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The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America,9780534594992

The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534594992

ISBN10:
0534594999
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/10/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $46.00

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 4/10/2003.
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Summary

Preface. 1. Race, Ethnicity, and Crime: The Present Crisis. 2. Victims and Offenders: Myths and Realities About Crime. 3. Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crime. 4. Justice on the Street? The Police and Minorities. 5. The Courts: A Quest for Justice During the Pre-Trial Process. 6. Justice on the Bench? Trial and Adjudication in Adult and Juvenile Court. 7. Race and Sentencing: In Search of Fairness and Justice. 8. The Color of Death: Race and the Death Penalty. 9. Corrections: A Picture in Black and White. 10. Minority Youth and the Criminal Justice System. 11. The Color of Justice. Selected Bibliography. Index.

Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Preface ix
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime
1(24)
The Scope of This Book
3(2)
Goals of the Chapter
5(1)
The Colors of America: Racial and Ethnic Categories
5(9)
Racial and Ethnic Categories
5(6)
The Politics of Racial and Ethnic Labels
11(2)
The Quality of Criminal Justice Data on Race and Ethnicity
13(1)
The Geography of Racial and Ethnic Justice
14(1)
Disparity versus Discrimination
15(4)
The Discrimination--Disparity Continuum
18(1)
A Theoretical Perspective on Race, Ethnicity, and Crime
19(2)
Alternative Theories
20(1)
Conclusion
21(1)
Discussion Questions
21(1)
Notes
22(3)
Victims and Offenders
25(40)
Goals of the Chapter
26(1)
A Broader Picture of the Crime Victim
26(11)
The National Crime Victimization Survey
27(1)
Household Victimization
28(2)
Personal Victimization
30(3)
Trends in Household and Personal Victimization
33(1)
Lifetime Likelihood of Victimization
34(1)
Homicide Victimization Rates
35(1)
Summary: A More Comprehensive Picture of the Crime Victim
36(1)
Picture of the Typical Offender
37(13)
Official Arrest Statistics
37(6)
Perceptions of Offenders by Victims
43(4)
Self-Report Surveys
47(3)
Summary: A Picture of the Typical Criminal Offender
50(1)
Crime as an Intraracial Event
50(3)
The National Crime Victimization Survey
51(1)
UCR Homicide Reports
51(1)
Summary: Crime as an Intraracial Event
52(1)
Crime as an Interracial (Hate) Event
53(1)
Ethnic Youth Gangs
54(5)
Gang Myths and Realities
55(2)
Varieties of Ethnic Gangs
57(2)
Conclusion
59(1)
Discussion Questions
60(1)
Notes
60(5)
Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crime
65(28)
Goals of the Chapter
65(1)
Economic Inequality
66(9)
Income
67(1)
Wealth
67(2)
Unemployment
69(1)
Poverty Status
70(1)
Human Capital and Social Capital
70(1)
Progress, Stagnation, or Regression? The Debate over the Status of African Americans
71(2)
The Debate over the Underclass
73(2)
Community Social Structure
75(4)
Residential Segregation
75(4)
Theoretical Perspectives on Inequality and Crime
79(5)
Social Strain Theory
79(1)
Differential Association Theory
80(1)
Social Disorganization Theory
81(1)
Culture Conflict Theory
82(1)
Conflict Theory
82(1)
Routine Activity Theory
83(1)
The Limits of Current Theories
84(1)
Inequality and Social Reform
84(5)
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement
85(2)
The Attack on Economic Inequality
87(2)
Conclusion
89(1)
Discussion Questions
89(1)
Notes
90(3)
Justice on the Street?
93(50)
Unequal Justice?
93(2)
Conflicting Evidence
94(1)
Goals of the Chapter
95(1)
A Contextual Approach
95(2)
A Long History of Conflict
97(1)
The Police and a Changing America
97(1)
Public Attitudes About the Police
98(2)
Policing Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities
100(3)
The African American Community
100(1)
The Hispanic Community
101(1)
The Native American Community
101(1)
The Middle Eastern Community
102(1)
Special Issue: Enforcing Federal Immigration Laws
103(1)
Police Use of Deadly Force
103(3)
Disparity versus Discrimination in Police Shootings
105(1)
Controlling Police Shootings
105(1)
``Police Brutality'': Police use of Physical Force
106(3)
Discrimination in Arrests?
109(2)
Zero-Tolerance Policing
110(1)
Traffic Stops: Racial Profiling
111(5)
Defining Racial Profiling
111(1)
Profiling Contexts
112(1)
The Data on Traffic Stops
112(1)
Interpreting Traffic Stop Data
113(1)
Controlling Bias in Traffic Stops
114(1)
A Success Story: The Customs Bureau
115(1)
Street Stops and Frisks
116(3)
Special Issue: Stereotyping and Routine Police Work
118(1)
