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Cognitive Psychology and Instruction,9780130947949
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Cognitive Psychology and Instruction

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130947949

ISBN10:
0130947946
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $90.60

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This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2011.
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Summary

Solidly rooted in current cognitive psychology and motivation research, this book applies the findings of such research directly to classroom teaching and students' learning. Discernable throughout the book is the authors' belief that a solid understanding of the cognitive psychology perspective enhances a teacher's ability to understand educational goals, educational processes, and the overall educational system.After an introduction to the basic principles of cognitive psychology and its position in education, the book explains cognitive processes, explores the importance of beliefs and motivations in the process of cognition, and, finally, examines the ways cognitive psychology informs teaching and learning in specific content areas. Devotes an entire chapter tosensory, short-term, and working memory,presenting the modal memory model.For future educators.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
1(14)
A Brief History
1(5)
The Associationist Era
1(4)
The Cognitive Era
5(1)
Cognitive Themes for Education
6(6)
An Example
9(3)
Summary
12(1)
Suggested Readings
13(1)
Part I Information Processing Theory
Sensory, Short-Term, and Working Memory
14(22)
The Modal Model
15(3)
Sensory Memory and Perception
18(5)
Sensory Registers
19(3)
The Role of Knowledge and Context in Perception
22(1)
Attention
23(3)
Automatic Processes
25(1)
Summary of Sensory Memory Processes
26(1)
Short-Term and Working Memory
26(6)
Capacity and Duration
26(1)
Accessing Information
27(1)
Working Memory
28(2)
Working Memory and Learning
30(2)
Implications for Instruction: Guiding and Directing Attention
32(2)
Summary
34(1)
Suggested Readings
35(1)
Long-Term Memory: Structures and Models
36(29)
A Framework for Long-Term Memory
37(5)
Semantic and Episodic Memory
39(1)
Implicit Memory: Retention Without Remembering
40(2)
The Building Blocks of Cognition
42(11)
Concepts
42(5)
Propositions
47(1)
Schemata
48(3)
Productions
51(2)
Scripts
53(1)
Another Dimension of Long-Term Memory: Verbal and Imaginal Representation
53(1)
Evolving Models of Memory
54(8)
Network Models
55(2)
The ACT Model
57(2)
Connectionist Models
59(3)
Implications for Instruction
62(1)
Summary
63(1)
Suggested Readings
64(1)
Encoding Processes
65(27)
Encoding Simple Information
66(8)
Mediation
67(1)
Imagery
68(1)
Mnemonics
69(5)
Encoding More Complex Information
74(7)
Schema Activation
75(1)
Guided Questioning
76(1)
Levels of Processing
77(3)
Summary of Encoding Processes
80(1)
Metacognition: Thinking About Thinking
81(5)
Research on Metacognitive Processes
82(2)
Becoming a Good Strategy User
84(1)
Research on Strategy Instruction
85(1)
Implications for Instruction
86(4)
Summary
90(1)
Suggested Readings
91(1)
Retrieval Processes
92(18)
Encoding Specificity
93(4)
Recognition and Recall
97(3)
Reconstruction
100(4)
Recalling Specific Events
104(1)
Relearning
105(1)
Implications for Instruction
106(3)
Summary
109(1)
Suggested Readings
109(1)
Part II Beliefs and Cognition
Beliefs About Self
110(27)
Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory
110(9)
Enactive and Vicarious Learning
111(1)
Self-Efficacy
112(1)
Research on Student, Teacher, and School Self-Efficacy
113(3)
Modeling
116(1)
Self-Regulated Learning Theory
117(1)
Implications: Improving Self-Efficacy
118(1)
Attribution Theory
119(7)
The Attributional Process
120(3)
Attributions in the Classroom
123(1)
Attributional Retraining
124(1)
Implications: Improving Student Attributions
125(1)
Autonomy and Control
126(9)
Control in the Classroom
127(7)
Implications: Fostering Student Autonomy
134(1)
Summary
135(1)
Suggested Readings
136(1)
Beliefs About Intelligence and Knowledge
137(25)
Understanding Implicit Beliefs
137(2)
Beliefs About Intelligence
139(6)
Constraints on Classroom Behaviors
142(1)
Is Intelligence Changeable?
143(1)
Guidelines for Fostering Adaptive Goals
144(1)
Beliefs About Knowledge
145(10)
Reflective Judgment
148(2)
Stages in Reflective Judgment
150(2)
Reflective Judgment and Education
152(2)
Education and Thinking
154(1)
Summary of Beliefs About Knowledge
155(1)
Hope and Attitude Change
155(3)
Changing Beliefs
156(2)
Teacher's Beliefs
158(1)
Implications
159(2)
Summary
161(1)
Suggested Readings
161(1)
Part III Fostering Cognitive Growth
Problem Solving and Critical Thinking
162(31)
Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving
163(8)
Thorndike, Dewey, and the Gestalt Psychologists
163(1)
Contemporary Approaches to Problem Solving
164(7)
Expert Knowledge in Problem Solving
171(7)
Domain Knowledge
171(1)
An Example of Domain Knowledge in Cognition
172(1)
General Knowledge
173(1)
Domain Knowledge and Expertise
174(1)
Seven Characteristics of Expert Performance
175(1)
Role of Deliberate Practice
176(2)
Problem-Solving Transfer
178(1)
Implications: Improving Problem Solving
