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College Physics

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534492588

ISBN10:
0534492584
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/15/2003
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
Includes 2-weeks free access to
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Summary

The main objectives of this introductory physics book are twofold: to provide the student with a clear and logical presentation of the basic concepts and principles of physics, and to strengthen an understanding of the concepts and principles through a broad range of interesting applications to the real world. In order to meet these objectives, emphasis is placed on sound physical arguments and discussions of everyday experiences and observations. At the same time, the student is motivated through practical examples that demonstrate the role of physics in other disciplines. This sixth edition features new pedagogy in keeping with the findings of physics education research. The rich, new pedagogy has been integrated within the framework of an established and reliable text, facilitating its use by instructors. This text, which covers the standard topics in classical physics and 20th century physics, is divided into six parts. Newtonian mechanics and the physics of fluids (Part I); heat and thermodynamics (Part II); wave motion and sound (Part III); electricity and magnetism (Part IV); properties of light and the field of geometric and wave optics (Part V); and an introduction to special relativity, quantum physics, and atomic and nuclear physics (Part VI).

Table of Contents

PART 1: Mechanics
xxxii
Introduction
2(19)
Standards of Length, Mass, and Time
3(2)
The Building Blocks of Matter
5(2)
Dimensional Analysis
7(1)
Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures
8(2)
Conversion of Units
10(1)
Order-of-Magnitude Calculations
11(1)
Coordinate Systems
12(1)
Trigonometry
13(2)
Problem-Solving Strategy
15(6)
Summary
16(5)
Motion in One Dimension
21(35)
Displacement
22(2)
Average Velocity
24(2)
Instantaneous Velocity
26(3)
Acceleration
29(3)
Motion Diagrams
32(2)
One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration
34(8)
Freely Falling Objects
42(14)
Physics in Action: Freely Falling Objects
43(4)
Summary
47(9)
Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion
56(25)
Vectors and Scalars Revisited
57(1)
Some Properties of Vectors
57(2)
Components of a Vector
59(4)
Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration in Two Dimensions
63(1)
Projectile Motion
64(5)
Relative Velocity
69(12)
Physics in Action: Parabolic Paths
70(2)
Summary
72(9)
The Laws of Motion
81(35)
The Concept of Force
82(1)
Newton's First Law
83(2)
Newton's Second Law
85(3)
Newton's Third Law
88(3)
Some Applications of Newton's Laws
91(8)
Physics in Action: Forces and Motion
92(7)
Forces of Friction
99(17)
Summary
105(11)
Energy
116(38)
Work
117(3)
Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem
120(2)
Potential Energy
122(3)
Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
125(1)
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
126(8)
Nonconservative Forces, Nonisolated Systems, and Conservation of Energy
134(5)
Physics in Action: Work and Energy in Sports and Nature
136(3)
Power
139(4)
Work Done by a Varying Force
143(11)
Summary
144(10)
Momentum and Collisions
154(30)
Momentum and Impulse
155(5)
Conservation of Momentum
160(4)
Collisions
164(7)
Glancing Collisions
171(2)
Rocket Propulsion
173(11)
Summary
175(9)
Rotational Motion and the Law of Gravity
184(36)
Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration
185(2)
Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration
187(2)
Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities
189(3)
Centripetal Acceleration
192(3)
The Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
195(1)
Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration
196(4)
Describing Forces in Accelerated Reference Frames
200(1)
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
201(3)
Gravitational Potential Energy Revisited
204(3)
Kepler's Laws
207(13)
Physics in Action: Views of Planets and Moons
209(3)
Summary
212(8)
Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics
220(36)
Torque
221(2)
Torque and the Two Conditions for Equilibrium
223(1)
The Center of Gravity
224(2)
Examples of Objects in Equilibrium
226(3)
Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration
229(7)
Rotational Kinetic Energy
236(1)
Angular Momentum
237(19)
Summary
242(14)
Solids and Fluids
256(48)
States of Matter
257(1)
The Deformation of Solids
258(4)
Density and Pressure
262(3)
Variation of Pressure with Depth
265(2)
Pressure Measurements
267(2)
Buoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle
269(5)
Fluids in Motion
274(5)
Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics
279(2)
Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flow
281(7)
Transport Phenomena
288(16)
Summary
293(11)
PART 2: Thermodynamics
304(84)
Thermal Physics
306(26)
Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
307(1)
Thermometers and Temperature Scales
308(4)
Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
312(5)
Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas
317(3)
Avogadro's Number and the Ideal Gas Law
320(1)
The Kinetic Theory of Gases
321(11)
Summary
325(7)
Energy in Thermal Processes
332(26)
Heat and Internal Energy
333(2)
Specific Heat
335(2)
Calorimetry
337(1)
Latent Heat and Phase Change
338(3)
Energy Transfer by Thermal Conduction
341(4)
Energy Transfer by Convection
345(2)
Energy Transfer by Radiation
347(2)
Resisting Energy Transfer
349(1)
Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases
350(8)
Summary
351(7)
The Laws of Thermodynamics
358(30)
Work in Thermodynamic Processes
359(2)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
361(6)
The First Law and Human Metabolism
367(4)
Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
371(2)
Reversible and Irreversible Processes
373(1)
The Carnot Engine
373(3)
Physics in Action: Devices That Convert Internal Energy into Other Forms of Energy
375(1)
Entropy
376(2)
Entropy and Disorder
378(10)
Summary
381(7)
PART 3: Vibrations and Waves
388(76)
Vibrations and Waves
390(35)
Hooke's Law
391(3)
Elastic Potential Energy
394(3)
Velocity as a Function of Position
397(2)
Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion
399(3)
Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time
402(2)
Motion of a Pendulum
404(3)
Damped Oscillations
407(1)
Wave Motion
408(1)
Types of Waves
409(1)
Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength
410(2)
The Speed of Waves on Strings
412(1)
Interference of Waves
413(2)
Reflection of Waves
415(10)
Summary
416(9)
Sound
425(39)
Producing a Sound Wave
426(1)
Characteristics of Sound Waves
427(1)
The Speed of Sound
428(2)
Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves
430(3)
Spherical and Plane Waves
433(2)
The Doppler Effect
435(5)
Interference of Sound Waves
440(2)
Standing Waves
442(2)
Forced Vibrations and Resonance
444(2)
Standing Waves in Air Columns
446(3)
Beats
449(1)
Quality of Sound
450(2)
The Ear
452(12)
Summary
454(10)
PART 4: Electricity and Magnetism
464(220)
Electric Forces and Electric Fields
466(31)
Properties of Electric Charges
467(1)
Insulators and Conductors
468(3)
Coulomb's Law
471(3)
The Electric Field
474(4)
Electric Field Lines
478(2)
Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
480(3)
The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment
483(2)
The Van de Graaff Generator
485(1)
Electric Flux and Gauss's Law
485(12)
Summary
489(8)
Electrical Energy and Capacitance
497(33)
Potential Difference and Electric Potential
498(4)
Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges
502(3)
Potentials and Charged Conductors
505(1)
Equipotential Surfaces
506(1)
Applications
507(2)
Capacitance
509(1)
The Parallel-Plate Capacitor
510(1)
Combinations of Capacitors
511(5)
Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor
516(2)
Capacitors with Dielectrics
518(12)
Summary
522(8)
Current and Resistance
530(25)
Electric Current
531(1)
A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speed
532(2)
Current and Voltage Measurements in Circuits
534(2)
Resistance and Ohm's Law
536(2)
Resistivity
538(2)
Temperature Variation of Resistance
540(1)
Superconductors
541(1)
Electrical Energy and Power
542(3)
Electrical Activity in the Heart
545(10)
Summary
548(7)
Direct Current Circuits
555(31)
Sources of emf
556(1)
Resistors in Series
557(2)
Resistors in Parallel
559(5)
Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits
564(3)
RC Circuits
567(3)
Household Circuits
570(2)
Electrical Safety
572(1)
Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neurons
573(13)
Summary
576(10)
Magnetism
586(34)
Magnets
587(2)
Earth's Magnetic Field
589(2)
Magnetic Fields
591(2)
Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
593(2)
Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motors
595(3)
Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
598(2)
Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Law
600(3)
Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors
603(1)
Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
604(1)
Magnetic Field of a Solenoid
605(3)
Magnetic Domains
608(12)
Physics in Action: The Motion of Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields
608(2)
Summary
610(10)
Induced Voltages and Inductance
620(32)
Induced emf and Magnetic Flux
621(2)
Faraday's Law of Induction
623(5)
Motional emf
628(3)
Lenx's Law Revisited (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law)
