# College Physics, Volume 1 (Chs. 1-16)

**by**Young, Hugh D.; Geller, Robert

### 9780805378221

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## Summary

## Author Biography

**Hugh D. Young** is Professor of Physics at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA. He attended Carnegie Mellon for both undergraduate and graduate study and earned his Ph.D. in fundamental particle theory under the direction of the late Richard Cutkosky. He joined the faculty of Carnegie Mellon in 1956, and has also spent two years as a visiting Professor at the University of California at Berkeley. Hugh's career has centered entirely around undergraduate education. He has written several undergraduate-level textbooks, and in 1973 he became a coauthor with Francis Sears and Mark Zemansky for their well-known introductory texts. In addition to his role on Sears and Zemansky's ** College Physics **, he is currently a coauthor with Roger Freedman on Sears and Zemanksy's

**.**

*University Physics*Hugh is an enthusiastic skier, climber, and hiker. He also served for several years as Associate Organist at St. Paul's Cathedral in Pittsburgh, and has played numerous organ recitals in the Pittsburgh area. Prof. Young and his wife Alice usually travel extensively in the summer, especially in Europe and in the desert canyon country of southern Utah.

**Robert M. Geller** teaches physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he also obtained his Ph.D. under Robert Antonucci in observational cosmology. Currently, he is involved in two major research projects: a search for cosmological halos predicted by the Big Bang, and a search for the flares that are predicted to occur when a supermassive black hole consumes a star.

Rob also has a strong focus on undergraduate education. In 2003, he received the Distinguished Teaching Award. He trains the graduate student teaching assistants on methods of physics education. He is also a frequent faculty leader for the UCSB Physics Circus, in which student volunteers perform exciting and thought-provoking physics demonstrations to elementary schools.

Rob loves the outdoors. He and his wife Susanne enjoy backpacking along rivers and fly fishing, usually with rods she has build and flies she has tied. Their daughter Zoe loves fishing too, but her fish tend to be plastic, and float in the bathtub.

## Table of Contents

Models, Measurements, and Vectors | p. 1 |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Idealized Models | p. 3 |

