Mechanics | |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Standards of Length, Mass, and Time | p. 1 |

The Building Blocks of Matter | p. 4 |

Dimensional Analysis | p. 5 |

Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures | p. 7 |

Conversion of Units | p. 9 |

Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations | p. 11 |

Coordinate Systems | p. 13 |

Trigonometry | p. 14 |

Problem-Solving Strategy | p. 16 |

Summary | p. 17 |

Motion in One Dimension | p. 23 |

Displacement | p. 24 |

Velocity | p. 25 |

Acceleration | p. 30 |

Motion Diagrams | p. 33 |

One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration | p. 35 |

Freely Falling Objects | p. 41 |

Summary | p. 45 |

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion | p. 53 |

Vectors and Their Properties | p. 53 |

Components of a Vector | p. 56 |

Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration in Two Dimensions | p. 59 |

Motion in Two Dimensions | p. 60 |

Relative Velocity | p. 68 |

Summary | p. 72 |

The Laws of Motion | p. 81 |

Forces | p. 81 |

Newton's First Law | p. 83 |

Newton's Second Law | p. 84 |

Newton's Third Law | p. 90 |

Applications of Newton's Laws | p. 92 |

Forces of Friction | p. 100 |

Summary | p. 107 |

Energy | p. 118 |

Work | p. 118 |

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem | p. 123 |

Gravitational Potential Energy | p. 126 |

Spring Potential Energy | p. 134 |

Systems and Energy Conservation | p. 140 |

Power | p. 142 |

Work Done by a Varying Force | p. 146 |

Summary | p. 148 |

Momentum and Collisions | p. 160 |

Momentum and Impulse | p. 160 |

Conservation of Momentum | p. 166 |

Collisions | p. 168 |

Glancing Collisions | p. 175 |

Rocket Propulsion | p. 177 |

Summary | p. 180 |

Rotational Motion and the Law of Gravity | p. 189 |

Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration | p. 189 |

Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration | p. 193 |

Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities | p. 194 |

Centripetal Acceleration | p. 198 |

Newtonian Gravitation | p. 206 |

Kepler's Laws | p. 214 |

Summary | p. 217 |

Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics | p. 226 |

Torque | p. 227 |

Torque and the Two Conditions for Equilibrium | p. 230 |

The Center of Gravity | p. 232 |

Examples of Objects in Equilibrium | p. 234 |

Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration | p. 237 |

Rotational Kinetic Energy | p. 244 |

Angular Momentum | p. 247 |

Summary | p. 251 |

Solids and Fluids | p. 266 |

States of Matter | p. 266 |

The Deformation of Solids | p. 268 |

Density and Pressure | p. 274 |

Variation of Pressure with Depth | p. 277 |

Pressure Measurements | p. 281 |

Buoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle | p. 282 |

Fluids in Motion | p. 288 |

Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics | p. 294 |

Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flow | p. 298 |

Transport Phenomena | p. 305 |

Summary | p. 309 |

Thermodynamics | |

Thermal Physics | p. 321 |

Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics | p. 322 |

Thermometers and Temperature Scales | p. 323 |

Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids | p. 327 |

Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas | p. 334 |

The Kinetic Theory of Gases | p. 339 |

Summary | p. 344 |

Energy in Thermal Processes | p. 352 |

Heat and Internal Energy | p. 352 |

Specific Heat | p. 355 |

Calorimetry | p. 357 |

Latent Heat and Phase Change | p. 359 |

Energy Transfer | p. 365 |

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases | p. 375 |

Summary | p. 377 |

The Laws of Thermodynamics | p. 386 |

Work in Thermodynamic Processes | p. 386 |

The First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 389 |

Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 399 |

Entropy | p. 408 |

Human Metabolism | p. 413 |

Summary | p. 416 |

Vibrations and Waves | |

Vibrations and Waves | p. 424 |

Hooke's Law | p. 424 |

Elastic Potential Energy | p. 427 |

Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion | p. 432 |

Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time | p. 435 |

Motion of a Pendulum | p. 438 |

Damped Oscillations | p. 441 |

Waves | p. 441 |

Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength | p. 444 |

The Speed of Waves on Strings | p. 446 |

Interference of Waves | p. 447 |

Reflection of Waves | p. 448 |

Summary | p. 449 |

Sound | p. 458 |

Producing a Sound Wave | p. 458 |

Characteristics of Sound Waves | p. 459 |

The Speed of Sound | p. 461 |

Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves | p. 463 |

Spherical and Plane Waves | p. 465 |

The Doppler Effect | p. 467 |

Interference of Sound Waves | p. 473 |

Standing Waves | p. 475 |

Forced Vibrations and Resonance | p. 479 |

Standing Waves in Air Columns | p. 480 |

Beats | p. 484 |

Quality of Sound | p. 486 |

The Ear | p. 487 |

Summary | p. 489 |

Electricity and Magnetism | |

Electric Forces and Electric Fields | p. 497 |

Properties of Electric Charges | p. 497 |

Insulators and Conductors | p. 497 |

Coulomb's Law | p. 500 |

The Electric Field | p. 505 |

Electric Field Lines | p. 510 |

Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium | p. 512 |

The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment | p. 515 |

The Van de Graaff Generator | p. 516 |

Electric Flux and Gauss's Law | p. 517 |

Summary | p. 523 |

Electrical Energy and Capacitance | p. 531 |

Potential Difference and Electric Potential | p. 531 |

Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges | p. 538 |

Potentials and Charged Conductors | p. 541 |

Equipotential Surfaces | p. 542 |

Applications | p. 543 |

Capacitance | p. 545 |

The Parallel-Plate Capacitor | p. 546 |

Combinations of Capacitors | p. 548 |

Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor | p. 554 |

Capacitors with Dielectrics | p. 556 |

Summary | p. 561 |

Current and Resistance | p. 568 |

Electric Current | p. 568 |

A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speed | p. 570 |

Current and Voltage Measurements in Circuits | p. 572 |

Resistance and Ohm's Law | p. 573 |

Resistivity | p. 575 |

Temperature Variation of Resistance | p. 577 |

Superconductors | p. 579 |

Electrical Energy and Power | p. 580 |

Electrical Activity in the Heart | p. 583 |

Summary | p. 586 |

Direct Current Circuits | p. 592 |

Sources of emf | p. 592 |

Resistors in Series | p. 593 |

Resistors in Parallel | p. 596 |

Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits | p. 601 |

RC Circuits | p. 605 |

Household Circuits | p. 609 |

Electrical Safety | p. 611 |

Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neurons | p. 612 |

Summary | p. 614 |

Magnetism | p. 624 |

Magnets | p. 624 |

Earth's Magnetic Field | p. 626 |

Magnetic Fields | p. 628 |

Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor | p. 631 |

Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motors | p. 634 |

Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field | p. 637 |

Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Law | p. 640 |

Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors | p. 643 |

Magnetic Fields of Current Loops and Solenoids | p. 644 |

Magnetic Domains | p. 648 |

Summary | p. 649 |

Induced Voltages and Inductance | p. 660 |

Induced emf and Magnetic Flux | p. 660 |

Faraday's Law of Induction | p. 663 |

Motional emf | p. 667 |

Lenz's Law Revisited (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law) | p. 670 |

