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Communicating in Small Groups : Principles and Practices,9780205449569
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Communicating in Small Groups : Principles and Practices

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205449569

ISBN10:
0205449565
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 8th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2006.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

Known for its wealth of relevant, practical, and up-to-date information,Communicating in Small Groupscontinues to provide a balance of principles and applications of group communication.With additional emphasis on teamwork, technology, and ethical collaboration,Communicating in Small Groups: Principles and Practiceshelps students enhance their performance in groups and teams while also giving them insight as to why group and team members communicate as they do.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xxii
PART I: Foundations of Group and Team Communication
2(76)
Introducing Group and Team Principles and Practices
2(36)
What Is Small Group Communication?
3(3)
Communication
4(1)
A Small Group of People
5(1)
Meeting with a Common Purpose
5(1)
Feeling a Sense of Belonging
5(1)
Exerting Influence
6(1)
What about Teams?
6(6)
Review
8(1)
Characteristics of an Effective Team
9(1)
Characteristics of Effective Team Members
10(1)
Enhancing Team Effectiveness
11(1)
What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Working in Groups and Teams?
12(7)
Advantages
12(2)
Disadvantages
14(2)
Review
16(1)
When Not To Collaborate
16(1)
Me versus We
17(2)
What Are the Different Types of Small Groups?
19(3)
Primary Groups
19(1)
Secondary Groups
19(3)
What Is Virtual Small Group Communication?
22(5)
Telephone Conferences
22(1)
Electronic Mail (E-Mail)
22(1)
Video Conferences
23(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Media Richness Theory
24(1)
Electronic Meeting Systems
25(1)
Web Pages
26(1)
The Quality of Virtual Communication
26(1)
How Can You Become a Competent Small Group Communicator?
27(1)
The Essence of Communication Competence
27(1)
The Nine Core Small Group Communication Competencies
28(10)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
30(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
31(1)
Practice
32(1)
Notes
33(5)
Small Group Communication Theory
38(20)
The Nature of Theory and the Theory-Building Process
39(1)
Theory: A Practical Approach to Group Communication
40(3)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
41(1)
Explanatory Function
41(1)
Predictive Function
41(2)
The Purpose of Communication in Small Groups: Making Sense
43(2)
Complexity
44(1)
Small Groups: More Complexity
44(1)
Theoretical Perspectives for the Study of Group and Team Communication
45(7)
Social Exchange Theory
45(1)
Systems Theory
46(2)
Symbolic Convergence Theory
48(1)
Structuration Theory
49(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Structuration and the Exercise of Free Will
50(1)
Functional Theory
50(1)
Review
51(1)
Virtual Communication
52(1)
New Technologies and Small Group Communication Theory
52(1)
Describing Elements of Group and Team Communication
53(5)
Putting Principles Into Practice
55(1)
Practice
56(1)
Notes
56(2)
Group Formation
58(20)
Why Do People Join Groups?
59(1)
Interpersonal Needs
60(4)
Maslow's Theory
60(1)
Schutz's Theory
61(2)
Review
63(1)
Individual Goals
64(1)
Group and Team Goals
64(2)
Establishing Mutuality of Concern
66(5)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
68(1)
Interpersonal Attraction
68(1)
Similarity
69(1)
Complementarity
69(1)
Proximity, Contact, and Interaction
69(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Mutuality of Concern
70(1)
Physical Attractiveness
70(1)
Group Attraction
71(2)
Group Activities
71(1)
Virtual Communication
72(1)
Group Goals
72(1)
Group Membership
73(1)
Homogeneity and Diversity in Groups
73(1)
Group Formation over Time
73(5)
Review
74(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
75(1)
Practice
76(1)
Notes
77(1)
PART II: Managing Group and Team Relationships
78(126)
Relating to Others in Groups and Teams
78(36)
Roles
79(6)
Who Are You?
80(1)
Self-Concept Development: Gender, Sexual Orientation, Culture, and Role
80(2)
Diversity of Roles in Small Groups
82(1)
Group Task Roles
83(1)
Group-Building and Maintenance Roles
83(1)
Individual Roles
84(1)
Norms
85(6)
Identifying Group Norms
86(1)
How Do Norms Develop?
