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Commercial Refrigeration for Air Conditioning Technicians,9781401880101
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Commercial Refrigeration for Air Conditioning Technicians

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781401880101

ISBN10:
140188010X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/31/2005
Publisher(s):
CENGAGE Delmar Learning
List Price: $188.00

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This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 10/31/2005.
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    Commercial Refrigeration for Air Conditioning Technicians




Summary

Technicians trained on air conditioning systems are often required to apply their skills to the servicing of commercial refrigeration equipment. This book provides a solid foundation in comfort cooling that can be readily transferred to a broad understanding of medium and low temperature refrigeration equipment such as walk-ins, reach-ins, refrigerated cases, and ice machines. Coverage specific to refrigeration in the food service industry is emphasized, with scores of practical tips that technicians can use right away in the installation and service of commercial equipment. Helpful tips and sound advice from the experienced author and his employees add a personal touch to the comprehensive coverage, increasing interest in, and retention of, key concepts. This book will improve technicians' knowledge, efficiency, and effectiveness in commercial refrigeration and can serve as a permanent addition to the reference library in any truck or shop.

Table of Contents

Preface x
Refrigeration Principles
1(11)
Introduction
Temperature Ranges of Refrigeration
2(1)
Air Conditioning versus Refrigeration
2(2)
Comparing Commercial Refrigeration to A/C
4(2)
New Refrigerants in Commercial Refrigeration
6(1)
The Four Basic Components of a Refrigeration System
7(1)
Metering Device
7(1)
Evaporator
8(1)
Compressor
8(1)
Condenser
8(1)
Summary
8(4)
Evaporators
12(23)
Functions of the Evaporator
13(1)
Evaporator Temperature
13(1)
Temperature Difference
13(1)
Humidity and TD
14(5)
Air Conditioning TD and Humidity
15(1)
Walk-in TD and Humidity
15(1)
Reach-in TD and Humidity
15(1)
Using TROT for TD and Troubleshooting
16(2)
Heat Exchange Efficiency
18(1)
Types of Evaporators
19(2)
Evaporator Operation
21(1)
Measuring Superheat
21(11)
Flooding and Starving Evaporators
22(1)
Hot Pull-Down
23(1)
Evaporator Problems
23(1)
Medium-Temperature Evaporator Air Defrost
23(2)
When to Defrost
25(3)
Defrost Operation of Freezers
28(4)
Summary
32(3)
Condensers
35(22)
Functions of the Condenser
36(1)
Condenser Operation
36(1)
Three Phases of the Condenser
37(1)
De-superheat Phase
37(1)
Condensing Phase
37(1)
Subcooling Phase
37(1)
Flash Gas
38(1)
Using Subcooling to Prevent Flash Gas
38(1)
Condenser Split
39(1)
Cleaning and Maintaining Air-Cooled Condensers
40(2)
Maintenance Inspections
42(1)
Low-Ambient Controls for Air-Cooled Condensers
42(2)
Fan Cycle Controls
43(1)
Air Dampers
44(1)
Condenser Flooding
44(2)
Troubleshooting HPR Valves
44(2)
Floating Head Pressure
46(5)
Water-Cooled Condensers
47(1)
Water-Regulating Valves
47(1)
Cooling Towers
47(1)
Wastewater Systems
48(1)
Service and Maintenance of Water-Cooled Equipment
49(1)
Proper Operating Conditions of a Water-Cooled Unit on a Wastewater System
49(2)
Cleaning Water-Cooled Condensers
51(1)
Summary
52(5)
Compressors
57(17)
Functions of a Compressor
58(3)
How a Reciprocating Compressor Operates
58(3)
Compressor Lubrication
61(9)
Compressor Problems and Failures
62(7)
Diagnostic Chart
69(1)
Summary
70(4)
Metering Devices
74(25)
Functions of a Metering Device
76(1)
Superheat
76(2)
What Is the Proper Superheat?
77(1)
How a TEV Operates
78(1)
TEV Body Styles
79(1)
Equalized Valves, Internal and External
79(2)
Adjusting Superheat
81(2)
TEV Bulb Placement
83(3)
How the System Affects TEVs
86(1)
TEV Sizing
87(1)
Reading an Expansion Valve
87(1)
Troubleshooting TEVs
88(1)
Flooding
88(1)
Starving
89(1)
TEV Hunting
89(1)
Capillary Tube Metering Devices
89(1)
How a Cap Tube Works
90(2)
How Capillary Tubes Respond to System Conditions
91(1)
Troubleshooting Capillary Tubes
92(1)
Automatic Expansion Valves
93(1)
Summary
94(5)
Controls and Accessories
99(32)
Temperature Controls
100(2)
Compressor Service Valves
102(3)
Solenoid Valves for Pump-down and Hot Gas Bypass
105(2)
Hot Gas Bypass Valves
107(1)
Crankcase Pressure Regulators
107(2)
Evaporator Pressure Regulators
109(2)
Low-Pressure Controls
111(2)
High-Pressure Controls
113(1)
Oil Separators
113(1)
Oil Safety Controls
113(4)
Receivers
117(1)
Accumulators
118(1)
Filter Driers
118(4)
Sight Glass
122(1)
Heat Exchangers
123(1)
Vibration Eliminator
123(1)
Summary
123(8)
Refrigeration System Troubleshooting
131(34)
Review and Preview
132(3)
Evaporator
133(1)
Compressor
134(1)
Condenser
135(1)