Generators | p. 673 |

Self-Inductance | p. 677 |

RL Circuits | p. 680 |

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field | p. 682 |

Summary | p. 683 |

Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves | p. 693 |

Resistors in an AC Circuit | p. 693 |

Capacitors in an AC Circuit | p. 696 |

Inductors in an AC Circuit | p. 697 |

The RLC Series Circuit | p. 699 |

Power in an AC Circuit | p. 702 |

Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit | p. 704 |

The Transformer | p. 705 |

Maxwell's Predictions | p. 707 |

Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictions | p. 708 |

Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna | p. 709 |

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 710 |

The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 715 |

The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves | p. 718 |

Summary | p. 718 |

Light and Optics | |

Reflection and Refraction of Light | p. 726 |

The Nature of Light | p. 726 |

Reflection and Refraction | p. 727 |

The Law of Refraction | p. 732 |

Dispersion and Prisms | p. 736 |

The Rainbow | p. 738 |

Huygens' Principle | p. 739 |

Total Internal Reflection | p. 742 |

Summary | p. 745 |

Mirrors and Lenses | p. 754 |

Flat Mirrors | p. 754 |

Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors | p. 757 |

Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions | p. 759 |

Images Formed by Refraction | p. 765 |

Atmospheric Refraction | p. 768 |

Thin Lenses | p. 769 |

Lens and Mirror Aberrations | p. 777 |

Summary | p. 779 |

Wave Optics | p. 786 |

Conditions for Interference | p. 786 |

Young's Double-Slit Experiment | p. 787 |

Change of Phase Due to Reflection | p. 791 |

Interference in Thin Films | p. 792 |

Using Interference to Read CD's and DVD's | p. 796 |

Diffraction | p. 797 |

Single-Slit Diffraction | p. 798 |

The Diffraction Grating | p. 800 |

Polarization of Light Waves | p. 804 |

Summary | p. 811 |

Optical Instruments | p. 819 |

The Camera | p. 819 |

The Eye | p. 820 |

The Simple Magnifier | p. 825 |

The Compound Microscope | p. 827 |

The Telescope | p. 829 |

Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures | p. 831 |

The Michelson Interferometer | p. 836 |

Summary | p. 837 |

Modern Physics | |

Relativity | p. 843 |

Introduction | p. 843 |

The Principle of Galilean Relativity | p. 844 |

The Speed of Light | p. 845 |

The Michelson-Morley Experiment | p. 846 |

Einstein's Principle of Relativity | p. 849 |

Consequences of Special Relativity | p. 850 |

Relativistic Momentum | p. 858 |

Relativistic Addition of Velocities | p. 859 |

Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy | p. 860 |

Pair Production and Annihilation | p. 865 |

General Relativity | p. 865 |

Summary | p. 868 |

Quantum Physics | p. 874 |

Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis | p. 874 |

The Photoelectric Effect and the Particle Theory of Light | p. 877 |

X-Rays | p. 880 |

Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals | p. 883 |

The Compton Effect | p. 885 |

The Dual Nature of Light and Matter | p. 887 |

The Wave Function | p. 890 |

The Uncertainty Principle | p. 891 |

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope | p. 894 |

Summary | p. 895 |

Atomic Physics | p. 903 |

Early Models of the Atom | p. 903 |

Atomic Spectra | p. 904 |

The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen | p. 906 |

Modification of the Bohr Theory | p. 910 |

de Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom | p. 912 |

Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom | p. 913 |

The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number | p. 915 |

Electron Clouds | p. 916 |

The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table | p. 917 |

Characteristic X-Rays | p. 920 |

Atomic Transitions | p. 921 |

Lasers and Holography | p. 922 |

Energy Bands in Solids | p. 924 |

Semiconductor Devices | p. 928 |

Summary | p. 931 |

Nuclear Physics | p. 939 |

Some Properties of Nuclei | p. 940 |

Binding Energy | p. 943 |

Radioactivity | p. 945 |

The Decay Processes | p. 948 |

Natural Radioactivity | p. 955 |

Nuclear Reactions | p. 955 |

Medical Applications of Radiation | p. 959 |

Radiation Detectors | p. 963 |

Summary | p. 965 |

Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles | p. 973 |

Nuclear Fission | p. 973 |

Nuclear Reactors | p. 976 |

Nuclear Fusion | p. 980 |

Elementary Particles | p. 984 |

The Fundamental Forces of Nature | p. 984 |

Positrons and Other Antiparticles | p. 985 |

Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics | p. 986 |

Classification of Particles | p. 988 |

Conservation Laws | p. 989 |

Strange Particles and Strangeness | p. 991 |

The Eightfold Way | p. 992 |

Quarks | p. 993 |

Colored Quarks | p. 996 |

Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model | p. 997 |

The Cosmic Connection | p. 999 |

Problems and Perspectives | p. 1001 |

Summary | p. 1002 |

Mathematical Review | p. 1 |

An Abbreviated Table of Isotopes | p. 9 |

Some Useful Tables | p. 14 |

Sl Units | p. 16 |

Answers to Quick Quizzes and Odd-numbered Conceptual Questions and Problems | p. 17 |

Index | p. 1 |

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