9780393092295

Colonies to Nation, 1763-1789: A Documentary History of the American Revolution (Volume 2)

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780393092295

  • ISBN10:

    0393092291

  • Edition: 00
  • Format: Textbook Paperback
  • Copyright: 1975-03-17
  • Publisher: W W NORTON

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Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction: The American Revolution 1(7)
PART ONE Tightening the Reins of Empire
Blueprint for Reform: Governor Francis Bernard, ``Principles of Law and Policy, Applied to the Government of the British Colonies in America'' (1764)
8(4)
New Measures
12(14)
Reform of the Customs Service: Order in Council (Oct. 4, 1763)
14(2)
Stopgap Regulations for the New Territories: The Proclamation of Oct. 7, 1763
16(3)
Beginnings of Parliamentary Taxation for Revenue: The Sugar Act of Apr. 5, 1764
19(6)
Prohibition of Legal-tender Paper Currency: The Currency Act of Apr. 19, 1764
25(1)
Colonial Response
26(16)
No Legislature Has a Right to Make Itself Arbitrary: James Otis, ``The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved'' (1764)
28(5)
Exemption from Parliamentary Taxation, A Right Not a Privilege: The New York Petition to the House of Commons (Oct. 18, 1764)
33(9)
PART TWO Stamp Act Crisis
New Revenue Measures
42(3)
Direct Taxation: The Stamp Act (Mar. 22, 1765)
42(1)
Indirect Taxation: The Quartering Act (May 15, 1765)
43(2)
Debate over Parliament's Right to Tax the Colonies
45(14)
The British Position: Thomas Whately, ``The Regulations lately Made'' (1765)
46(5)
The American Position: Daniel Dulany, ``Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies ...''(1765)
51(8)
Colonial Resistance
59(6)
Call to Resistance: The Virginia Resolves (May 30, 1765)
60(1)
Resort to Violence: The Boston Riot of August 26, 1765, as recorded in the Diary of Josiah Quincy Jr. (Aug. 27, 1765)
61(2)
The Official Colonial Protest: The Declaration of the Stamp Act Congress (Oct. 19, 1765)
63(2)
Repeal
65(20)
British Mercantile Opposition: Petition of the Merchants of London, trading to North America (Jan. 17, 1766)
66(2)
Debate in the House of Commons: William Pitt versus George Grenville (Jan. 14, 1766)
68(4)
Examination of Benjamin Franklin in the House of Commons (Feb. 13, 1766)
72(6)
Debate in the House of Lords: Lord Camden versus Lord Mansfield (Mar. 7, 1766)
78(6)
Repeal without Yielding in Principle: The Declaratory Act (Mar. 18, 1766)
84(1)
Polarization of Issues
85(9)
The Omnipotence of Parliament: Sir William Blackstone, ``Commentaries on the Laws of England'' (1765)
86(2)
The Case against Parliamentary Authority in Internal Colonial Matters: Richard Bland, ``An Enquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies'' (1766)
88(6)
PART THREE Internal Dissensions
Western Discontent in Pennsylvania: The Declaration of the Injured Frontier Inhabitants (February, 1764)
94(4)
Regulator Movements in the Carolinas
98(9)
South Carolina: ``Remonstrance of the Back Country'' (November 1767)
99(6)
North Carolina: Petition of Anson County (Oct. 9, 1769)
105(2)
Challenging the Old Order: Alexander McDougall, ``To the Betrayed Inhabitants of the City and Colony of New York'' (1769)
107(7)
PART FOUR Renewal of Crisis, 1767--1770
Return to Strong Measures
114(7)
A New Scheme for Taxing the Colonies: The Townshend Revenue Act (June 29, 1767)
115(2)
Strengthening Colonial Customs Enforcement: American Board of Customs Act (June 29, 1767)
117(1)
Disciplining the New York Assembly: The New York Suspending Act (July 2, 1767)
118(1)
Curtailing the Authority of Colonial Lower Houses: The Circular Instruction of Sept. 11, 1767
119(1)
Reinforcing the Vice-Admiralty System: Order in Council (July 6, 1768)
120(1)
The Colonies Resist Again
121(20)
``Those who are taxed without their own consent ... are Slaves'': John Dickinson, ``Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania ...'' (1767--1768)
122(12)
``In all free States the Constitution is fixed'': Massachusetts Circular Letter (Feb. 11, 1768)
