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Cognition : Theory and Applications

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780495091561

ISBN10:
0495091561
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/20/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $180.33

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This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 3/20/2006.
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Summary

Dr. Reed's Seventh Edition of COGNITION: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS focuses on the theories that underlie cognitive phenomena as well as empirical data that establishes a traditional, information processing approach to cognitive psychology. This structure allows undergraduates to discover the direct relevance of cognitive psychology to many of their daily activities. The features of the text incorporate unparalleled scholarship with a distinctive clear voice that allows for the emphasis of both contemporary and classical research through real-life examples and experiments. The author incorporates the ever-evolving field and makes the material relevant to students' lives by including popular articles from current well-known magazines and newspapers. As in past editions, all of these materials have been revised to maintain a high degree of currency and accuracy. Three criteria were used to create the Seventh Edition: first, the material has to make an important contribution to cognitive psychology; second, the material has to be accessible to the reader; and third, the material needs to be understandable and interesting. Through the incorporation of these three criteria, the text becomes an invaluable tool in learning cognitive psychology.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART ONE Information-Processing Stages
Introduction
1(16)
The Information-Processing Approach
2(2)
The Growth of Cognitive Psychology
4(3)
Information Processing Gathers Momentum
5(1)
Higher Cognitive Processes
6(1)
Cognition's Relation to Other Fields
7(3)
In The News 1.1 From Brain Scan to Lesson Plan
10(2)
Organization of This Book
12(2)
Study Questions
14(1)
Coglab Brain Asymmetry
14(1)
Key Terms
14(1)
Recommended Reading
15(2)
Pattern Recognition
17(26)
In The News 2.1 Battling Bots
19(1)
Describing Patterns
20(5)
Template Theories
20(2)
Feature Theories
22(3)
In The News 2.2 Why Do ``They All Look Alike''?
25(5)
Structural Theories
26(4)
Information-Processing Stages
30(5)
The Partial-Report Technique
30(1)
Sperling's Model
31(2)
Rumelhart's Model
33(2)
Word Recognition
35(5)
The Word Superiority Effect
35(1)
A Model of the Word Superiority Effect
36(2)
Neural Network Models
38(2)
Summary
40(1)
Study Questions
41(1)
Coglab Receptive Fields Muller-Lyer Illusion Visual Search Partial Report Word Superiority Metacontrast Masking
41(1)
Key Terms
42(1)
Recommended Reading
42(1)
Attention
43(26)
In The News 3.1 Brain Study May Help Identify Those at Risk for Alzheimer's
45(1)
Bottleneck Theories
46(6)
Broadbent's Filter Model
46(2)
Treisman's Attenuation Model
48(1)
The Deutsch-Norman Memory Selection Model
49(3)
Capacity Theories
52(5)
Example of a Capacity Model
52(3)
Capacity and Stage of Selection
55(2)
Automatic Processing
57(4)
When Is a Skill Automatic?
58(1)
Automatic Encoding
59(2)
In The News 3.2 Training Quarterbacks
61(2)
Automatic Processing and Reading
62(1)
Applications
63(3)
Predicting Road Accidents
63(1)
Using Cell Phones
64(2)
Summary
66(1)
Study Questions
67(1)
Coglab Attentional Blink Spatial Cueing Stroop Task Simon Effect
67(1)
Key Terms
68(1)
Recommended Reading
68(1)
Short-Term Working Memory
69(28)
Forgetting
71(5)
Rate of Forgetting
71(1)
Decay versus Interference
72(2)
Release from Proactive Interference
74(2)
Capacity
76(4)
The Magic Number
76(1)
Individual Differences in Chunking
77(3)
Memory Codes
80(4)
Acoustic Codes and Rehearsal
80(2)
Acoustic Codes in Reading
82(2)
Recognition of Items in Short-Term Memory
84(4)
Searching Short-Term Memory
