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Cognitive Psychology

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780199273768

ISBN10:
0199273766
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/10/2005
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press, USA
List Price: $64.95
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  • Cognitive Psychology
    Cognitive Psychology




Summary

Cognitive Psychology provides a dynamic and exciting insight into such topics as attention, memory, judgement and decision making. It also introduces the latest computational and imaging techniques used to broaden our understanding of this fascinating subject.

Table of Contents

Foundations of cognitive psychology
Nick Braisby
Angus Gellatly
Introduction
1(1)
What is cognitive psychology?
2(6)
A brief history of cognitive psychology
8(11)
Introspectionism
8(1)
Gestalt psychology
9(1)
Behaviourism
10(2)
The return of the cognitive
12(7)
Science, models and the mind
19(3)
The cognitive approach
22(5)
Representation
22(2)
Computation
24(3)
Level-dependent explanations
27(3)
The computational level
27(1)
The algorithmic level
27(2)
The implementational level
29(1)
Using Marr's levels
29(1)
Conclusions
30(4)
Further reading
31(1)
References
31(3)
PART 1 PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES
Introduction
34(3)
Attention
Peter Naish
Auditory attention
37(8)
Disentangling sounds
37(4)
Attending to sounds
41(2)
Eavesdropping on the unattended message
43(2)
Visual attention
45(10)
Knowing about unseen information
46(3)
Towards a theory of parallel processing
49(1)
Rapid serial visual presentation
50(4)
Masking and attention
54(1)
Integrating information in clearly-seen displays
55(4)
Serial and parallel search
55(1)
Non-target effects
56(1)
The `flanker' effect
57(2)
Attention and distraction
59(3)
The effects of irrelevant speech
60(1)
Attending across modalities
61(1)
The neurology of attention
62(3)
The effects of brain damage
62(2)
Event-related potentials
64(1)
Concluding thoughts
65(6)
Further reading
67(1)
References
67(4)
Perception
Graham Pike
Graham Edgar
Introduction
71(6)
Perceiving and sensing
73(1)
The eye
74(1)
Approaches to perception
75(2)
The Gestalt approach to perception
77(3)
Gibson's theory of perception
80(10)
An ecological approach
81(1)
The optic array and invariant information
82(4)
Flow in the ambient optic array
86(3)
Affordances and resonance
89(1)
Marr's theory of perception
90(8)
The grey level description
91(1)
The primal sketch
92(3)
The 2 1/2D sketch
95(1)
Evaluating Marr's approach
96(2)
Constructivist approaches to perception
98(4)
The physiology of the human visual system
102(6)
From the eye to brain
102(1)
The dorsal and ventral streams
103(1)
The relationship between visual pathways and theories of perception
104(1)
A dual-process approach?
105(1)
Combining bottom-up and top-down processing
106(2)
Conclusion
108(5)
Further reading
109(1)
References
109(4)
Recognition
Graham Pike
Nicola Brace
Introduction
113(2)
Recognition in the wider context of cognition
114(1)
Different types of recognition
115(9)
Object and face recognition
115(3)
Active processing -- recognizing objects by touch
118(2)
Recognizing two-dimensional objects
120(2)
Object-centred vs viewer-centred descriptions
122(2)
Recognizing three-dimensional objects
124(11)
Marr and Nishihara's theory
124(7)
Evaluating Marr and Nishihara's theory
131(1)
Biederman's theory
131(4)
Face recognition
135(3)
Recognizing familiar and unfamiliar faces
136(2)
Modelling in face recognition
138(6)
A connectionist model of face recognition
141(3)
Neuropsychological evidence
144(4)
Are faces `special'?
148(5)
Conclusion
153(5)
Further reading
153(1)
References
153(5)
PART 2 CONCEPTS AND LANGUAGE
Introduction
158(5)
Concepts
Nick Braisby
Introduction
163(6)
Concepts, categories and words
163(1)
Categorization
164(2)
The wider story of concepts
166(1)
Concepts and cognition
167(2)
Explaining categorization
169(18)
Similarity I: the classical view of concepts
169(6)
Similarity II: prototype theories of concepts
175(5)
Common-sense theories: the theory-based view
180(4)
Psychological essentialism
184(3)
Where next?
187(4)
Is all categorization the same?
188(1)
Are all concepts the same?
189(1)
Are all categorizers the same?
190(1)
Conclusion
191(6)
Further reading
192(1)
References
192(5)
Language processing