Metering Devices
135(1)
How Fixed Metering Devices React to System Conditions
135(1)
How a TEV System Reacts to System Conditions
136(2)
Summary of How External Temperature Changes Affect the Refrigeration System
138(1)
Summary of How Pressure Changes Affect the Refrigeration System
139(1)
Superheat and Subcooling
139(1)
Diagnosing Nine System Problems
140(1)
Undercharge of Refrigerant
141(2)
How an Undercharge Affects a Reach-in with Cap Tube System
141(2)
How an Undercharge Affects a TEV System
143(1)
Overcharge of Refrigerant
143(3)
How an Overcharge Affects a Cap Tube System
143(2)
How an Overcharge Affects a TEV System
145(1)
Condenser Air Flow Problems
146(2)
Condenser Problems on a Cap Tube System
146(1)
Condenser Problems on a TEV System
146(2)
Noncondensibles
148(1)
Inefficient Compressor
149(1)
Restricted Metering Device
150(2)
Partially Restricted Capillary Tube
150(2)
Partially Restricted TEV
152(1)
Restriction in the Liquid Line After the Receiver
152(1)
Restriction in the High Side Before the Receiver
153(1)
Dirty Evaporator, Iced Evaporator, or Low Airflow
154(2)
Evaporator Problems on a TEV System
154(2)
Getting the Right Information
156(1)
Using a Diagnostic Chart
157(2)
Evaporator Oil Logging
159(1)
Summary
160(5)
Compressor Motor Controls
165(23)
Three-Phase Motors
166(1)
Contactors and Starters
166(1)
Single-Phase Motors
167(2)
Start Relays and Capacitors
169(5)
Current Relays
170(1)
Start Capacitors
170(1)
Potential Relays
171(1)
Run Capacitor
171(1)
Positive Temperature Coefficient Relay (PTCR)
172(2)
Types of Motor Overloads
174(2)
Checking Overloads
176(1)
Troubleshooting Motors
176(5)
No Sound
177(1)
Motor Tries to Start
178(1)
Single-Phase Compressor Start Components
179(1)
Checking Start Relays
180(1)
Summary
181(7)
Retrofitting, Recovery, Evacuation, and Charging
188(19)
Retrofitting Refrigeration Systems
189(4)
Retrofitting Basics
189(1)
Oil Miscibility
189(1)
Refrigerant Efficiencies
189(1)
Oil Replacement
190(1)
Retrofit Refrigerants
190(2)
Retrofitting Cap Tube Systems
192(1)
Retrofitting TEV Systems
193(1)
Refrigerant Recovery Procedures
193(3)
Push-Pull Liquid Recovery
194(1)
Liquid Recovery with a Tank in a Vacuum
195(1)
Recovery Equipment Maintenance
195(1)
System Evacuation
196(3)
Triple Evacuation
197(1)
Vacuum Pump and Micron Gauge Operation and Maintenance Tips
197(2)
Startup and System Charging
199(2)
How to Know the Charge Is Correct
199(2)
Removing Gauges from the Unit
201(1)
Summary
201(6)
Supermarket Refrigeration
207(15)
Product Visibility and Customer Access
208(1)
Multiple Refrigerated Cases and Temperatures
208(1)
Parallel Rack Systems
208(1)
Parallel-Rack System Controls
208(2)
Rack System Controllers
210(1)
Head Pressure Control
211(1)
Energy Efficiency
212(2)
Mechanical Subcooling
214(1)
Heat Reclaim and Reheat
215(1)
Display Case Airflow
216(1)
Installation, Service, and Maintenance
216(2)
Summary
218(4)
Walk-in Refrigerators and Freezers
222(24)
Walk-in Box Types and Sizes
223(1)
Walk-in Box Installation
223(2)
Walk-in Door Types and Adjustments
225(2)
Walk-in Box Applications
227(2)
Matching System Components for Proper Operation
229(5)
Matching Compressor Horsepower to Btuh
230(1)
Matching Evaporators to Condensing Units
231(1)
System Capacity Based on Condensing Unit and Evaporator Matching
231(1)
Matching the TEV to the Evaporator
232(1)
Production, or Pull-down, Boxes
232(2)
Refrigeration Piping
234(1)
Drain Piping
235(2)
Troubleshooting Walk-in Problems
237(5)
Evaporator Airflow Problems
239(1)
Door Problems
239(1)
System Sizing Problems or Improper Product Loading
239(1)
Drain Problems
239(1)
Freezer Defrost Problems
240(1)
Glass Door Sweating Problems
241(1)
Summary
242(4)
Ice Machines
246(11)
Ice Machine Types and Applications
247(1)
Basic Ice Machine Operation
247(1)
Installation-related Service
248(2)
Ice Machine Maintenance and Cleaning
250(2)
Ice Machine Warranties
252(1)
Trouble Shooting Ice Machines
252(2)
Troubleshooting a ``No Ice'' Service Call
252(1)
Troubleshooting a ``Slow Ice'' or ``Not Enough Ice'' Service Call
253(1)
Additional Troubleshooting Tips
254(1)
Summary
254(3)
Product Temperatures for Preservation and Health
257(8)
Minimum Temperatures
258(1)
What the Inspector Looks For
258(1)
Problem Areas and Solutions
258(2)
Inspecting Ice Machines
260(1)
Hinges, Handles, and Gaskets
260(1)
Refrigeration Maintenance Program
260(1)
Interesting Temperature and Health Facts
261(1)
Summary
261(4)
Refrigeration Business Tips
265(14)
Starting and Staying in the Business
266(1)
Records and Paperwork
267(1)
Cash Is King
267(1)
Pricing and Costs
268(2)
Customers
270(1)
Employees
271(1)
Expanding the Business
272(1)
Maintenance Contracts
272(2)
Exit Strategy
274(1)
Summary
275(4)
Appendix
279(2)
Summary of T.R.O.T. (Technician's Rules of Thumb)
279(1)
Pressure Temperature (P/T) Chart
280(1)
Glossary 281(5)
Index 286


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