134(2)
Opposition to the Customs Commissioners in Boston: Joseph Harrison to the Marquis of Rockingham (June 17, 1768)
136(5)
The Ministry Tries Firmness
141(4)
Retaliation: The Earl of Hillsborough's Circular Letter (Apr. 21, 1768)
143(1)
The Resort to Troops: Earl of Hillsborough to General Thomas Gage (June 8, 1768)
143(1)
In Defense of Parliamentary Authority: The Resolves of Parliament (Feb. 9, 1769)
144(1)
American Intransigence
145(18)
``The Cause of Liberty and Right'': Rusticus, ``Liberty'' (1768)
148(6)
``Cultivating the Sensations of Freedom'': The Charleston Sons of Liberty Toast the Release of John Wilkes from Prison (Apr. 18, 1770)
154(1)
Economic Sanctions: Boston Nonimportation Agreement (Aug. 1, 1768)
155(1)
Restoring Colonial Virtue: Brutus on the Promise of the Nonimportation Associations (June 1, 1769)
156(1)
Defying Parliament's Resolves: The Virginia Resolves of May 16, 1769
157(1)
The Dangers of a Standing Army: ``A Journal of the Times'' (Sept. 28, 1768-Aug. 1, 1769)
158(5)
The Boston Massacre
163(11)
``Carnage'': Paul Revere, ``The Bloody Massacre'' (Mar. 5, 1770)
165(1)
``A Military Combination'': Report of a Committee of the Town of Boston (1770)
166(8)
PART FIVE ``Period of Quiet,'' 1770--1773
The Wilkes Fund Controversy in South Carolina
174(3)
Ministerial Mandate: Additional Instruction of Apr. 14, 1770
175(1)
Defying the Mandate: Resolves of the South Carolina Commons House of Assembly (Sept. 4, 1770)
176(1)
Friction in Massachusetts
177(11)
A Spate of Grievances: Boston Town Meeting, ``List of Infringements and Violations of Rights'' (Nov. 20, 1772)
179(3)
Debate over the Authority of Parliament: The Exchange between Governor Thomas Hutchinson and the House of Representatives (Jan. 6, 26, 1773)
182(6)
The Burning of the ``Gaspee''
188(5)
A British Sailor Describes the Attack: Deposition of William Dickinson (June 11, 1772)
188(3)
The Case against the ``Gaspee'': Governor Joseph Wanton to the Earl of Hillsborough (June 16, 1772)
191(2)
Establishment of Intercolonial Committees of Correspondence: The Virginia Resolves (Mar. 12, 1773)
193(3)
PART SIX The Tea Act Revives the Dispute
A Rescue Operation: The Tea Act (May 10, 1773)
196(1)
Colonial Opposition to the Tea Act
197(5)
Thwarting the ``Diabolical Project of Enslaving America'': ``The Association and Resolves of the New York Sons of Liberty'' (Dec. 15, 1773)
198(2)
The Boston Tea Party: John Andrews to William Barrell (Nov. 29, Dec. 1, Dec. 18, 1773)
200(2)
The Intolerable Acts
202(9)
Punishing Boston: Boston Port Act (Mar. 31, 1774)
203(1)
Altering the Massachusetts Constitution: The Massachusetts Government Act (May 20, 1774)
204(3)
``The Murder Act'': Administration of Justice Act (May 20, 1774)
207(1)
Strengthening the Hand of the Military: The Quartering Act (June 2, 1774)
208(1)
``Ominous Portent'': The Quebec Act (June 22, 1774)
209(2)
The Emotional and Constitutional Grounds for Resistance
211(27)
``A Settled Fix'd Plan for Inslaving the Colonies'': Ebenezer Baldwin, ``An Appendix Stating the heavy Grievances the Colonies labor under...'' (Aug. 31, 1774)
213(7)
The Rejection of Parliamentary Authority: James Wilson, ``Considerations on the Authority of Parliament'' (Aug. 17, 1774)
220(7)
A Warning to the King: Thomas Jefferson, ``A Summary View of the Rights of British-America'' (Aug. 1774)
227(11)
The Attempt at Compromise
238(4)
The Search for a Middle Way: Joseph Galloway to Richard Jackson (Aug. 10, 1774)
239(2)
A Compromise Solution: The Galloway Plan of Union (Sept. 28, 1774)
241(1)
The Rejection of Compromise
242(10)
Demand for the Redress of Grievances: Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress (Oct. 14, 1774)
243(4)
Renewal of Economic Sanctions: Continental Association (Oct. 20, 1774)
247(5)
PART SEVEN From Lexington to Independence
The Outbreak of Hostilities: Governor Thomas Gage Reports on the Battles of Lexington and Concord to the Earl of Dartmouth (Apr. 22, 1775)
252(1)
War is Declared
253(7)