86(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Establishing Group Norms
87(1)
Conforming to Group Norms
87(2)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
89(1)
Establishing Ground Rules and a Mission Statement
89(2)
Review
91(1)
Status
91(3)
Privileges Accorded to High-Status Group Members
91(1)
Effects of Status Differences
92(1)
Virtual Communication
93(1)
Review
94(1)
Observing Status Differences to Predict Group Dynamics
94(1)
Power
94(4)
Power Bases
95(1)
Effects of Power on Group Process
96(1)
Review
97(1)
Power and Gender
97(1)
Status and Power: A Cultural Footnote
97(1)
Trust
98(2)
Developing Trusting Relationships
98(1)
Self-Disclosure
99(1)
The Development of Group Relationships over Time
100(1)
Review
101(1)
Culture
101(13)
Individualism and Collectivism
102(1)
High-Context and Low-Context Cultures
102(1)
High-Contact and Low-Contact Cultures
103(2)
Gender and Communication
105(1)
Conversational Style
105(1)
Time
106(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
107(2)
Practice
109(2)
Notes
111(3)
Improving Group Climate
114(22)
Defensive Communication
116(1)
Defensive and Supportive Climates
117(4)
Evaluation versus Description
117(1)
Control versus Problem Orientation
118(1)
Strategy versus Spontaneity
118(1)
Neutrality versus Empathy
118(1)
Superiority versus Equality
118(1)
Certainty versus Provisionalism
119(1)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
120(1)
Review
120(1)
Interpersonal Confirmation and Disconfirmation
121(2)
Disconfirming Responses
121(1)
Confirming Responses
122(1)
Group Cohesiveness
123(3)
Composition and Cohesiveness: Building a Team
123(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Cohesiveness and Productivity at Harley-Davidson
124(1)
Individual Benefits and Cohesiveness
124(1)
Task Effectiveness and Cohesiveness
125(1)
Communication and Cohesiveness
125(1)
Communication Networks
126(2)
Virtual Communication
127(1)
Group Size
128(1)
Group Climate and Productivity
129(7)
Putting Principles Into Practice
130(1)
Practice
131(2)
Notes
133(3)
Enhancing Group and Team Communication Skills
136(32)
Verbal Dynamics in the Small Group
137(2)
Words as Barriers to Communication
137(1)
Review
138(1)
Listening
139(4)
Types of Listening
139(2)
Barriers to Effective Listening
141(1)
A Guide to Active Listening
142(1)
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Groups
143(2)
More Time Is Spent Communicating Nonverbally Than Verbally
144(1)
Emotions and Feelings Are Typically Expressed Nonverbally Rather Than Verbally
144(1)
Nonverbal Messages Are Usually More Believable Than Verbal Messages
144(1)
Applications of Nonverbal Communication Research to Groups and Teams
145(9)
Posture, Movement, and Gestures
145(2)
Review
147(1)
Eye Contact
147(1)
Review
148(1)
Facial Expressions
148(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Nonverbal Virtual Communication
149(1)
Vocal Cues
150(1)
Territoriality and Personal Space
150(2)
Review
152(1)
Personal Appearance
152(1)
Communication Environment
152(1)
Review
153(1)
Functions of Nonverbal Cues in Groups and Teams
154(3)
Nonverbal Messages Influence Perceived Leadership
154(1)
Nonverbal Messages Influence Persuasion Skills
154(1)
Nonverbal Messages Help Synchronize Interaction
154(1)
Nonverbal Messages Provide Information about Perceived Honesty or Dishonesty
154(2)
Virtual Communication
156(1)
Interpreting Nonverbal Communication
157(11)
Review
159(1)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
160(1)
Review
160(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
161(2)
Practice
163(1)
Notes
164(4)
Managing Conflict
168(36)
What Is Conflict?
