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Mechanics | |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Standards of Length, Mass, and Time | p. 1 |
The Building Blocks of Matter | p. 4 |
Dimensional Analysis | p. 5 |
Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures | p. 7 |
Conversion of Units | p. 9 |
Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations | p. 11 |
Coordinate Systems | p. 13 |
Trigonometry | p. 14 |
Problem-Solving Strategy | p. 16 |
Summary | p. 17 |
Motion in One Dimension | p. 23 |
Displacement | p. 24 |
Velocity | p. 25 |
Acceleration | p. 30 |
Motion Diagrams | p. 33 |
One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration | p. 35 |
Freely Falling Objects | p. 41 |
Summary | p. 45 |
Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion | p. 53 |
Vectors and Their Properties | p. 53 |
Components of a Vector | p. 56 |
Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration in Two Dimensions | p. 59 |
Motion in Two Dimensions | p. 60 |
Relative Velocity | p. 68 |
Summary | p. 72 |
The Laws of Motion | p. 81 |
Forces | p. 81 |
Newton's First Law | p. 83 |
Newton's Second Law | p. 84 |
Newton's Third Law | p. 90 |
Applications of Newton's Laws | p. 92 |
Forces of Friction | p. 100 |
Summary | p. 107 |
Energy | p. 118 |
Work | p. 118 |
Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem | p. 123 |
Gravitational Potential Energy | p. 126 |
Spring Potential Energy | p. 134 |
Systems and Energy Conservation | p. 140 |
Power | p. 142 |
Work Done by a Varying Force | p. 146 |
Summary | p. 148 |
Momentum and Collisions | p. 160 |
Momentum and Impulse | p. 160 |
Conservation of Momentum | p. 166 |
Collisions | p. 168 |
Glancing Collisions | p. 175 |
Rocket Propulsion | p. 177 |
Summary | p. 180 |
Rotational Motion and the Law of Gravity | p. 189 |
Angular Speed and Angular Acceleration | p. 189 |
Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration | p. 193 |
Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantities | p. 194 |
Centripetal Acceleration | p. 198 |
Newtonian Gravitation | p. 206 |
Kepler's Laws | p. 214 |
Summary | p. 217 |
Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics | p. 226 |
Torque | p. 227 |
Torque and the Two Conditions for Equilibrium | p. 230 |
The Center of Gravity | p. 232 |
Examples of Objects in Equilibrium | p. 234 |
Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration | p. 237 |
Rotational Kinetic Energy | p. 244 |
Angular Momentum | p. 247 |
Summary | p. 251 |
Solids and Fluids | p. 266 |
States of Matter | p. 266 |
The Deformation of Solids | p. 268 |
Density and Pressure | p. 274 |
Variation of Pressure with Depth | p. 277 |
Pressure Measurements | p. 281 |
Buoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle | p. 282 |
Fluids in Motion | p. 288 |
Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics | p. 294 |
Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flow | p. 298 |
Transport Phenomena | p. 305 |
Summary | p. 309 |
Thermodynamics | |
Thermal Physics | p. 321 |
Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics | p. 322 |
Thermometers and Temperature Scales | p. 323 |
Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids | p. 327 |
Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas | p. 334 |
The Kinetic Theory of Gases | p. 339 |
Summary | p. 344 |
Energy in Thermal Processes | p. 352 |
Heat and Internal Energy | p. 352 |
Specific Heat | p. 355 |
Calorimetry | p. 357 |
Latent Heat and Phase Change | p. 359 |
Energy Transfer | p. 365 |
Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases | p. 375 |
Summary | p. 377 |
The Laws of Thermodynamics | p. 386 |
Work in Thermodynamic Processes | p. 386 |
The First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 389 |
Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 399 |
Entropy | p. 408 |
Human Metabolism | p. 413 |
Summary | p. 416 |
Vibrations and Waves | |
Vibrations and Waves | p. 424 |
Hooke's Law | p. 424 |
Elastic Potential Energy | p. 427 |
Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion | p. 432 |
Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time | p. 435 |
Motion of a Pendulum | p. 438 |