178(2)
Critical Thinking
180(11)
Toward a Definition of Critical Thinking
180(1)
Component Skills in Critical Thinking
181(2)
Does Intelligence Constrain Critical Thinking?
183(3)
Planning a Critical-Thinking Skills Program
186(3)
Examples of Stand-Alone Programs
189(2)
Teaching Wisdom
191(1)
Summary
191(1)
Suggested Readings
192(1)
Classroom Contexts for Cognitive Growth
193(19)
Constructivism: Role of the Learner in Building and Transforming Knowledge
194(4)
Types of Constructivism: A Closer Look
195(2)
Vygotsky's Dialectical Constructivism
197(1)
Social Cognition: Social Factors in Knowledge Construction
198(10)
Rogoff's Apprenticeships in Thinking Model
198(2)
Schon's Reflective Practitioner Model
200(2)
Role of Classroom Discourse in Knowledge Construction
202(1)
Toward a More Reflective Classroom
203(2)
Using Classroom Discourse to Build Knowledge
205(3)
Implications for Teaching: A Portrait of the Reflective Classroom
208(3)
Summary
211(1)
Suggested Readings
211(1)
Technological Contexts for Cognitive Growth
212(22)
How Can Students Use Technologies?
214(5)
Cognitive Load Theory and Multimedia Design
219(3)
The Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model and Complex Skill Development
222(4)
Summary of the 4C/ID Model
225(1)
Social Cognitive Theory and Development of Classroom Communities
226(5)
The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury Series
227(2)
CSILE/Knowledge Forum: A Knowledge-Building Community Model
229(1)
Summary of Tools for Building Learning Communities
230(1)
Implications for Teaching
231(2)
Summary
233(1)
Suggested Readings
233(1)
Part IV Cognition in the Classroom
Learning to Read
234(27)
Literacy's Foundations in Language Development
235(8)
Dimensions of Language
235(6)
Summary of Linguistic Prerequisites for Reading
241(2)
Cognitive Prerequisites of Learning to Read
243(3)
World Knowledge
243(1)
Working and Long-Term Memory Capabilities
244(1)
Attention
245(1)
Summary of Cognitive Prerequisites for Reading
246(1)
From Reading Readiness to Emergent Literacy
246(2)
Transition to Reading
248(5)
Prereaders
248(1)
Visual-Cue Reading
249(1)
Phonetic-Cue Reading
249(1)
Systematic Phonemic Decoding
249(1)
Decoding and Beginning Reading
250(3)
Methods of Teaching Reading
253(2)
Summary of Beginning Literacy Instruction
255(1)
Implications for Beginning Reading Instruction
255(4)
A Comment on Reading Difficulties
257(1)
Reading Recovery: One Approach to Reading Difficulties
258(1)
Summary
259(1)
Suggested Readings
260(1)
Reading to Learn
261(30)
Models of Reading Comprehension
262(7)
Gough's Data-Driven Model
262(1)
Goodman's Conceptually Driven Model
263(1)
Kintsch's Construction-Integration Model
264(3)
Common Assumptions of Current Reading Models
267(1)
Summary of Models of Reading
268(1)
Building Vocabulary Through Reading
269(5)
Word Knowledge: What It Means to Know a Word
270(1)
Definitional Versus Contextual Word Knowledge
271(2)
Helping Students Use Reading to Build Vocabulary
273(1)
Building Organized Knowledge Through Reading
274(9)
The Importance of Linking New Information with Old
275(2)
The Importance of Reading Comprehension Strategies
277(5)
Building Organized Knowledge Through Reading: Summary and Applications
282(1)
Remembering What Has Been Read: Memory for Text Materials
283(4)
Text Signals
283(1)
Adjunct Questions
284(3)
Implications for Teaching
287(2)
Summary
289(1)
Suggested Readings
290(1)
Writing
291(24)
A Cognitive Model of Writing
292(6)
The Task Environment
293(1)
Long-Term Memory
294(1)
Working Memory
295(2)
An Example of the Writing Model
297(1)
Individual Differences in Writing
298(5)
Information Processing Differences
299(1)
Idea Generation
300(1)
Planning Differences
301(1)
Differences in Organization
302(1)
Improving Students' Writing
303(4)
Creating a Context for Writing: The Literacy Community
303(4)
Implications for Teaching: Encouraging the Writing Process and Building Writing Skills
307(6)
A Final Note: Creative Writing
312(1)
Summary
313(1)
Suggested Readings
314(1)
Cognitive Approaches to Mathematics
315(23)
Knowledge Acquisition
317(1)
Arithmetic Problem Solving
318(11)
What ``Bugs'' Can Teach Us
319(1)
Problem Typologies
320(3)
Arithmetic Knowledge
323(1)
Language: Another Factor
324(1)
Text Comprehension and Arithmetic Problem Solving
325(3)
Developmental Issues in Arithmetic Problem Solving
328(1)
Problem Solving in Algebra
329(4)
Explaining Algebra Errors
330(3)
Cognitive Psychology and Mathematics Instruction
333(2)
Implications for Instruction
335(2)
Summary
337(1)
Suggested Readings
337(1)
Cognitive Approaches to Science
338(24)
Naive Science Conceptions
340(6)
Confronting Naive Beliefs
343(1)
A Model for Changing Naive Beliefs
344(2)
Expert-Novice Differences in Science
346(3)
Differences in Problem Solving
346(2)
Differences in Understanding Theories
348(1)
A Model for Teaching Science
349(8)
Inquiry-Based Instruction
350(1)
Learning Strategies
351(1)
Teaching Strategies
352(2)
Supporting Teacher Development
354(1)
Benefits of Effective Instruction
355(2)
A Model of Science Achievement
357(2)
Implications for Instruction
359(1)
Summary
360(1)
Suggested Readings
361(1)
Glossary 362(8)
References 370(42)
Name Index 412(8)
Subject Index 420


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