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Communicating Effectively

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780072315677

ISBN10:
0072315679
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/2000
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Companies, The

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Table of Contents

Part One Basic Principles of Communication 1(158)
The Communication Process
2(28)
Everyone Needs Communication Skills
5(1)
Communication Is a Process
6(7)
A Definition of Communication
6(1)
The Elements of Communication
7(6)
Communication Is a Transaction
13(3)
The Three Principles of Transactional Communication
13(3)
Types of Communication
16(3)
Intrapersonal Communication
16(1)
Interpersonal Communication
16(2)
Small-Group Communication
18(1)
Public Communication
19(1)
Mass Communication
19(1)
Intercultural Communication
19(3)
Ethical Communication
22(1)
Communicating Effectively
23(7)
Where to Begin
24(2)
Summary
26(1)
Questions to Review
26(1)
Notes
27(1)
Further Reading
27(3)
Self and Communication
30(32)
Self-Concept
32(9)
Reflected Appraisals
33(2)
Social Comparisons
35(2)
Self-Perception
37(1)
Gender, Sex, and Self-Concept
38(1)
Psychological Safety and Risk
39(2)
Can You Improve Your Self-Concept?
41(3)
What Do You Want to Change about Yourself?
42(1)
Are Your Circumstances Keeping You from Changing?
42(1)
Are You Willing to Take Some Chances?
43(1)
What Would Be a Realistic Goal?
43(1)
Can You Discipline Yourself?
43(1)
Are There People Who Will Support You?
43(1)
Can You Be More You-Centered?
44(1)
Perception
44(3)
The Perceptual Process
45(1)
Our Perceptions within Our Culture
46(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Communication
47(15)
Communication between Nondominant-and Dominant-Group Members
51(6)
The Consequences of Nondominant-and Dominant-Group Communication
57(2)
Summary
59(1)
Questions to Review
59(1)
Notes
59(1)
Further Reading
60(2)
Listening
62(32)
Listening Styles
65(2)
Gender and Listening
67(1)
Why Do People Have Problems Listening?
67(3)
Cognitive Dissonance
68(1)
Anxiety
68(1)
The Controlling Listener
69(1)
The Passive Listener
69(1)
Learning to Listen
70(1)
The Process of Listening
71(4)
Predicting
71(1)
Receiving Messages
72(1)
Attending
72(1)
Assigning Meaning
73(1)
Remembering
73(1)
Assessing
74(1)
Listening for Information: Active Listening
75(5)
Identify the Central Idea
76(2)
Identify Supporting Material
78(1)
Form a Mental Outline
78(1)
Predict What Will Come Next
79(1)
Relate Points to Your Experience
79(1)
Look for Similarities and Differences
79(1)
Ask Questions
79(1)
Critical Listening
80(3)
Determine the Speaker's Motives
81(1)
Challenge and Question Ideas
81(1)
Distinguish Fact from Opinion
81(1)
Recognize Your Own Biases
82(1)
Assess the Message
83(1)
Empathic Listening
83(5)
Listening for Feelings
83(1)
Negative Listening Responses
84(1)
The Empathic-Listening Response
85(3)
Listening for Enjoyment
88(6)
Summary
90(1)
Questions to Review
90(1)
Notes
91(1)
Further Reading
92(2)
Verbal Communication
94(32)
How Words Work
98(3)
People Determine Meanings
101(1)
The Language Environment
102(6)
People, Purposes, and Rules
102(2)
Appropriate Language
104(2)
Specialization
106(2)
Style, Roles, and Group Memberships
108(6)
Gender and Language
110(2)
Dialect
112(1)
Speaking and Writing
113(1)
Working on Your Communication
114(12)
What Do You Want to Say?
114(2)
How Do You Want to Say It?
116(3)
To Whom Are You Talking?
119(2)
What Metamessages Are You Sending?