``Resolved to Dye Free-men rather than Live Slaves'': Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms (July 6, 1775)
255(4)
To Suppress ``Rebellion and Sedition'': Royal Proclamation of Rebellion (Aug. 23, 1775)
259(1)
Opposing Perceptions of Events
260(8)
The Whig View: Jacob Duche, ``The American Vine'' (July 20, 1775)
261(5)
The Tory View: Jonathan Sewall to General Frederick Haldimand (May 30, 1775)
266(2)
The Road to Independence
268(17)
The Call for Independence: Thomas Paine, ``Common Sense'' (1776)
270(13)
Toward the Creation of Independent State Governments: The Resolves and Recommendations of Congress (May 10, 15, 1776)
283(1)
Virginia Decides for Independence: Resolves of the Virginia Convention (May 15, 1776)
284(1)
Independence Moved in Congress: Richard Henry Lee, Resolves for Independence (June 7, 1776)
284(1)
The Uncertain Prospects of Independence
285(12)
The Dilemma of the Undecided: William Smith, Jr., ``Thoughts as a Rule for my own Conduct'' (June 9, 1776)
286(5)
Fear of Social Chaos: Landon Carter, Diary (May 1, 29, 1776)
291(1)
The Call for Prudence: John Dickinson, ``Arguments against the Independence of the Colonies...'' (July 1, 1776)
292(4)
The Promise of Independence: John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 3, 1776)
296(1)
``That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independence States'': The Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)
297(7)
PART EIGHT Reconstituting the Polity
Prescriptions for Government
304(28)
A Mixed Popular Form: John Adams, ``Thoughts on Government'' (1776)
306(5)
A Simple Popular Form
311(7)
``Four Letters on Interesting Subjects'' (1776)
311(4)
``The Interest of America'' (1776)
315(3)
A Perfect Model of the English Constitution: [Carter Braxton], ``Address to the Convention of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia'' (1776)
318(7)
An Extreme Popular Form: ``The People the Best Governors'' (1776)
325(7)
The Limits of Governmental Power: The First Bill of Rights, Virginia (June 12, 1776)
332(2)
Two Early Constitutions
334(11)
Experiment with a Mixed Form: The Virginia Constitution of June 29, 1776
336(3)
Experiment with a Simple Form: The Pennsylvania Constitution of Sept. 28, 1776
339(6)
The People as Constituent Power: Constitution Making in Massachusetts
345(12)
Proposal for a Constitutional Convention: The Resolves of the Concord Town Meetings (Oct. 21, 1776)
347(1)
Objections to the Constitution of 1778: [Theophilus Parsons], ``Result of the Convention of Delegates holden at Ipswich in the County of Essex'' (May 12, 1778)
348(4)
Submitting the Constitution of 1780 to the People: ``An Address of the Convention...to their Constituents'' (1780)
352(5)
Criticisms of the Early Constitutions
357(19)
Defects of the Pennsylvania Constitution: [Benjamin Rush], ``Observations Upon the Present Government of Pennsylvania...'' (1777)
359(10)
Weaknesses of the Virginia Constitution: Thomas Jefferson, ``Notes on the State of Virginia'' (1781--1782)
369(7)
PART NINE Transformation: The Revolution in Ideals
``The Perfection and Happiness of Mankind'': Samuel Williams, ``A Discourse on the Love of Our Country'' (Dec. 15, 1774)
376(10)
Disestablishment of Religion
386(6)
``The Church as well as the State must be founded on principles of justice'': Jonathan Parsons, ``Freedom from Civil and Ecclesiastical Slavery, the Purchase of Christ'' (1774)
388(2)
``All men shall be free to profess...their opinion in matters of religion'': Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Jan. 16, 1786)
390(2)
Attack on Chattel Slavery
392(7)
``The inconsistent practice of keeping... fellow creatures in perpetual bondage'': Richard Wells, ``A Few Political Reflections'' (Aug. 4, 1774)
393(3)
``I abhor Slavery'': Henry Laurens to John Laurens (Aug. 14, 1776)
396(1)
``An unhappy influence on the manners of our people'': Thomas Jefferson, ``Notes on the State of Virginia'' (1781--1782)
397(2)
The Necessity and Promise of Education: Benjamin Rush, ``Thoughts upon the Mode of Education Proper in a Republic'' (1786)
