depth of Processing

    Generation and Enactment

    Organization in Storage


    Emotion and Survival Value

    Context and Encoding Specificity


Retrieving Episodic Information




    Retrieval Failure

    Retrieval Cues


Amnesia and Implicit Memory


    Dissociation of Episodic and Semantic Memory

    Anterograde Amnesia

    Implicit and Explicit Memory


7. Knowing


Semantic Memory


    The Collins and Quillian ( and Loftus) Model

    Smith's Feature Comparison Model

    Empirical Tests of Semantic Memory Models

    Semantic Relatedness


Priming in Semantic Memory


    Nuts and Bolts of Priming Tasks

    Empirical Demonstrations of Priming

    Priming in Other Tasks

    Automatic and Controlled Priming

    Priming Is an Implicit Process


Schemata and Scripts

Bartlett’s Research



Evidence of Scripts


<    Context, Connectionism, and the Brain


Connectionism and the Brain


8. Using Knowledge in the Real World


    The Seven Sins of Memory


Facts About the World

The Nature of Propositions

Rules for Deriving Propositions

Are Propositions Real?


       Situation Models and Embodied Cognition

Levels of Representation

Remembering Facts



Source Monitoring

Prospective Memory

Knowing What You Know


False Memories, Eyewitness Memory. and "Forgotten Memories"


    False Memories


    Leading Questions and Memory Distortion

    The Misinformation Effect

    Source Misattribution and Misinformation Acceptance

    Stronger Memory Distortion Effects

    Repressed and Recovered Memories


Autobiographical Memories


    The Bahrick Work

    Phenomena of Autobiographical Memory

    The Irony of Memory


9. Language


Linguistic Universals and Functions


    Defining Language

    Language Universals

    Animal Communication

    Levels of Analysis, a Critical Distinction, and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis


Phonology: The Sounds of Language


    Sounds in Isolation

    Combining Phonemes into Words

    Embodiment in Speech Perception

    Speech Perception and Context

    A Final Puzzle


Syntax: The Ordering of Words and Phrases


    Chomsky's Transformational Grammar

    Limitations of the Transformational Grammar Approach

    The Cognitive Role of Syntax


Lexical and Semantic Factors: The Meaning in Language



    The Lexical Representation

    Case Grammar

    Interaction of Syntax and Semantics

    Evidence for the Semantic Grammar Approaches


Brain and Language


    Language in the Intact Brain


    Generalizing from Aphasia



10. Comprehension: Written and Spoken Language


Getting Started: An Overview


    Conceptual and Rule Knowledge

    Traditional Comprehension Research

    Online Comprehension Tasks


    Comprehension as Mental Structure Building

    Levels of Comprehension




    Gaze Duration

    Basic Online Reading Effects

    A Model of Reading



Reference, Situation Models, and Events


Situation Models



        Conversation and Gesture


    The Structure of Conversations

    Cognitive Conversational Characteristics

    Empirical Effects in Conversation



11. Decisions, Judgments, and Reasoning


Formal Logic and Reasoning



    Conditional Reasoning: If P Then Q

    Hypothesis Testing




    Decisions About Physical Differences

    Decisions About Symbolic Differences

    Decisions About Geographic Distances


Decisions and Reasoning Under Uncertainty


    Algorithms and Heuristics

    Heuristics, Biases, and Fallacies

    The Representativeness Heuristic

    The Availability Heuristics

    The Simulation Heuristics

    The Undoing Heuristics: Counterfactual Reasoning

    Adaptive Thinking and " Fast, Frugal" Heuristics

    The Ongoing Debate


Limitations in Reasoning


    Limited Domain Knowledge

    Limitations in Processing Resources


Appendix: Algorithms for Coin Tosses and Hospital Births

Coin Tosses

Hospital Births 



12. Problem Solving


    The Status of Problem-Solving Area


Gestalt Psychology and Problem Solving


    Early Gestalt Research

    Difficulties in Problem Solving


Insight and Analogy




    Neurocognition in Analogy and Insight


Basics of Problem Solving


    Characteristics of Problem Solving

    A Vocabulary of Problem Solving


Means-End Analysis: A Fundamental Heuristic


    The Basics of Means-End Analysis

    The Tower of Hanoi

    General Problem Solver


Improving Your Problem Solving


    Increase Your Domain Knowledge

    Automate Some Components of the Problem-Solving Solution

    Follow a Systematic Plan

    Draw Inferences

    Develop Subgoals

    Work Backward

    Search for Contradictions

    Search for Relations Among Problems

    Find  a Different Problem Representation

    Stay Calm

    If All Else Fails, Try Practice




Photo Credits

Name Index

Subjet Index



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