Standards and Units | p. 3 |

Unit Consistency and Conversions | p. 7 |

Precision and Significant Figures | p. 9 |

Vectors and Vector Addition | p. 12 |

Components of Vectors | p. 16 |

Motion along a Straight Line | p. 29 |

Displacement and Average Velocity | p. 30 |

Instantaneous Velocity | p. 34 |

Average and Instantaneous Acceleration | p. 37 |

Motion with Constant Acceleration | p. 42 |

Proportional Reasoning | p. 48 |

Freely Falling Objects | p. 51 |

Relative Velocity along a Straight Line | p. 54 |

Motion in a Plane | p. 68 |

Velocity in a Plane | p. 68 |

Acceleration in a Plane | p. 71 |

Projectile Motion | p. 75 |

Uniform Circular Motion | p. 85 |

Relative Velocity in a Plane | p. 88 |

Newton's Laws of Motion | p. 99 |

Force | p. 99 |

Newton's First Law | p. 102 |

Mass and Newton's Second Law | p. 104 |

Mass and Weight | p. 109 |

Newton's Third Law | p. 112 |

Free-Body Diagrams | p. 116 |

Applications of Newton's Laws | p. 128 |

Equilibrium of a Particle | p. 128 |

Applications of Newton's Second Law | p. 133 |

Contact Forces and Friction | p. 137 |

Elastic Forces | p. 145 |

Forces in Nature | p. 147 |

Circular Motion and Gravitation | p. 161 |

Force in Circular Motion | p. 161 |

Motion in a Vertical Circle | p. 168 |

Newton's Law of Gravitation | p. 170 |

Weight | p. 172 |

Satellite Motion | p. 175 |

Work and Energy | p. 188 |

An Overview of Energy | p. 188 |

Work | p. 192 |

Work and Kinetic Energy | p. 196 |

Work Done by a Varying Force | p. 200 |

Potential Energy | p. 203 |

Conservation of Energy | p. 208 |

Conservative and Nonconservative Forces | p. 212 |

Power | p. 216 |

Momentum | p. 231 |

Momentum | p. 231 |

Conservation of Momentum | p. 234 |

Inelastic Collisions | p. 239 |

Elastic Collisions | p. 244 |

Impulse | p. 248 |

Center of Mass | p. 251 |

Motion of the Center of Mass | p. 253 |

Rocket Propulsion | p. 254 |

Rotational Motion | p. 267 |

Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration | p. 267 |

Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration | p. 270 |

Relationship between Linear and Angular Quantities | p. 272 |

Kinetic Energy of Rotation and Moment of Inertia | p. 277 |

Rotation about a Moving Axis | p. 281 |

Dynamics of Rotational Motion | p. 294 |

Torque | p. 294 |

Torque and Angular Acceleration | p. 297 |

Work and Power in Rotational Motion | p. 303 |

Angular Momentum | p. 305 |

Conservation of Angular Momentum | p. 307 |

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body | p. 311 |

Vector Nature of Angular Quantities | p. 317 |

Elasticity and Periodic Motion | p. 333 |

Stress, Strain, and Elastic Deformations | p. 333 |

Periodic Motion | p. 340 |

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 343 |

Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 346 |

The Simple Pendulum | p. 351 |

Damped and Forced Oscillations | p. 354 |

Mechanical Waves and Sound | p. 365 |

Mechanical Waves | p. 365 |

Periodic Mechanical Waves | p. 367 |

Wave Speeds | p. 369 |

Mathematical Description of a Wave | p. 371 |

Reflections and Superposition | p. 373 |

Standing Waves and Normal Modes | p. 374 |

Longitudinal Standing Waves | p. 380 |

Interference | p. 384 |

Sound and Hearing | p. 385 |

Sound Intensity | p. 386 |

Beats | p. 389 |

The Doppler Effect | p. 391 |

Applications of Acoustics | p. 395 |

Musical Tones | p. 396 |

Fluid Mechanics | p. 407 |

Density | p. 407 |

Pressure in a Fluid | p. 409 |

Archimedes' Principle: Buoyancy | p. 416 |

Surface Tension and Capillarity | p. 419 |

Fluid Flow | p. 422 |

Bernoulli's Equation | p. 424 |

Applications of Bernoulli's Equation | p. 427 |

Real Fluids: Viscosity and Turbulence | p. 430 |

Temperature and Heat | p. 441 |

Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium | p. 441 |

Temperature Scales | p. 443 |

Thermal Expansion | p. 446 |

Quantity of Heat | p. 451 |

Phase Changes | p. 454 |

Calorimetry | p. 458 |

Heat Transfer | p. 459 |

Solar Energy and Resource Conservation | p. 466 |

Thermal Properties of Matter | p. 477 |

The Mole and Avogadro's Number | p. 477 |

Equations of State | p. 479 |

Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas | p. 486 |

Heat Capacities | p. 492 |

The First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 493 |

Thermodynamic Processes | p. 501 |

Properties of an Ideal Gas | p. 503 |

The Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 516 |

Directions of Thermodynamic Processes | p. 516 |

Heat Engines | p. 518 |

Internal Combustion Engines | p. 521 |

Refrigerators | p. 523 |

The Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 526 |

The Carnot Engine: The Most Efficient Heat Engine | p. 527 |

Entropy | p. 531 |

The Kelvin Temperature Scale | p. 535 |

Energy Resources: A Case Study in Thermodynamics | p. 536 |

Mathematics Review | p. 1 |

The International System of Units | p. 10 |

The Greek Alphabet | p. 12 |

Periodic Table of Elements | p. 13 |

Unit Conversion Factors | p. 14 |

Numerical Constants | p. 15 |

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems | p. 17 |

Credits | p. 1 |

Index | p. 1 |

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