85(1)
Degraded Patterns
86(2)
Working Memory
88(5)
Baddeley's Working Memory Model
88(2)
Working Memory versus Short-Term Memory
90(1)
Baddeley's Revised Working Memory Model
91(2)
Summary
93(1)
Study Questions
94(1)
Coclab Brown-Peterson Memory Span Operation Span Absolute Identification Sternberg Search
94(1)
Key Terms
95(1)
Recommended Reading
95(2)
Long-Term Memory
97(28)
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
100(4)
Transferring Information from Short-Term Memory to Long-Term Memory
100(1)
Verbal Rehearsal and Learning
101(1)
Rehearsal and the Serial Position Effect
102(2)
Control Processes
104(1)
In The News 5.1 Teaching Students How to Learn
105(6)
Acquisition
105(2)
Retention
107(2)
Retrieval
109(2)
Improving Eyewitness Recall and Identification
111(1)
In The News 5.2 Wait, Don't Tell Me!
112(4)
Improving Eyewitness Recall
113(2)
Eyewitness Identification
115(1)
Indirect Tests of Memory
116(6)
Processing Theories
117(1)
Multiple Memories
118(2)
Brain Structures
120(2)
Summary
122(1)
Study Questions
122(1)
Coglab Serial Position Remember/Know Implicit Learning False Memory
123(2)
Key Terms
123(1)
Recommended Reading
124(1)
PART TWO Representation and Organization of Knowledge
Memory Codes
125(26)
The Levels-of-Processing Theory
128(4)
Emphasis on Coding Strategies
128(2)
Implications for Verbal Rehearsal
130(2)
Supporting Evidence of the Levels-of-Processing Theory
132(3)
The Hyde-Jenkins Experiment
132(1)
Structural, Phonemic, and Semantic Processing
133(2)
Criticisms and Modifications of the Theory
135(6)
Criticisms
135(1)
Elaboration of Memory Codes
136(2)
Distinctiveness of Memory Codes
138(3)
In The News 6.1 Memories May Not Be Clear Even with ``Unforgettable'' Events
141(1)
Encoding Specificity and Retrieval
142(4)
The Encoding Specificity Principle
142(1)
Interaction between Encoding and Retrieval Operations
143(2)
Transfer-Appropriate Processing
145(1)
In The News 6.2 Remembering in Tongues
146(2)
Summary
148(1)
Study Questions
149(1)
COGLAB Von Restorff Effect Encoding Specificity
149(1)
Key Terms
150(1)
Recommended Reading
150(1)
Visual Images
151(30)
Visual Imagery and Learning
153(8)
Memory for Pictures
153(1)
Paivio's Dual Coding Theory
154(3)
Comparison of Association-Learning Strategies
157(2)
The Mnemonic Keyword Method and Vocabulary Learning
159(2)
Evidence for Images in Performing Cognitive Tasks
161(7)
Scanning Visual Images
161(2)
Sequential versus Parallel Processing
163(2)
Mental Transformations
165(2)
Interference
167(1)
In The News 7.1 Mental Images Help Athletes Train Their Bodies
168(3)
Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience
169(2)
Limitations of Images
171(7)
Memory for Details
172(2)
Reality Monitoring
174(2)
Breakdown of Reality Monitoring
176(2)
Summary
178(1)
Study Questions
179(1)
Coglab Mental Rotation
179(1)
Key Terms
179(1)
Recommended Reading
180(1)
Categorization
181(28)
Concept Identification
183(3)
Discovering Rules and Attributes
183(1)
Critique of the Concept Identification Paradigm
184(2)
Natural Categories
186(11)
Hierarchical Organization of Categories
186(4)
Typicality and Family Resemblances
190(3)
Person Perception
193(2)
Loss of Categorical Knowledge
195(2)
Categorizing Novel Patterns
197(8)
Categorization Models
198(3)
Evaluation of Categorization Models
201(2)
Theory-Based Categorization
203(2)
Summary
205(1)
Study Questions
206(1)
Coglab Prototypes Categorical Perception: Identification
207(1)
Key Terms
207(1)
Recommended Reading
207(2)
Semantic Organization
209(34)
Organization and Recall
211(4)
Recall of Hierarchical Information
211(2)
Building Semantic Networks
213(2)
Verification of Semantic Statements
215(9)
The Hierarchical Network Model
216(3)
The Feature Comparison Model
219(3)
The Spreading Activation Model
222(2)
In The News 9.1 Study May Shed Light on Why False Memories Appear Real to People
224(4)
The Perceptual Symbols Model
225(3)
Clusters of Knowledge
228(5)
The ACT Model
228(3)
Modification of ACT
231(2)
Schema Theory
233(6)
Bartlett's Schema Theory