Damped Oscillations | p. 441 |
Waves | p. 441 |
Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength | p. 444 |
The Speed of Waves on Strings | p. 446 |
Interference of Waves | p. 447 |
Reflection of Waves | p. 448 |
Summary | p. 449 |
Sound | p. 458 |
Producing a Sound Wave | p. 458 |
Characteristics of Sound Waves | p. 459 |
The Speed of Sound | p. 461 |
Energy and Intensity of Sound Waves | p. 463 |
Spherical and Plane Waves | p. 465 |
The Doppler Effect | p. 467 |
Interference of Sound Waves | p. 473 |
Standing Waves | p. 475 |
Forced Vibrations and Resonance | p. 479 |
Standing Waves in Air Columns | p. 480 |
Beats | p. 484 |
Quality of Sound | p. 486 |
The Ear | p. 487 |
Summary | p. 489 |
Electricity and Magnetism | |
Electric Forces and Electric Fields | p. 497 |
Properties of Electric Charges | p. 497 |
Insulators and Conductors | p. 497 |
Coulomb's Law | p. 500 |
The Electric Field | p. 505 |
Electric Field Lines | p. 510 |
Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium | p. 512 |
The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment | p. 515 |
The Van de Graaff Generator | p. 516 |
Electric Flux and Gauss's Law | p. 517 |
Summary | p. 523 |
Electrical Energy and Capacitance | p. 531 |
Potential Difference and Electric Potential | p. 531 |
Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges | p. 538 |
Potentials and Charged Conductors | p. 541 |
Equipotential Surfaces | p. 542 |
Applications | p. 543 |
Capacitance | p. 545 |
The Parallel-Plate Capacitor | p. 546 |
Combinations of Capacitors | p. 548 |
Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor | p. 554 |
Capacitors with Dielectrics | p. 556 |
Summary | p. 561 |
Current and Resistance | p. 568 |
Electric Current | p. 568 |
A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speed | p. 570 |
Current and Voltage Measurements in Circuits | p. 572 |
Resistance and Ohm's Law | p. 573 |
Resistivity | p. 575 |
Temperature Variation of Resistance | p. 577 |
Superconductors | p. 579 |
Electrical Energy and Power | p. 580 |
Electrical Activity in the Heart | p. 583 |
Summary | p. 586 |
Direct Current Circuits | p. 592 |
Sources of emf | p. 592 |
Resistors in Series | p. 593 |
Resistors in Parallel | p. 596 |
Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits | p. 601 |
RC Circuits | p. 605 |
Household Circuits | p. 609 |
Electrical Safety | p. 611 |
Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neurons | p. 612 |
Summary | p. 614 |
Magnetism | p. 624 |
Magnets | p. 624 |
Earth's Magnetic Field | p. 626 |
Magnetic Fields | p. 628 |
Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor | p. 631 |
Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motors | p. 634 |
Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field | p. 637 |
Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Law | p. 640 |
Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors | p. 643 |
Magnetic Fields of Current Loops and Solenoids | p. 644 |
Magnetic Domains | p. 648 |
Summary | p. 649 |
Induced Voltages and Inductance | p. 660 |
Induced emf and Magnetic Flux | p. 660 |
Faraday's Law of Induction | p. 663 |
Motional emf | p. 667 |
Lenz's Law Revisited (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law) | p. 670 |
Generators | p. 673 |
Self-Inductance | p. 677 |
RL Circuits | p. 680 |
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field | p. 682 |
Summary | p. 683 |
Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves | p. 693 |
Resistors in an AC Circuit | p. 693 |
Capacitors in an AC Circuit | p. 696 |
Inductors in an AC Circuit | p. 697 |
The RLC Series Circuit | p. 699 |
Power in an AC Circuit | p. 702 |
Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit | p. 704 |
The Transformer | p. 705 |
Maxwell's Predictions | p. 707 |
Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictions | p. 708 |
Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna | p. 709 |
Properties of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 710 |
The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 715 |
The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Waves | p. 718 |
Summary | p. 718 |
Light and Optics | |