121(1)
Summary
122(1)
Questions to Review
123(1)
Notes
123(1)
Further Reading
124(2)
Nonverbal Communication
126(33)
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication
128(1)
Nonverbal Communication as a Transaction
128(1)
Verbal and Nonverbal Differences
129(4)
Environment
130(1)
Feedback
130(1)
Continuity
130(1)
Channel
130(2)
Control
132(1)
Senses
132(1)
Structure
132(1)
Acquisition
132(1)
How Nonverbal Communication Works
133(1)
Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication
133(3)
Nonverbal Communication Is Culturally Determined
133(2)
Nonverbal Messages May Conflict with Verbal Messages
135(1)
Nonverbal Messages Are Largely Unconscious
136(1)
Nonverbal Communication Shows Your Feelings and Attitudes
136(1)
Types of Nonverbal Communication
136(9)
Paralanguage
136(3)
Body Movement
139(2)
Eye Messages
141(1)
Attractiveness
141(1)
Clothing
142(3)
Body Adornment
145(1)
Space and Distance
145(8)
Distance Zones
146(2)
Space/Distance as an Indicator of Intimacy
148(1)
Space/Distance as an Indicator of Status
149(1)
Touch
150(1)
Time
151(2)
Improving Your Nonverbal Communication
153(6)
How Do People React to You?
153(1)
What Can Videotape Show You about Your Nonverbal Communication?
153(1)
Is Your Nonverbal Communication Appropriate to the Role You Are Playing?
154(1)
How Do You Use Your Space?
154(1)
How Do You Use Time?
155(1)
Summary
155(1)
Questions to Review
155(1)
Notes
156(1)
Further Reading
157(2)
Part Two Interpersonal Communication 159(130)
Interpersonal Relationships
160(38)
Emotional Intelligence
163(4)
Being Self-Aware
163(1)
Managing Emotions
164(1)
Motivating Yourself
164(1)
Recognizing Emotions in Others
165(1)
Handling Relationships
165(2)
Attraction to Others
167(3)
Physical Attraction
167(1)
Perceived Gain
168(1)
Similarities
169(1)
Differences
170(1)
Proximity
170(1)
Motives for Interpersonal Communication
170(4)
Pleasure
171(1)
Affection
171(1)
Inclusion
171(1)
Escape
171(1)
Relaxation
172(1)
Control
172(2)
Talking to Each Other
174(4)
Roles, Relationships, and Communication
174(1)
Beginning Conversations: The Art of Small Talk
175(1)
Verbal Approaches in Promoting or Avoiding Relationships
176(1)
Aggressive Talk: Words You Shouldn't Say
177(1)
Regrettable Talk: Words You Wish You Hadn't Said
177(1)
Self-Disclosure: Important Talk
178(6)
The Importance of Self-Disclosure
179(1)
The Process of Self-Disclosure
180(2)
Self-Disclosure and Intimacy: Rewards and Fears
182(1)
When Should Self-Disclosure Occur?
183(1)
Family Communication
184(14)
The Systems Theory of Family
185(1)
Intimacy in Couples and Families
186(2)
Happily Married Couples
188(1)
The Communication of Intimacy
188(1)
Communication between Parents and Children
189(1)
Stepfamilies
190(1)
Quality Communication in a Family
191(2)
Subjects Better Left Unsaid in Families
193(1)
Summary
193(1)
Questions to Review
194(1)
Notes
194(1)
Further Reading
195(3)
Evaluating and Improving Relationships
198(40)
The Stages of a Relationship
200(12)
Coming Together
201(5)
Coming Apart
206(6)
Essential Elements of Good Relationships
212(1)
Commitment
212(1)
Dialogue
212(1)
Evaluating Your Relationships
213(4)
Roles and Expectations
213(2)
Renegotiating Roles
215(1)
Costs and Rewards
216(1)
Communication Problems in Relationships
217(8)
Criticism and Complaints
217(3)
Avoidance
220(1)
Aggression
221(1)
Defensive Communication
221(4)
Avoiding Defensive Communication: A Practical Example
225(2)
Communication Solutions in Relationships
227(2)
Empathic Listening
227(1)
I/You Messages
228(1)
Assertiveness
228(1)
Resolving Conflict
229(3)
Relationships That Work
232(6)
Summary
233(1)
Questions to Review
234(1)
Notes
234(1)
Further Reading
235(3)
Communicating at Work
238(51)
The Information Interview
242(13)
Preparing for the Interview
244(10)
Conducting the Interview
254(1)
Analyzing the Interview
255(1)
Information Interviews as Precursors to Job Interviews
255(4)
The Employment Interview
259(18)
Evaluating the Job Description
259(1)
Preparing a Resume
259(6)
Cover Letters
265(1)
The Interview
266(11)
The Follow-Up Letter
277(1)
Presentations
277(12)
Thorough Preparation
279(1)
Natural Delivery
279(4)
Effective Visuals
283(1)
Summary
283(1)
Questions to Review
284(1)
Notes
284(1)
Further Reading
285(4)
Part Three Communicating in Groups 289(60)
Small Groups: Characteristics
290(28)
Why Discuss?