234(1)
Modern Schema Theory
235(1)
Scripts: Representing Sequences of Events
235(4)
Summary
239(1)
Study Questions
240(1)
Coglab Lexical Decision
241(1)
Key Terms
241(1)
Recommended Reading
241(2)
PART THREE Complex Cognitive Skills
Language
243(28)
Three Aspects of Language
246(5)
Grammar (Forming Phrases)
246(1)
Meaning (Combining Words and Morphemes)
246(3)
Sound (Producing Phonemes)
249(1)
Evidence for Hierarchical Organization (Speech Errors)
250(1)
Psychology and Grammar
251(3)
Phrase Structure Grammar
251(1)
Transformational Grammar
252(2)
In The News 10.1 Wording on Driver's Licenses Costs State Almost $250,000
254(2)
Words as Grammatical Clues
254(2)
In The News 10.2 Psychologists' Research Can Help Computers' Language Skills
256(1)
Using Semantic Context in Sentence Comprehension
257(8)
Semantic Context and Word Recognition
258(2)
Semantic Context and Ambiguous Meanings
260(2)
Individual Differences in Resolving Ambiguities
262(1)
Interpreting Phrases
263(2)
Implications of Sentences
265(3)
Courtroom Testimony
266(1)
Advertising Claims
267(1)
Summary
268(1)
Study Questions
269(1)
Coglab Categorical Perception: Discrimination
269(1)
Key Terms
270(1)
Recommended Reading
270(1)
Comprehension and Memory for Text
271(28)
Prior Knowledge of the Reader
272(1)
Effect on Comprehension
272(1)
In The News 11.1 Speed-Reading Can Undermine Learning
273(6)
Effect on Retrieval
275(2)
Effect on False Recognition and Recall
277(2)
Organization of the Text
279(9)
Story Structure
279(2)
Causal Connections
281(4)
Integration of Details
285(3)
Kintsch's Model of Comprehension
288(8)
Processing Assumptions
288(2)
The Construction-integration Model
290(2)
Incorporating Prior Knowledge
292(2)
Predicting Readability
294(2)
Summary
296(1)
Study Questions
296(1)
Key Terms
297(1)
Recommended Reading
298(1)
Problem Solving
299(28)
Classifying Problems
300(5)
Arrangement
302(2)
Inducing Structure
304(1)
In The News 12.1 Pair of Crafty Inmates Melt Way Out of Jail
305(2)
Transformation
307(1)
Newell and Simon's Theory
307(4)
Objectives and Method
307(2)
Theoretical Assumptions
309(1)
Means-End Analysis
310(1)
General Strategies
311(4)
Subgoals
311(3)
Analogy
314(1)
In The News 12.2 Radiation Beams Target Tumors, Bypass Healthy Tissue
315(8)
Diagrams
318(2)
Representational Transfer
320(3)
Summary
323(1)
Study Questions
323(1)
Key Terms
324(1)
Recommended Reading
325(2)
Expertise and Creativity
327(26)
Expertise and Reasoning
329(6)
Logical Reasoning
329(3)
Analogical Reasoning
332(2)
Scientific Reasoning
334(1)
Acquiring Expertise
335(6)
Search versus Implementation
336(2)
Learning a Solution
338(1)
Combining Theory and Instruction
339(2)
Creativity
341(8)
The Constraining Effects of Examples
342(2)
Inventing Products through Imagery
344(2)
The Geneplore Model
346(1)
Associative versus Rule-based Reasoning
347(2)
Summary
349(1)
Study Questions
350(1)
Coglab Wason Selection Task
350(1)
Key Terms
351(1)
Recommended Reading
351(2)
Decision Making
353(30)
Making Choices
354(5)
Compensatory Models
354(2)
Noncompensatory Models
356(1)
Selecting a Strategy
357(2)
Estimating Probabilities
359(4)
Availability
360(2)
Representativeness
362(1)
Combining Probabilities and Values
363(3)
Expected Value
364(1)
Expected Utility
365(1)
In The News 14.1 Critics Want Government to Put a Standard Price on Human Life
366(2)
Subjective Expected Utility
36(332)
Risk Dimensions
368(1)
Importance of Risk Dimensions
368(1)
In The News 14.2 Lottery Fans Drawn to Bigger Prizes
369(2)
Decision Frames
369(1)
Perceived Risk
370(1)
Applications
371(5)
Decision Aids and Training
371(2)
Jury Decision Making
373(2)
Action-Based Decision Making
375(1)
In The News 14.3 Most Jurors Unwittingly Deliver Biased Verdicts
376(3)
Sources of Power
378(1)
Summary
379(1)
Study Questions
380(1)
Coglab Typical Reasoning Risky Decisions/Monty Hall
381(1)
Key Terms
381(1)
Recommended Reading
382(1)
Glossary 383(8)
References 391(24)
Name Index 415(4)
Subject Index 419


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