Verbal Abuse
119(1)
Police Officer Attitudes and Behavior
120(2)
Minorities and Police Corruption
122(1)
Police-Community Relations Programs
122(2)
Citizen Complaints Against the Police
124(2)
Citizen Oversight of the Police
126(1)
Police Employment Practices
126(8)
Trends in Racial Minority Employment
127(2)
The Law of Employment Discrimination
129(1)
Discrimination in Assignment
130(1)
The Impact of Diversity
131(3)
Minorities as Supervisors and Chief Executives
134(1)
Conclusion
134(1)
Discussion Questions
135(1)
Notes
136(7)
The Courts
143(35)
The Situation Today
145(2)
Goals of the Chapter
147(1)
Decisions Regarding Counsel and Bail
147(15)
Racial Minorities and the Right to Counsel
148(6)
Racial Minorities and Bail Decision Making
154(8)
Charging and Plea Bargaining Decisions
162(10)
Prosecutors' Charging Decisions
162(8)
Race and Plea Bargaining Decisions
170(2)
Conclusion
172(1)
Discussion Questions
173(1)
Notes
174(4)
Justice on the Bench?
178(24)
Goals of the Chapter
180(1)
Selection of the Jury Pool
180(5)
Techniques for Increasing Racial Diversity
183(2)
The Peremptory Challenge: Racial Profiling in the Courtroom?
185(5)
The Supreme Court and the Peremptory Challenge: From Swain to Batson
186(4)
Playing the ``Race Card'' in a Criminal Trial
190(7)
Race-Conscious Jury Nullification: Black Power in the Courtroom?
195(2)
Conclusion
197(1)
Discussion Questions
198(1)
Notes
199(3)
Race and Sentencing
202(48)
Goals of the Chapter
203(1)
Racial Disparity in Sentencing
203(4)
Four Explanations for Racial Disparities in Sentencing
204(3)
Empirical Research on Race and Sentencing
207(4)
Reviews of Recent Research
207(4)
When Does Race Matter?
211(20)
Sentencing in Three Urban Jurisdictions: Direct and Indirect Race Effects
211(2)
Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Age, and Employment: A Volatile Combination?
213(5)
Differential Treatment of Interracial and Intraracial Sexual Assault
218(4)
The Effect of Race on Sentencing for Various Types of Crimes
222(3)
Sentencing and the War on Drugs
225(6)
Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a ``Just'' Punishment System
231(12)
Race/Ethnicity and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines
238(1)
Race/Ethnicity and State Sentencing Reforms
239(2)
Have Sentencing Guidelines Increased the Likelihood of Racial Discrimination?
241(2)
Conclusion
243(1)
Discussion Questions
244(1)
Notes
245(5)
The Color of Death
250(47)
Goals of the Chapter
251(1)
The Constitutionality of the Death Penalty
251(4)
Furman v. Georgia
252(1)
Post-Furman Decisions
253(2)
Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment
255(2)
Race and the Death Penalty: The Empirical Evidence
257(19)
Statistical Evidence of Racial Disparity
258(4)
Pre-Furman Studies
262(5)
Post-Furman Studies
267(5)
Race and the Federal Capital Sentencing Process
272(3)
Explanations for Disparate Treatment
275(1)
McCleskey v. Kemp: The Supreme Court and Racial Discrimination in the Application of the Death Penalty
276(7)
The Execution of Warren McCleskey
280(2)
The Aftermath of McCleskey
282(1)
The Death Penalty in the 21st Century
283(6)
The Movement to Reform the Death Penalty
286(1)
The Movement to Abolish the Death Penalty
287(2)
Conclusion
289(1)
Discussion Questions
290(1)
Notes
291(6)
Corrections Versus College: Minorities in Society
297(27)
Goals of the Chapter
298(1)
The Incarcerated: Prison and Jail Populations
298(7)
Minority Overrepresentation
298(3)
Historical Trends
301(2)
Impact of the War on Drugs
303(1)
Incarceration Rates
303(2)
Jails and Minorities
305(1)
The Role of Jail
305(1)
Minority Overrepresentation
305(1)
Parole: Early Release from Prison
306(2)
Success and Failure on Parole
307(1)
Probation: A Case of Sentencing Discrimination?
308(1)
Perspectives on the Racial Distribution of Correctional Populations
309(10)
Adjustment to Prison
312(4)
Prison Gangs
316(3)
Women in Prison
319(1)
Conclusion
319(1)
Discussion Questions
320(1)
Notes
320(4)
Minority Youth and Crime
324(31)
Goals of the Chapter
325(1)
Young Racial Minorities as Victims and Offenders
325(6)
Juveniles as Victims of Crime
325(3)
Juveniles as Offenders
328(3)
Juveniles of Color and the Police
331(1)
Race/Ethnicity and the Juvenile Justice System
332(16)
Race/Ethnicity and Juvenile Court Outcomes in Four Jurisdictions
337(7)
Transfer of Juveniles to Criminal Court
344(2)
Explaining Disparate Treatment of Juvenile Offenders
346(2)
Juveniles Under Correctional Supervision
348(2)
Conclusion
350(1)
Discussion Questions
351(1)
Notes
351(4)
The Color of Justice
355(5)
Race, Crime, and Justice
356(3)
Notes
359(1)
Selected Bibliography 360(13)
Index 373


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