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Cognitive Psychology,9780205309375
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Cognitive Psychology

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205309375

ISBN10:
0205309372
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

One of the top sellers in the field, "Cognitive Psychology" is well-written, humorous, and remains one of the most comprehensive and balanced books in the area of cognition. MacLin and MacLin, inheriting the book from the late Robert L. Solso, boldly revised and reorganized the Eighth Edition to reflect emerging trends in the field, while retaining the strengths that made it one of the most popular books in the field. The book features a sequential model of human cognition from sensation to perception, to attention, to memory, to higher-order cognition, and features new cutting-edge coverage of consciousness, cognitive neuroscience, memory and forgetting, and evolutionary psychology.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
SECTION I INTRODUCTION AND THE NEURAL BASIS OF COGNITION
Introduction
1(33)
What Is Cognitive Psychology?
2(2)
Information-Processing Model
4(3)
The Domain of Cognitive Psychology
7(3)
Cognitive Neuroscience
7(1)
Perception
7(1)
Pattern Recognition
8(1)
Attention
8(1)
Consciousness
8(1)
Memory
9(1)
Representation of Knowledge
10(2)
Imagery
10(1)
Language
11(1)
Developmental Psychology
11(1)
Thinking and Concept Formation
11(1)
Human and Artificial Intelligence
12(1)
A Brief History of Cognitive Psychology
12(8)
Early Thoughts on Thinking
13(1)
Cognition in the Renaissance and Beyond
14(2)
Cognitive Psychology: The Early Twentieth Century
16(2)
Cognitive Psychology---As It Is Today
18(2)
Conceptual Science and Cognitive Psychology
20(11)
Cognitive Models
22(2)
The Computer Metaphor and Human Cognition
24(2)
Cognitive Science
26(1)
Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology
26(2)
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) and Cognitive Psychology
28(2)
Evolutionary Cognitive Psychology
30(1)
Summary
31(1)
Key Words
32(1)
Recommended Readings
33(1)
Cognitive Neuroscience
34(39)
Exploring and Mapping the Brain---An Introduction
35(1)
Logbook: The Twenty-first Century---Brain Sciences
35(1)
Mind-Body Issues
36(2)
Cognitive Neuroscience
38(2)
Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience
39(1)
The Nervous System
40(14)
The Neuron
41(4)
The Brain: From Compartmentalization to Mass Action
45(1)
The Anatomy of the Brain
46(8)
Neurophysiological Sensing Techniques
54(8)
MRI and EPI
55(1)
CAT Scans
55(2)
PET Scans
57(5)
A Tale of Two Hemispheres
62(9)
Cognitive Psychology and Brain Science
70(1)
Summary
71(1)
Key Words
71(1)
Recommended Readings
72(1)
SECTION II PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, PATTERN RECOGNITION, AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Perception and Attention
73(35)
The Computational Brain
74(1)
Sensation and Perception
75(5)
Illusions
76(1)
Previous Knowledge
76(2)
Sensory-Brain Predisposition
78(2)
Perceptual Span
80(2)
Iconic Storage
82(2)
Effect of Delay of Cue
84(1)
Echoic Storage
84(2)
Function of Sensory Stores
86(1)
Attention
87(3)
Processing Capacity and Selective Attention
90(1)
Auditory Signals
90(2)
Models of Selective Attention
92(6)
The Filter Model: Broadbent
92(3)
The Attenuation Model: Treisman
95(3)
Visual Attention
98(2)
Automatic Processing
100(3)
The Neurocognition of Attention
103(3)
Attention and the Human Brain
104(1)
Attention and PET
104(2)
Summary
106(1)
Key Words
107(1)
Recommended Readings
107(1)
Pattern Recognition
108(35)
Perceptual Theories
111(1)
Visual Pattern Recognition
112(3)
Vision
113(1)
Subjective Organization
114(1)
Gestalt Theory
115(3)
Canonic Perspectives
118(3)
Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Processing
121(1)
Template Matching