294(2)
Characteristics of Small Groups
296(6)
Cultural Values
296(1)
Group Norms
296(1)
Group Rules
297(1)
Types of Groups
298(4)
Small-Group Effectiveness
302(5)
Workable Size
302(1)
An Appropriate Meeting Place
303(1)
Suitable Seating Arrangements
303(1)
Cohesiveness and Commitment
304(1)
Groupthink
305(2)
Discussion in Groups
307(11)
Choosing a Topic
308(1)
Identifying the Problem
309(1)
Analyzing the Problem
310(5)
Summary
315(1)
Questions to Review
315(1)
Notes
315(1)
Further Reading
316(2)
Group Leadership, Participation, and Conflict Management
318(31)
Functional Leadership
321(2)
What Is a Leader?
323(1)
How Leaders Influence Followers
323(1)
Reward Power
323(1)
Coercive Power
323(1)
Legitimate Power
323(1)
Expert Power
324(1)
Referent Power
324(1)
How People Become Leaders
324(2)
Personality Traits
325(1)
Situational Factors
325(1)
Leadership Styles
326(4)
The Authoritarian Leader
326(2)
The Democratic Leader
328(1)
The Laissez-Faire Leader
329(1)
Leading the Group
330(5)
Neutrality and Objectivity
330(1)
Establishing Procedures
331(1)
Helping the Group to Progress
332(1)
Raising Questions
333(1)
Focusing on Answers
333(1)
Delegating Responsibility
334(1)
Encouraging Social Interaction
334(1)
Participating in Group Discussion
335(4)
Roles in Discussion
335(4)
Conflict in Groups
339(10)
The Value of Substantive Conflict
340(1)
Managing Group Conflict
341(1)
Evaluating Group Performance
342(2)
Summary
344(1)
Questions to Review
345(1)
Notes
345(1)
Further Reading
346(3)
Part Four Communicating in Public 349(252)
Getting Started
350(36)
Selecting a Topic
354(7)
Making a Personal Inventory
355(3)
Brainstorming
358(3)
Narrowing the Topic
361(3)
Testing the Topic
364(1)
Appropriate for the Audience?
364(1)
Appropriate for You?
364(1)
Appropriate for the Occasion?
365(1)
Selecting a Purpose
365(6)
The General Purpose
366(1)
The Specific Purpose
367(1)
The Central Idea
368(3)
Analyzing the Audience
371(9)
The Role of the Speaker
371(1)
Audience Knowledge
372(1)
Audience Interest
373(1)
Audience Attitudes and Beliefs
373(2)
Audience Demographics
375(5)
Analyzing the Occasion
380(6)
Length of the Speech
380(1)
Time of Day
380(1)
Physical Setting of the Speech
380(2)
Summary
382(1)
Questions to Review
382(1)
Notes
383(1)
Further Reading
383(3)
Finding Speech Material
386(48)
Researching Your Topic: Where to Look
392(28)
Drawing on Personal Experience and Observation
393(1)
Researching on the Internet
393(8)
Interviewing
401(1)
Using the Library
401(19)
Supporting Material: What to Look For
420(9)
Comparison
422(1)
Contrast
423(1)
Definition
424(1)
Examples
424(2)
Statistics
426(2)
Testimony
428(1)
Polls
429(1)
Studies
429(1)
Adapting Supporting Material to Your Audience
429(5)
Summary
431(1)
Questions to Review
431(1)
Notes
432(1)
Further Reading
433(1)
Organizing and Outlining the Speech
434(40)
Principles of Organization
439(2)
Relate Points to Your Specific Purpose and Central Idea
439(1)
Distinguish between Main and Minor Points
440(1)
Phrase All Points in Full Sentences
440(1)
Give All Points a Parallel Structure
440(1)
Patterns of Organization
441(9)
Time Order
442(1)
Spatial Order
443(1)
Cause-and-Effect Order
444(2)
Problem-Solution Order
446(1)
Motivated Sequence
447(2)
Topical Order
449(1)
The Speech Introduction
450(8)
Stating Your Purpose, Central Idea, and Main Points
451(1)
Getting Attention
452(1)
Use Some Humor
452(1)
Use An Example
453(1)
Refer to the Occasion
453(1)
Show the Importance of the Subject
454(1)
Use Startling Information
454(1)
Use Questions
455(1)
Use Personal Examples
455(1)