Gareth Gaskell
Introduction
197(1)
Word recognition
198(15)
Spoken word recognition
198(8)
Visual word recognition
206(7)
The mental lexicon
213(6)
Morphology
213(2)
Accessing word meanings
215(4)
Sentence comprehension
219(7)
Syntax
220(2)
Models of parsing
222(2)
Is parsing autonomous?
224(1)
Constraints on parsing
225(1)
Conclusion
226(5)
Further reading
227(1)
References
228(3)
Language in action
Simon Garrod
Anthony J. Sanford
Introduction
231(1)
Written language and discourse
232(13)
Processes underlying text interpretation
233(7)
Special topics in understanding text
240(5)
Language production as a self-contained process
245(8)
Speech errors and the architecture of the language production system
245(4)
Message selection and audience design
249(2)
Self-monitoring
251(2)
The challenge of dialogue
253(5)
What is dialogue?
253(2)
Dialogue and consensus
255(1)
A model of dialogue processing
256(2)
The monologue / dialogue distinction and group decision making
258(2)
Summary
260(6)
Further reading
261(1)
References
261(5)
PART 3 MEMORY
Introduction
266(3)
Long-term memory: encoding to retrieval
Andrew Rutherford
Introduction
269(1)
Encoding
270(7)
Levels of processing
270(3)
Relational and item-specific processing
273(4)
Memory stores and systems
277(7)
Multiple memory systems
278(4)
Declarative and procedural memory
282(2)
Retrieval
284(2)
Encoding specificity and transfer appropriate processing
284(2)
Implicit memory
286(6)
Perceptual and conceptual memory
286(2)
Accounts of implicit memory
288(2)
Implicit memory and amnesia
290(2)
Jacoby's process-dissociation framework
292(3)
Remember and know judgements
295(4)
Do Remember and know judgements reflect different response criteria?
297(2)
Conclusions
299(8)
Further reading
300(1)
References
300(7)
Working memory
Graham J. Hitch
Introduction
307(7)
Human memory as a multifaceted system
307(1)
Distinction between short-term and long-term memory
308(2)
Working memory as more than STM
310(4)
The structure of working memory
314(15)
A multi-component model
314(3)
Phonological working memory
317(6)
Executive processes
323(6)
Vocabulary acquisition
329(2)
Neuropsychological evidence
329(1)
Individual differences
330(1)
Experimental studies
330(1)
Modelling the phonological loop
331(4)
Serial order
332(3)
Conclusion
335(9)
Further reading
336(1)
References
336(8)
PART 4 THINKING
Introduction
344(3)
Problem solving
Alison J.K. Green
Ken Gllhooly
Introduction
347(6)
What is a `problem'
349(1)
Protocol analysis in problem-solving research
350(3)
`Simple' problem solving
353(10)
The Gestalt legacy
353(3)
Representation in puzzle problem solving
356(2)
The information processing approach: problem solving as search
358(3)
Information processing approaches to insight
361(2)
Analogical problem solving
363(2)
Analogies in problem solving
363(1)
How do analogies work?
364(1)
`Complex' problem solving
365(6)
The role of knowledge in expert problem solving
366(4)
A modal model of expertise?
370(1)
Prospects for problem-solving research
371(5)
Does expertise transfer?
371(1)
Individual differences
372(4)
Conclusion
376(6)
Further reading
377(1)
References
377(5)
Judgement and decision making
Peter Ayton
Introduction
382(2)
Theories of decision making
383(1)
Supporting decision making
383(1)
Normative theory of choice under risk
384(8)
Prescriptive application of normative theory: decision analysis
385(2)
Axioms underlying subjective expected utility theory
387(1)
Violations of the axioms
388(4)
Findings from behavioural decision research
392(4)
The `preference reversal phenomenon'
393(1)
Causes of anomalies in choice
394(2)
Prospect theory
396(4)
Prospect theory and `loss aversion'
398(1)
`Framing' effects
399(1)
Judgement under uncertainty
400(10)
Judging probabilities and Bayes' Theorem
400(2)
Does Bayes' Theorem describe human Judgement?
402(2)
Heuristics and biases
404(2)
Evaluating the heuristics and biases account
406(2)
Overconfidence
408(2)
Fast and frugal theories of decision making
410(2)
Conclusion
412(6)
Further reading
413(1)
References
413(5)
Reasoning
Mike Oaksford
Introduction
418(3)
Reasoning and logic
418(1)
Reasoning in everyday life
419(2)
Deductive reasoning and logic
421(4)
Logical connectives
421(1)
When are arguments logically valid?
421(2)
Logically invalid inferences
423(1)
Form and meaning in logic
424(1)
Psychological theories of reasoning
425(2)
Mental logic