122(6)
Geon Theory
125(1)
Priming Technique
126(2)
Feature Analysis
128(4)
Eye Movements and Pattern Recognition
130(2)
Prototype Matching
132(5)
Abstraction of Visual Information
132(2)
Pseudomemory
134(2)
Prototype Theory: Central-Tendency versus Attribute-Frequency
136(1)
Form Perception: An Integrated Approach
137(1)
Pattern Recognition among Experts
138(2)
Pattern Recognition in Chess
138(2)
Pattern Recognition---The Role of the Perceiver
140(1)
Summary
141(1)
Key Words
142(1)
Recommended Readings
142(1)
Consciousness
143(25)
History of Consciousness
145(1)
Cognitive Psychology and Consciousness
146(9)
Explicit and Implicit Memory
148(1)
Research with Primes
149(4)
Neurocognitive Studies: Sleep and Amnesia
153(2)
Consciousness as a Scientific Construct
155(6)
Limited Capacity
157(1)
The Novelty Metaphor
158(1)
The Spotlight
158(1)
An Integration Metaphor: The Theater in the Society of Mind
159(2)
Modern Theories of Consciousness
161(4)
Schacter's Model of Dissociable Interactions and Conscious Experience (DICE)
161(1)
Baars' Global Workspace Theory
162(3)
Functions of Consciousness
165(1)
Summary
166(1)
Key Words
167(1)
Recommended Readings
167(1)
SECTION III MEMORY
Mnemonics and Experts
168(27)
A King from Texas Matches a Paul Bunyan King from Minnesota
169(1)
Mnemonic Systems
170(9)
Method of Loci
170(2)
Peg Word System
172(1)
Key Word Method
173(2)
Organizational Schemes
175(3)
Recall of Name
178(1)
Recall of Words
178(1)
Extraordinary Memories
179(7)
S.: Luria
180(3)
V.P.: Hunt and Love
183(1)
Others
184(2)
Experts and Expertise
186(7)
H.O.: Case Study of an Artist---Solso; Miall and Tchalenko
187(4)
The Structure of Knowledge and Expertise
191(1)
Theoretical Analysis of Expertise
192(1)
Summary
193(1)
Key Words
194(1)
Recommended Readings
194(1)
Memory: Structures and Processes
195(35)
Short-Term Memory
196(17)
Neurocognition and STM
198(2)
Working Memory
200(1)
Capacity of STM
201(2)
The Coding of Information in STM
203(8)
Retrieval of Information from STM
211(2)
Long-Term Memory
213(15)
Neurocognition and LTM
213(2)
LTM: Storage and Structure
215(3)
Very Long-Term Memory (VLTM)
218(4)
Autobiographical Memories
222(4)
The Fallibility of Memory and Eyewitness Identification
226(2)
Summary
228(1)
Key Words
229(1)
Recommended Readings
229(1)
Memory: Theories and Neurocognition
230(32)
Early Studies
231(4)
The Neurocognition of Memory
235(2)
Two Memory Stores
237(2)
Memory in the Larger Cognitive Domain
239(2)
Models of Memory
241(18)
Waugh and Norman
241(1)
Atkinson and Shiffrin
242(2)
Level of Recall (LOR)
244(1)
Levels of Processing (LOP): Craik
245(5)
Self-Reference Effect (SRE)
250(2)
Episodic and Semantic Memory: Tulving
252(2)
A Connectionist (PDP) Model of Memory: Rumelhart and McClelland
254(5)
Summary
259(1)
Key Words
260(1)
Recommended Readings
260(2)
SECTION IV MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS: MEMORY AND IMAGERY
The Representation of Knowledge
262(29)
Semantic Organization
263(2)
Associationist Approach
265(2)
Organizational Variables: Bower
265(2)
Semantic Memory: Cognitive Models
267(14)
Set-Theoretical Model
267(1)
Semantic Feature-Comparison Model
268(3)
Network Models
271(3)
Propositional Networks
274(7)
Representation of Knowledge---Neurocognitive Considerations
281(4)
The Search for the Elusive Engram
281(1)
What Amnesic Patients Tell Us When They Forget
281(2)
Knowing What and Knowing That
283(1)
A Taxonomy of Memory Structure
284(1)
Memory: Consolidation
285(1)
Connectionism and the Representation of Knowledge
286(2)
Summary
288(2)
Key Words
290(1)
Recommended Readings
290(1)
Mental Imagery
291(28)
Historical Overview
292(1)
Imagery and Cognitive Psychology
293(9)
Dual-Coding Hypothesis
295(1)
Conceptual-Propositional Hypothesis
296(2)
Functional-Equivalency Hypothesis
298(4)
Neurocognitive Evidence
302(6)
Cognitive Maps
308(5)
Mental Maps: Where Am I?