169(2)
Causes of Conflict
169(1)
Misconceptions about Conflict
170(1)
Types of Conflict
171(3)
Pseudo-Conflict: When People Misunderstand One Another
171(1)
Simple Conflict: When People Disagree about Issues
172(1)
Ego Conflict: When Personalities Clash
173(1)
Conflict and Diversity in Small Groups
174(4)
Approaches to Conflict in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures
174(1)
Review
175(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Managing Conflict in Diverse Groups
176(1)
Approaches to Conflict in High-Context and Low-Context Cultures
176(2)
Conflict Management Styles
178(2)
Nonconfrontational Style
178(1)
Controlling Style
179(1)
Cooperative Style
179(1)
Cooperative Conflict Management: Principles and Skills
180(1)
Separate the People from the Problem
180(1)
Focusing on Shared Interests
181(1)
Generating Many Options to Solve Problems
181(1)
Basing Decisions on Objective Criteria
181(1)
When People Are Not Cooperative: Dealing with Difficult Group Members
181(4)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
183(2)
Groupthink: Conflict Avoidance
185(7)
Symptoms of Groupthink
186(2)
Review
188(1)
Suggestions for Reducing Groupthink
188(2)
Virtual Communication
190(2)
Review
192(1)
Consensus: Reaching Agreement through Communication
192(12)
The Nature of Consensus
192(1)
Suggestions for Reaching Consensus
193(4)
Review
197(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
198(1)
Practice
199(1)
Notes
200(4)
PART III: Managing Group and Team Tasks
204(134)
Preparing to Collaborate
204(24)
Developing a Discussion Plan
205(4)
Get Acquainted with Your Group Members
205(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Why Do We Share What We Know?
206(1)
Clarify the Goals of the Group
207(1)
Develop a Plan for Gathering Information and Analyzing Issues
207(1)
Follow a Structured Agenda to Accomplish the Task
208(1)
Use Critical-Thinking and Analysis Skills
208(1)
Determine How to Present Your Information
208(1)
Virtual Communication
209(1)
Formulating Discussion Questions
209(5)
Questions of Fact
210(1)
Questions of Prediction
211(1)
Questions of Value
211(1)
Questions of Policy
212(2)
Review
214(1)
Using Electronic Resources and the Library
214(2)
Using Logic and Reasoning
216(2)
Inductive Reasoning
216(1)
Deductive Reasoning
217(1)
Causal Reasoning
217(1)
Evaluating Evidence in Group Discussion
218(2)
Facts
218(1)
Examples
218(1)
Opinions
219(1)
Statistics
219(1)
Evaluating Web Sources
219(1)
Using Critical-Analysis Skills: Avoiding Reasoning Fallacies
220(8)
Causal Fallacy
221(1)
Either/Or Fallacy
221(1)
Bandwagon Fallacy
221(1)
Hasty Generalization
221(1)
Attacking the Person
222(1)
Red Herring
222(1)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
223(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
224(1)
Practice
225(1)
Notes
226(2)
Making Decisions and Solving Problems
228(28)
Group Decision Making: Choosing among Alternatives
229(4)
Elements of Group Decision Making
229(1)
Methods of Group Decision Making
230(1)
Obstacles to Quality Group Decision Making
231(1)
Review
232(1)
Group Problem Solving: Overcoming Obstacles to Achieve a Goal
233(2)
Problem Solving Defined
233(1)
Review
234(1)
Barriers to Group and Team Problem Solving
234(1)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
235(1)
Three Approaches to Group Problem Solving
235(13)
Descriptive Approach
236(2)
Other Models of Group Problem Solving
238(1)
Virtual Communication
239(2)
Functional Approach
241(1)
Review
242(2)
Cutting Edge Theory: The Bona Fide Perspective on Groups
244(3)
Review
247(1)
Prescriptive Approach
247(1)
Cultural Assumptions about Group Problem Solving and Decision Making
248(8)
Putting Principles Into Practice
249(1)
Practice
250(3)
Notes
253(3)
Using Problem-Solving Techniques
256(30)
An Overview of Prescriptive Problem-Solving Strategies
257(3)
The Origin of Prescriptive Problem-Solving Strategies
257(1)
The Importance of Structuring Problem-Solving Discussion
258(2)
Reflective Thinking: The Traditional Approach to Group Problem Solving
260(14)
Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem
260(1)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
261(1)
Tools for Defining the Problem
261(2)
Step 2: Analyze the Problem
263(1)
Tools for Analyzing a Problem
264(3)
Virtual Communication
267(1)
How to Establish Criteria
267(1)
Step 3: Generate Several Possible Solutions
268(1)
Step 4: Select the Best Solution or Combination of Solutions
268(1)
Tools for Evaluating the Solutions
269(1)
Step 5: Test and Implement the Solution
270(1)
Tools for Implementing a Solution
270(2)
How to Use Reflective Thinking in Your Group or Team
272(2)
Question-Oriented Approaches to Problem Solving
274(4)
Ideal-Solution Format
274(1)
Single-Question Format
275(1)
How to Use Question-Oriented Approaches in Your Group or Team
275(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Total Quality Management
276(2)
Beyond Technique
278(8)
Putting Principles Into Practice
279(1)
Practice
279(3)
Notes
282(4)
Enhancing Creativity in Groups and Teams
286(26)
What Is Creativity?