399(7)
PART TEN The War for Independence
The Home Front: Thomas Paine, ``The American Crisis'' (1776--1783)
406(2)
A Critical American Victory at Saratoga: The Report of ``The Annual Register'' (1777)
408(2)
The French Alliance: The Treaty of Feb. 6, 1778
410(3)
Achievement of Independence
413(9)
A Costly British Victory: General Nathanael Greene Reports on the Battle of Guilford Court House in a Letter to Thomas Jefferson (Mar. 16, 1781)
414(1)
American Victory at Yorktown: Earl Cornwallis to Sir Henry Clinton (Oct. 20, 1781)
415(3)
Peace: The Treaty of Paris (Sept. 3, 1783)
418(4)
``A new prospect in human affairs'': Richard Price, ``Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution (1784)
422(6)
PART ELEVEN The Confederation Period
The First National Constitution: The Articles of Confederation (Mar. 1, 1781)
428(8)
``The time of...political probation'': George Washington's Circular Letter to the States (June 8, 1783)
436(8)
Enforcement of the Treaty of Paris
444(11)
Treatment of Loyalists: [Alexander Hamilton], ``A Letter from Phocion'' and ``A Second Letter from Phocion'' (1784)
445(8)
Payment of British Debts: George Mason to Governor Patrick Henry (May 6, 1783)
453(2)
The Specter of Aristocracy: Aedanus Burke, ``Considerations on the Society or Order of Cincinnati'' (Oct. 10, 1783)
455(11)
Achievement in the West
466(8)
Western Land Policy: The Land Ordinance of 1785 (May 20, 1785)
467(2)
Toward the Creation of New States: The Northwest Ordinance (July 13, 1787)
469(5)
Diplomatic Weakness and Sectional Rivalry: ``Charles Pinckney's Speech...on the Question of a Treaty with Spain'' (Aug. 16, 1786)
474(7)
Divergent Responses to Economic Crisis
481(24)
Clamor for Paper Money, 1785--1786: The Debate in New Jersey (Jan. 1786)
483(12)
Whether Banks Be ``inconsistent with our laws'': Debate over the Bank of North America in Pennsylvania (Mar. 29-Apr. 1, 1786)
495(10)
Harbinger of Social Chaos: Shays's Rebellion
505(4)
``Great uneasiness, subsisting among the people'': The Votes of the Hampshire County Convention (Aug. 22, 1786)
506(1)
The Reaction of George Washington: Letter to Henry Knox (Dec. 26, 1786)
507(2)
Call for a Constitutional Convention: Address of the Annapolis Convention (Sept. 14, 1786)
509(5)
PART TWELVE Constitutional Revolution
The Case against the Articles of Confederation: James Madison, ``Vices of the Political System of the United States'' (Apr. 1787)
514(5)
Deciding ``forever the fate of Republican Govt.'': Debates in the Federal Convention at Philadelphia (May-Sept. 1787)
519(28)
The Large State Plan: The Edmund Randolph or Virginia Resolutions (May 29, 1787)
521(2)
The Small State Plan: The Paterson or New Jersey Proposals (June 16, 1787)
523(1)
The Commitment to Popular Government: Debate over the Nature of the Lower House (May 31, 1787)
524(2)
The Commitment to Bicameralism: Debates over the Function and Role of the Senate (June 7, 25--26, 1787)
526(11)
Sectional Clash: Debates over How to Count Slaves in Apportioning Representatives and Taxes and Giving Congress the Right to Prohibit the Slave Trade and Pass Navigation Acts (July 11, Aug. 22, 29, 1787)
537(8)
``A Rising and Not a Setting Sun'': The Speech of Benjamin Franklin (Sept. 17, 1787)
545(2)
``We the People'': The Constitution of the United States (Sept. 17, 1787)
547(10)
Opposition to the Constitution
557(11)
The Dangers of Haste and a Consolidated Government: Richard Henry Lee, ``Letters from the Federal Farmer'' (Oct. 1787)
558(2)
The Case against Centralization: [James Winthrop], ``The Agrippa Letters'' (1787--1788)
560(2)
The Argument for Larger Representation: Melancton Smith, Speech before the New York Ratifying Convention (June 21, 1788)
562(6)
The Case for the Constitution: ``The Federalist'' (1787--1788)
568(8)
Conditions of Acceptance: The Virginia Amendments (June 27, 1788)
576(5)
Removing Anti-Federal Discontent: The Bill of Rights (Dec. 15, 1791)
581

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