310(3)
Synesthesia: The Sound of Colors
313(3)
Summary
316(1)
Key Words
317(1)
Recommended Readings
318(1)
SECTION V LANGUAGE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITION
Language 1: Structure and Abstractions
319(33)
Language: Cognition and Neurology
320(3)
Linguistics
323(4)
Linguistic Hierarchy
323(1)
Phonemes
323(1)
Morphemes
324(2)
Syntax
326(1)
Chomsky's Theory of Grammar
327(3)
Transformational Grammar
328(2)
Psycholinguistic Aspects of Language
330(3)
Innate Properties and Environmental Effects
330(1)
Linguistic-Relativity Hypothesis
331(2)
Cognitive Psychology and Language: Abstraction of Linguistic Ideas
333(6)
``The War of the Ghosts'': Bartlett
333(3)
``Ants Ate the Jelly'': Bransford and Franks
336(3)
Knowledge and Comprehension
339(5)
``Soap Opera,'' ``Thieves,'' and ``Police''
339(3)
``Bumper Stickers and the Cops'': Kintsch and van Dijk
342(2)
A Model of Comprehension: Kintsch
344(4)
Propositional Representation of Text and Reading
345(3)
Language and Neurology
348(2)
Summary
350(1)
Key Words
351(1)
Recommended Readings
351(1)
Language 2: Words and Reading
352(27)
Perceptual Span
354(11)
Text Processing: Eye Tracking
359(6)
Lexical-Decision Task (LDT)
365(4)
Word Recognition: A Cognitive-Anatomical Approach
369(2)
Comprehension
371(6)
Summary
377(1)
Key Words
378(1)
Recommended Readings
378(1)
Cognitive Development
379(37)
Life-Span Development
381(1)
Developmental Psychology
381(1)
Neurocognitive Development
381(1)
Comparative Development
381(1)
Cognitive Development
381(1)
Developmental Psychology
382(11)
Assimilation and Accommodation: Piaget
383(7)
Mind in Society: Vygotsky
390(1)
Vygotsky and Piaget
391(2)
Neurocognitive Development
393(4)
Early Neural Development
394(1)
Environment and Neural Development
394(1)
Laterization Studies
394(3)
Cognitive Development
397(16)
Intelligence and Abilities
397(2)
Development of Information-Acquisition Skills
399(5)
Memory
404(4)
Higher-Order Cognition in Children
408(3)
Prototype Formation among Children
411(2)
Summary
413(1)
Key Words
414(1)
Recommended Readings
414(2)
SECTION VI THINKING AND INTELLIGENCE (HUMAN AND AI)
Thinking 1: Concept Formation, Logic, and Decision Making
416(35)
Thinking
417(1)
Concept Formation
418(4)
Association
419(1)
Hypothesis Testing
419(3)
Logic
422(12)
Inferences and Deductive Reasoning
424(2)
Syllogistic Reasoning
426(8)
Decision Making
434(14)
Inductive Reasoning
434(1)
Decision Making in the ``Real World''
435(4)
Reasoning and the Brain
439(2)
Estimating Probabilities
441(2)
Decision Frames
443(1)
Representativeness
444(1)
Bayes's Theorem and Decision Making
444(4)
Decision Making and Rationality
448(1)
Summary
448(1)
Key Words
449(1)
Recommended Readings
449(2)
Thinking 2: Problem Solving, Creativity, and Human Intelligence
451(34)
Problem Solving
452(10)
Gestalt Psychology and Problem Solving
453(1)
Representation of the Problem
454(4)
Internal Representation and Problem Solving
458(4)
Creativity
462(6)
Creative Process
462(2)
Creativity and Functional Fixity
464(1)
Investment Theory of Creativity
464(1)
Judging Creativity
465(3)
Human Intelligence
468(13)
The Problem of Definition
468(1)
Cognitive Theories of Intelligence
469(8)
Neurocognition and Intelligence
477(4)
Summary
481(1)
Key Words
482(1)
Recommended Readings
482(3)
Artificial Intelligence
485(46)
AI---The Beginnings
488(6)
Computers
489(1)
Computers and AI
490(4)
AI and PDP
494(3)
Machines and Minds: The Imitation Game and the Chinese Room
497(3)
The Imitation Game, or the Turing Test
497(1)
The Chinese Room
498(2)
The Chinese Room---Refutation
500(1)
Perception and AI
500(9)
Line Analysis
501(1)
Pattern Recognition
502(2)
Recognition of Complex Forms
504(5)
Language and AI
509(7)
ELIZA, PARRY, and NETtalk
510(3)
Meaning and AI
513(1)
Continuous Speech Recognition (CSR)
514(1)
Language Understanding Program
515(1)
Problem Solving, Game Playing, and AI
516(6)
Computer Chess
521(1)
AI and the Arts
522(2)
Robots
524(2)
The Future of AI
526(2)
AI and Scientific Inquiry
528(1)
Summary
529(1)
Key Words
530(1)
Recommended Readings
530(1)
Glossary 531(12)
References 543(44)
Name Index 587(8)
Subject Index 595


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