631(3)
Generators
634(3)
Self-Inductance
637(2)
RL Circuits
639(2)
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
641(11)
Summary
642(10)
Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves
652(32)
Resistors in an AC Circuit
653(3)
Capacitors in an AC Circuit
656(1)
Inductors in an AC Circuit
657(1)
The RLC Series Circuit
658(4)
Power in an AC Circuit
662(1)
Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit
663(2)
The Transformer
665(1)
Maxwell's Predictions
666(1)
Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictions
667(2)
Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna
669(1)
Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
670(4)
The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves
674(2)
The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves
676(8)
Summary
677(7)
PART 5: Light and Optics
684(120)
Reflection and Refraction of Light
686(28)
The Nature of Light
687(1)
The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics
688(1)
Reflection and Refraction
688(4)
The Law of Refraction
692(4)
Dispersion and Prisms
696(2)
The Rainbow
698(1)
Huygens's Principle
699(3)
Total Internal Reflection
702(12)
Summary
705(9)
Mirrors and Lenses
714(33)
Flat Mirrors
715(2)
Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors
717(2)
Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions
719(6)
Images Formed by Refraction
725(3)
Atmospheric Refraction
728(1)
Thin Lenses
729(9)
Lens and Mirror Aberrations
738(9)
Summary
739(8)
Wave Optics
747(34)
Conditions for Interference
748(1)
Young's Double-Slit Interference
749(3)
Change of Phase Due to Reflection
752(1)
Interference in Thin Films
753(1)
Physics in Action: Interference
754(4)
Using Interference to Read CDs and DVDs
758(1)
Diffraction
759(1)
Single-Slit Diffraction
760(2)
The Diffraction Grating
762(4)
Polarization of Light Waves
766(15)
Summary
773(8)
Optical Instruments
781(23)
The Camera
782(1)
The Eye
783(4)
The Simple Magnifier
787(2)
The Compound Microscope
789(2)
The Telescope
791(2)
Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures
793(4)
The Michelson Interferometer
797(7)
Summary
799(5)
PART 6: Modern Physics
804(2)
Relativity
806(31)
Introduction
807(1)
The Principle of Galilean Relativity
808(1)
The Speed of Light
809(1)
The Michelson--Morley Experiment
810(4)
Einstein's Principle of Relativity
814(1)
Consequences of Special Relativity
814(8)
Relativistic Momentum
822(1)
Relativistic Addition of Velocities
823(1)
Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy
824(4)
Pair Production and Annihilation
828(1)
General Relativity
828(9)
Summary
831(6)
Quantum Physics
837(27)
Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis
838(3)
The Photoelectric Effect and the Particle Theory of Light
841(3)
X-Rays
844(2)
Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals
846(2)
The Compton Effect
848(2)
Photons and Electromagnetic Waves
850(1)
The Wave Properties of Particles
850(4)
The Wave Function
854(1)
The Uncertainty Principle
854(3)
The Scanning Tunneling Microscope
857(7)
Summary
859(5)
Atomic Physics
864(35)
Early Models of the Atom
865(1)
Atomic Spectra
866(2)
The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen
868(5)
Modification of the Bohr Theory
873(2)
De Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom
875(1)
Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom
876(1)
The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number
877(1)
Electron Clouds
878(1)
The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
879(3)
Characteristic X-Rays
882(1)
Atomic Transitions
883(1)
Lasers and Holography
884(2)
Energy Bands in Solids
886(4)
Semiconductor Devices
890(9)
Summary
894(5)
Nuclear Physics
899(33)
Some Properties of Nuclei
900(3)
Binding Energy
903(2)
Radioactivity
905(4)
The Decay Processes
909(6)
Natural Radioactivity
915(1)
Nuclear Reactions
916(3)
Medical Applications of Radiation
919(4)
Radiation Detectors
923(9)
Summary
926(6)
Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles
932(1)
Nuclear Fission
933(2)
Nuclear Reactors
935(4)
Nuclear Fusion
939(4)
Elementary Particles
943(1)
The Fundamental Forces in Nature
943(1)
Positrons and Other Antiparticles
944(1)
Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics
945(2)
Classification of Particles
947(1)
Conservation Laws
948(2)
Strange Particles and Strangeness
950(1)
The Eightfold Way
951(1)
Quarks
952(4)
Colored Quarks
956(1)
Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model
957(2)
The Cosmic Connection
959(2)
Problems and Perspectives
961(1)
Summary
962
Appendix A Mathematical Review 1(8)
Appendix B An Abbreviated Table of Isotopes 9(5)
Appendix C Some Useful Tables 14(2)
Appendix D SI Units 16(1)
Answers to Quick Quizzes, Selected Questions and Problems 17
Index 1


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