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John R. Anderson has been long been at the forefront of the study of cognition, with accomplishments that have informed the way cognitive psychology is investigated, applied, and taught. With this new edition of his classic textbook, Anderson again takes students to the forefront of the field, incorporating the latest theoretical breakthroughs, research findings, and technological advances, as well as marking the increasing role of neuroscience in the study of cognitive functions. As always, Anderson makes his discussions of higher mental processes concrete and accessible with fascinating examples and clear explanations of the underlying research.
John Richard Anderson is Richard King Mellon Professor of Psychology and Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. He is known for developing the ACT-R, which is the most widely used cognitive architecture in cognitive science. Anderson was also an early leader in research on intelligent tutoring systems, and computer systems based on his cognitive tutors are currently used by more than 500,000 mathematics students. He has served as President of the Cognitive Science Society, and has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He has received numerous awards including the American Psychological Association's Distinguished Scientific Career Award, the David E. Rumelhart Prize for Contributions to the Formal Analysis of Human Cognition, and the inaugural Dr. A. H. Heineken Prize for Cognitive Science. He is the editor of the Psychological Review.
Table of Contents
1. The Science of Cognition Motivations for Studying Cognitive Psychology The History of Cognitive Psychology Information Processing; The Communicative Neurons Organization of the Brain Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience
2. Perception Visual Perception in the Brain Visual Pattern Recognition Implications: Separating humans from BOTs Speech Recognition Feature Analysis of Speech Categorical Perception Context and Pattern Recognition Conclusions
3. Attention and Performance Serial Bottlenecks Auditory Attention Visual Attention Central Attention: Selecting Lines of Thought to Pursue Implications: Why is cell phone use and driving a dangerous combination? Conclusions
4. Mental Imagery Verbal Imagery Versus Visual Imagery Implications: Using brain activation to read people’s minds Visual Imagery Conclusions: Visual Perception and Visual Imagery
5. Representation of Knowledge Knowledge and Regions of the Brain Memory for Meaningful Interpretations of Events Implications: Mnemonic techniques for remembering vocabulary items Propositional Representations Embodied Cognition Conceptual Knowledge Conclusions
6. Human Memory: Encoding and Storage Memory and the Brain Sensory Memory Holds Information Briefly Working Memory Holds the Information Needed to Perform a Task Activation and Long-Term Memory Practice and Memory Strength Factors Influencing Memory Implications: How does the method of loci help us organize recall? Flashbulb Memories Conclusions
7. Human Memory: Retention and Retrieval Are Memories Really Forgotten? The Retention Function How Interference Affects Memory Retrieval and Inference Implications: How have advertisers used knowledge of cognitive psychology? Associative Structure and Retrieval The Hippocampal Formation and Amnesia Implicit Versus Explicit Memory Conclusions: The Many Varieties of Memory in the Brain
8. Problem Solving The Nature of Problem Solving Problem-Solving Operators Operator Selection Problem Representation Set Effects Conclusions Appendix: Solutions
9. Expertise Brain Changes with Skill Acquisition General Characteristics of Skill Acquisition The Nature of Expertise Implications: Computers achieve chess expertise differently than humans Transfer of Skill Theory of Identical Elements Educational Implications Conclusions
10. Reasoning Reasoning and the Brain Reasoning About Conditionals Deductive Reasoning: Reasoning About Quantifiers Inductive Reasoning and Hypothesis Testing Implications: How convincing is a 90% result? Dual-Process Theories Conclusions
11. Decision Making The Brain and Decision Making Probabilistic Judgment Making Decisions Under Uncertainty Implications: Why are adolescents more likely to make bad decisions? Conclusions
12. Language Structure Language and the Brain The Field of Linguistics Syntactic Formalisms What is So Special About Human Language? Implications: Ape language and the ethics of experimentation The Relation Between Language and Thought Language Acquisition Conclusions: The Uniqueness of Language: A Summary
13. Language Comprehension Brain and Language Comprehension Parsing Implications: Intelligent chatterboxes Utilization Text Processing Situation Models Conclusions
14. Individual Differences in Cognition Cognitive Development Psychometric Studies of Cognition Implications: Does IQ determine success in life? Conclusions