Reflection and Refraction of Light | p. 726 |
The Nature of Light | p. 726 |
Reflection and Refraction | p. 727 |
The Law of Refraction | p. 732 |
Dispersion and Prisms | p. 736 |
The Rainbow | p. 738 |
Huygens' Principle | p. 739 |
Total Internal Reflection | p. 742 |
Summary | p. 745 |
Mirrors and Lenses | p. 754 |
Flat Mirrors | p. 754 |
Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors | p. 757 |
Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions | p. 759 |
Images Formed by Refraction | p. 765 |
Atmospheric Refraction | p. 768 |
Thin Lenses | p. 769 |
Lens and Mirror Aberrations | p. 777 |
Summary | p. 779 |
Wave Optics | p. 786 |
Conditions for Interference | p. 786 |
Young's Double-Slit Experiment | p. 787 |
Change of Phase Due to Reflection | p. 791 |
Interference in Thin Films | p. 792 |
Using Interference to Read CD's and DVD's | p. 796 |
Diffraction | p. 797 |
Single-Slit Diffraction | p. 798 |
The Diffraction Grating | p. 800 |
Polarization of Light Waves | p. 804 |
Summary | p. 811 |
Optical Instruments | p. 819 |
The Camera | p. 819 |
The Eye | p. 820 |
The Simple Magnifier | p. 825 |
The Compound Microscope | p. 827 |
The Telescope | p. 829 |
Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures | p. 831 |
The Michelson Interferometer | p. 836 |
Summary | p. 837 |
Modern Physics | |
Relativity | p. 843 |
Introduction | p. 843 |
The Principle of Galilean Relativity | p. 844 |
The Speed of Light | p. 845 |
The Michelson-Morley Experiment | p. 846 |
Einstein's Principle of Relativity | p. 849 |
Consequences of Special Relativity | p. 850 |
Relativistic Momentum | p. 858 |
Relativistic Addition of Velocities | p. 859 |
Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy | p. 860 |
Pair Production and Annihilation | p. 865 |
General Relativity | p. 865 |
Summary | p. 868 |
Quantum Physics | p. 874 |
Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis | p. 874 |
The Photoelectric Effect and the Particle Theory of Light | p. 877 |
X-Rays | p. 880 |
Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals | p. 883 |
The Compton Effect | p. 885 |
The Dual Nature of Light and Matter | p. 887 |
The Wave Function | p. 890 |
The Uncertainty Principle | p. 891 |
The Scanning Tunneling Microscope | p. 894 |
Summary | p. 895 |
Atomic Physics | p. 903 |
Early Models of the Atom | p. 903 |
Atomic Spectra | p. 904 |
The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen | p. 906 |
Modification of the Bohr Theory | p. 910 |
de Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atom | p. 912 |
Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom | p. 913 |
The Spin Magnetic Quantum Number | p. 915 |
Electron Clouds | p. 916 |
The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table | p. 917 |
Characteristic X-Rays | p. 920 |
Atomic Transitions | p. 921 |
Lasers and Holography | p. 922 |
Energy Bands in Solids | p. 924 |
Semiconductor Devices | p. 928 |
Summary | p. 931 |
Nuclear Physics | p. 939 |
Some Properties of Nuclei | p. 940 |
Binding Energy | p. 943 |
Radioactivity | p. 945 |
The Decay Processes | p. 948 |
Natural Radioactivity | p. 955 |
Nuclear Reactions | p. 955 |
Medical Applications of Radiation | p. 959 |
Radiation Detectors | p. 963 |
Summary | p. 965 |
Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles | p. 973 |
Nuclear Fission | p. 973 |
Nuclear Reactors | p. 976 |
Nuclear Fusion | p. 980 |
Elementary Particles | p. 984 |
The Fundamental Forces of Nature | p. 984 |
Positrons and Other Antiparticles | p. 985 |
Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics | p. 986 |
Classification of Particles | p. 988 |
Conservation Laws | p. 989 |
Strange Particles and Strangeness | p. 991 |
The Eightfold Way | p. 992 |
Quarks | p. 993 |
Colored Quarks | p. 996 |
Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model | p. 997 |
The Cosmic Connection | p. 999 |
Problems and Perspectives | p. 1001 |
Summary | p. 1002 |
Mathematical Review | p. 1 |
An Abbreviated Table of Isotopes | p. 9 |
Some Useful Tables | p. 14 |
Sl Units | p. 16 |
Answers to Quick Quizzes and Odd-numbered Conceptual Questions and Problems | p. 17 |
Index | p. 1 |
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