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How do animals perceive the world, learn, remember, search for food or mates, communicate, and find their way around? Do any nonhuman animals count, imitate one another, use a language, or have a culture? What are the uses of cognition in nature and how might it have evolved? What is the current status of Darwin's claim that other species share the same "mental powers" as humans, but to different degrees? In this completely revised second edition of Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior, Sara Shettleworth addresses these questions, among others, by integrating findings from psychology, behavioral ecology, and ethology in a unique and wide-ranging synthesis of theory and research on animal cognition, in the broadest sense--from species-specific adaptations of vision in fish and associative learning in rats to discussions of theory of mind in chimpanzees, dogs, and ravens. She reviews the latest research on topics such as episodic memory, metacognition, and cooperation and other-regarding behavior in animals, as well as recent theories about what makes human cognition unique. In every part of this new edition, Shettleworth incorporates findings and theoretical approaches that have emerged since the first edition was published in 1998. The chapters are now organized into three sections: Fundamental Mechanisms (perception, learning, categorization, memory), Physical Cognition (space, time, number, physical causation), and Social Cognition (social knowledge, social learning, communication). Shettleworth has also added new chapters on evolution and the brain and on numerical cognition, and a new chapter on physical causation that integrates theories of instrumental behavior with discussions of foraging, planning, and tool using.
Sara Shettleworth is Professor Emerita in the Departments of Psychology and Ecology & Evolutionary Biology at the University of Toronto, where she obtained her Ph.D. in 1970. Her research on learning and memory in a variety of species of birds and mammals has been published in over 100 articles and book chapters. Her contributions have been recognized by numerous awards, including the International Comparative Cognition Society's 2008 Research Award. She is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and Animal Behavior Society, and a member of the Society of Experimental Psychologists.
Table of Contents
|Cognition and the Study of Behavior||p. 3|
|What is comparative cognition about?||p. 4|
|Kinds of explanation for behavior||p. 10|
|Approaches to comparative cognition||p. 15|
|Evolution, Behavior, and Cognition: A Primer||p. 26|
|Testing adaptation||p. 26|
|Mapping phylogeny||p. 31|
|Evolution, cognition, and the structure of behavior||p. 34|
|Evolution and the brain||p. 42|
|What does all this have to do with comparative psychology?||p. 49|
|Summarizing and looking ahead||p. 53|
|Fundamental Mechanisms||p. 55|
|Perception and Attention||p. 57|
|Specialized sensory systems||p. 57|
|How can we find out what animals perceive?||p. 62|
|Some psychophysical principles||p. 65|
|Signal detection theory||p. 66|
|Perception and evolution: Sensory ecology||p. 73|
|Search and attention||p. 77|
|Attention and foraging: The behavioral ecology of attention||p. 84|
|Learning: Introduction and Pavlovian Conditioning||p. 96|
|General processes and ˘constraints on learning÷||p. 96|
|A framework for thinking about learning||p. 98|
|When and how will learning evolve?||p. 102|
|Pavlovian conditioning: Conditions for learning||p. 105|
|What is learned?||p. 119|
|Conditional control of behavior: Occasion setting and modulation||p. 126|
|Effects of learning on behavior||p. 127|
|Concluding remarks||p. 134|
|Recognition Learning||p. 136|
|Perceptual learning||p. 146|
|The behavioral ecology of social recognition: Recognizing kin||p. 161|
|Forms of recognition learning compared||p. 165|
|Discrimination, Classification, and Concepts||p. 167|
|Three examples||p. 167|
|Untrained responses to natural stimuli||p. 168|
|Classifying complex natural stimuli||p. 172|
|Discrimination learning||p. 179|
|Category discrimination and concepts||p. 190|
|Summary and conclusions||p. 208|
|Functions and properties of memory||p. 211|
|Methods for studying memory in animals||p. 215|
|Conditions for memory||p. 222|
|Species differences in memory?||p. 230|
|Mechanisms: What is remembered and why is it forgotten?||p. 237|
|Memory and consciousness||p. 241|
|Summary and conclusions||p. 256|
|Physical Cognition||p. 259|
|Getting Around: Spatial Cognition||p. 261|
|Mechanisms for spatial orientation||p. 264|
|Modularity and integration||p. 283|
|Acquiring spatial knowledge: The conditions for learning||p. 288|
|Do animals have cognitive maps?||p. 296|
|Circadian rhythms||p. 313|
|Interval timing: Data||p. 323|
|Interval timing: Theories||p. 331|
|Summary: Two timing systems?||p. 338|
|Numerical Competence||p. 340|
|Numerosity discrimination and the analog magnitude system||p. 344|
|The object tracking system||p. 350|
|Ordinal comparison: Numerosity, serial position, and transitive inference||p. 355|
|Labels and language||p. 365|
|Numerical cognition and comparative psychology||p. 370|
|Cognition and the Consequences of Behavior: Foraging, Planning, Instrumental Learning, and Using Tools||p. 371|
|Long-term or short-term maximizing: Do animals plan ahead?||p. 389|
|Causal learning and instrumental behavior||p. 394|
|Using and understanding tools||p. 399|
|On causal learning and killjoy explanations||p. 413|
|Social Cognition||p. 415|
|Social Intelligence||p. 417|
|The social intelligence hypothesis||p. 418|
|The nature of social knowledge||p. 421|
|Intentionality and social understanding||p. 432|
|Theory of mind||p. 441|
|Social Learning||p. 466|
|Social learning in context||p. 468|
|Mechanisms: Social learning without imitation||p. 475|
|Mechanisms: Imitation||p. 482|
|Do nonhuman animals teach?||p. 497|
|Animal cultures?||p. 503|
|Summary and conclusions||p. 506|
|Communication and Language||p. 508|
|Some basic issues||p. 511|
|Natural communication systems||p. 516|
|Trying to teach human language to other species||p. 532|
|Language evolution and animal communication: New directions||p. 543|
|Summary and conclusions||p. 546|
|Summing Up and Looking Ahead||p. 548|
|Modularity and the animal mind||p. 549|
|Theory and method in comparative cognition||p. 551|
|Humans versus other species: Different in degree or kind?||p. 554|
|The future: Tinbergen's four questions, and a fifth one||p. 559|
|Author Index||p. 667|
|Subject Index||p. 685|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|