Use a Quotation
456(2)
Additional Tips for Introductions
458(1)
The Speech Conclusion
458(2)
Summarize Your Main Ideas
459(1)
Use a Quotation
459(1)
Inspire Your Audience to Action
459(1)
Additional Tips for Conclusions
460(1)
Speech Transitions
460(1)
Tips for Transitions
461(1)
Preparing an Outline
461(2)
The Outline Format
461(1)
Full-Sentence and Key-Word Outlines
462(1)
The Bibliography
463(11)
Summary
471(1)
Questions to Review
471(1)
Notes
472(1)
Further Reading
473(1)
Delivering the Speech
474(44)
Characteristics of Good Delivery
477(4)
Attentiveness
478(1)
Immediacy
478(1)
Directness
479(1)
Conversational Quality
480(1)
Types of Delivery
481(5)
Impromptu Speaking
481(1)
Speaking from a Manuscript
482(1)
Speaking from Memory
483(1)
Extemporaneous Speaking
484(2)
How You Look
486(4)
Appearance
486(1)
Body Language
487(1)
Eye Contact
487(1)
Facial Expression
488(1)
Gestures
489(1)
Posture
489(1)
How You Sound
490(4)
Volume
490(1)
Using a Microphone
491(1)
Pace
491(1)
Pitch and Inflection
491(1)
Enunciation
492(2)
Using Visual Support
494(12)
Types of Visual Support
494(10)
Rules for Using Visual Support
504(2)
Controlling Nervousness
506(3)
Practicing Your Speech
509(9)
Preparing Your Speech
509(1)
Trying Out Your Speech
510(1)
Practicing Actual Delivery
510(4)
Summary
514(1)
Questions to Review
514(1)
Notes
515(1)
Further Reading
515(3)
The Informative Speech
518(34)
Goals of an Informative Speaker
521(3)
Getting Attention
522(1)
Increasing Understanding
522(2)
Helping Retention
524(1)
Strategies for Informative Speeches
524(28)
Defining
525(4)
Describing
529(2)
Explaining
531(1)
Using Numbers
531(2)
Connecting the Known with the Unknown
533(1)
Repeating and Reinforcing Ideas
534(1)
Arousing Interest in Your Topic
534(4)
Getting Listeners Involved
538(11)
Summary
549(1)
Questions to Review
549(1)
Notes
549(1)
Further Reading
550(2)
The Persuasive Speech
552(49)
Persuasion and the Communication Model
555(1)
What Is Persuasion, and What Is Its Purpose?
556(2)
Values, beliefs, and Attitudes
558(4)
Values
558(2)
Beliefs
560(1)
Attitudes
561(1)
Why Persuasion Is Difficult
562(3)
Strategies of Persuasion
565(13)
Determine Your Purpose
565(1)
Analyze Your Audience
566(1)
Appeal to Your Audience Using Logic
567(4)
Appeal to Your Audience Using Emotion
571(7)
Structure Your Material Effectively
578(5)
Questions of Fact, Value, and Policy
579(1)
One-Sided versus Two-Sided Arguments
580(1)
Order of Presentation
580(3)
Build Your Credibility
583(18)
Expertise
583(2)
Dynamism
585(1)
Trustworthiness
586(1)
Ethics
586(11)
Summary
597(1)
Questions to Review
597(1)
Notes
598(1)
Further Reading
599(2)
Appendix 601(28)
Mass Communication and Media Literacy
601(2)
What Is Media Literacy?
603(3)
How Do the Media Relate to the Communication Model?
606(2)
Why Study Media Literacy?
608(7)
The Media Provide Instant News
608(1)
The Media Shape Culture
609(1)
The Media Shape Attitudes
610(2)
The Media Influence Behavior
612(2)
The Media Connect Us with the Global Community
614(1)
The Media Promote Responsible Citizenship
614(1)
The Media Create Productive Workers
615(1)
How Does Assessment Relate to the Media?
615(2)
How Should One Assess the Media?
617(6)
Evaluating Information
617(1)
Assessing Information on Television and in the Newspapers
618(1)
Assessing Information on the Internet
619(4)
How Do Ethics Relate to the Media?
623(6)
Summary
624(1)
Questions to Review
625(1)
Notes
626(1)
Further Reading
627(2)
Glossary 629(8)
Illustration Credits 637(2)
Index 639


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