425(1)
Mental models
425(1)
The probabilistic approach
425(2)
Conditional inference
427(10)
The abstract conditional inference task
427(5)
Everyday reasoning and the suppression effect
432(5)
Wason's selection task
437(11)
The abstract selection task
437(6)
The deontic selection task
443(5)
Conclusion
448(10)
Theoretical evaluation
449(2)
Integration, dual processes and individual differences
451(1)
Further reading
452(1)
References
452(6)
PART 5 CHALLENGES, THEMES AND ISSUES
Introduction
458(5)
Cognition and emotion
Jenny Yiend
Bundy Mackintosh
Introduction
463(6)
Components of emotion
464(5)
Different emotions
469(7)
Basic emotions
469(4)
Verbal labels
473(1)
The dimensional approach
474(2)
The function of emotions
476(5)
Emotions alter goals
477(1)
Emotions mobilize physiological resources
478(1)
Emotional expressions as communication
479(1)
Emotions as information
479(2)
What is the function of emotional feelings?
481(1)
Emotion influences cognition
481(13)
Some important concepts
481(2)
Memory
483(5)
Attention
488(3)
Semantic interpretation
491(3)
Does cognition influence emotion?
494(8)
A look at some historical answers
494(5)
A clash of minds: the cognition/emotion debate
499(3)
General summary
502(5)
Further reading
503(1)
References
503(4)
Autobiographical memory and the working self
Martin A. Conway
Emily A. Holmes
What are autobiographical memories?
507(2)
Autobiographical memory across the lifespan
509(5)
Childhood amnesia
511(1)
The reminiscence bump
512(1)
Recency
513(1)
Autobiographical knowledge, episodic memory, the working self and memory construction
514(15)
Autobiographical knowledge
517(3)
Episodic and semantic memory
520(2)
The working self
522(3)
Constructing autobiographical memories
525(4)
Autobiographical memory in distress
529(8)
Traumatic event
531(1)
Response at the time of trauma
531(1)
Subsequent psychological symptoms
532(2)
Impact of symptoms
534(1)
The nature of intrusive trauma memories
535(2)
Conclusion: what are autobiographical memories for?
537(8)
Further reading
538(1)
References
538(7)
Consciousness
Jackie Andrade
Introduction
545(7)
Defining consciousness
546(2)
Philosophical approaches to consciousness
548(2)
The place of consciousness within cognitive psychology
550(2)
Empirical research: cognitive studies of consciousness
552(12)
Implicit cognition
552(8)
Controlled versus automatic processing
560(2)
The neuropsychology of consciousness
562(2)
What is consciousness for?
564(7)
Consciousness and behavioural control
564(4)
Cross-talk between cognitive modules
568(1)
Altered states of consciousness
569(2)
Cognitive theories of consciousness
571(3)
Conclusion: what can cognitive psychology tell us about consciousness?
574(5)
Further reading
574(1)
References
575(4)
Cognitive modelling and cognitive architectures
Paul Mulholland
Stuart Watt
What is cognitive modelling?
579(6)
Parallel distributed processing
579(4)
Rule based systems
583(1)
Cognitive architectures
584(1)
An overview of ACT-R
585(7)
A brief history of ACT-R
585(1)
The architecture of ACT-R
586(1)
Declarative memory
587(1)
Procedural memory
588(2)
Goals and the goal stack
590(2)
ACT-R accounts of memory phenomena
592(9)
Declarative representation of lists
593(3)
Production rules for the rehearsal and retrieval of lists
596(1)
List activation
597(2)
Running the model
599(1)
Evaluation of the ACT-R approach to modelling memory
600(1)
Learning and using arithmetic skills
601(7)
Production compilation
601(3)
An example of human problem-solving behaviour: addition by counting
604(3)
Models of learning and problem solving in practice
607(1)
A comparison of ACT-R and PDP
608(3)
When is a model a good model?
611(3)
Conclusions
614(3)
Further reading
614(1)
References
614(3)
Theoretical issues in cognitive psychology
Tony Stone
Introduction
617(2)
Computation and cognition
619(13)
Some basic ideas
619(2)
Connectionism versus the CMM: the past-tense debate
621(11)
Modularity
632(11)
An outline of Fodor's theory of modularity
632(5)
The central systems
637(2)
Debates about modularity
639(4)
Cognitive psychology and the brain
643(3)
Levels of explanation
643(1)
The co-evolution of cognitive and neurobiological theories
644(2)
The radical neuron doctrine
646(9)
Conclusion
649(1)
Further reading
650(1)
References
650(5)
Epilogue 655(4)
Index 659(25)
Acknowledgements 684


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