287(1)
Why Study Creativity?
288(1)
Myths about Creativity
289(1)
Creativity Myth 1: Creativity Is a Mysterious Process That Can't Be Learned
289(1)
Creativity Myth 2: Only a Few Gifted People Are Creative
289(1)
Creativity Myth 3: Creativity Just Happens
289(1)
Barriers to Group and Team Creativity
290(1)
Premature Evaluation of Ideas
290(1)
Poor Physical Surroundings
290(1)
Too Many People
290(1)
Poor Timing
290(1)
Stinking Thinking
291(1)
Principles of Group and Team Creativity
291(2)
Appropriately Analyze and Define the Problem
291(1)
Create a Climate of Freedom
292(1)
Listen to Minority Points of View
292(1)
Encourage People to See Things and Themselves Differently
292(1)
Selectively Increase Group and Team Structure
293(1)
Techniques for Enhancing Group and Team Creativity
293(19)
Brainstorming
293(1)
Traditional Brainstorming Steps
294(1)
The Nominal-Group Technique
295(2)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
297(1)
The Delphi Technique
297(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Cognitive Stimulation and Creativity
298(1)
Electronic Brainstorming
298(2)
Virtual Communication
300(1)
The Affinity Technique
300(1)
Review
301(1)
How to Use Brainstorming in Your Group or Team
302(1)
Review
303(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
304(1)
Practice
305(4)
Notes
309(3)
Leadership
312(26)
What Is Leadership?
313(1)
Trait Perspective: Characteristics of Effective Leaders
314(1)
Functional Perspective: Group Needs and Roles
314(5)
Task Leadership
314(2)
Process Leadership
316(3)
Situational Perspective: Adapting Style to Context
319(6)
Leadership Style
319(3)
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Model
322(1)
Virtual Communication
323(2)
Some Observations on the Situational Approach to Leadership
325(1)
Review
325(1)
Transformational Leadership
325(1)
Emergent Leadership in Small Groups
326(4)
The Minnesota Studies
326(1)
Collaborating Ethically: What Would You Do?
327(1)
Cutting Edge Theory: Leadership and Gender
328(1)
Leadership and Gender
329(1)
Leadership Training
330(8)
Putting Principles Into Practice
331(1)
Practice
332(4)
Notes
336(2)
Appendix A Principles and Practices for Effective Meetings
338(10)
Giving Meetings Structure
339(3)
Determine the Meeting Goal(s)
339(1)
Identify Items That Need to Be Discussed to Achieve the Goal
340(1)
Organize the Agenda Items to Achieve the Goal
340(1)
Review
340(2)
Review
342(1)
Becoming a Meeting Facilitator: Managing Group and Team Interaction
342(2)
Be a Gatekeeper
343(1)
Focus on the Goal
343(1)
Monitor Time
343(1)
Structure Interaction
343(1)
Review
344(1)
How to Lead Meetings
344(1)
How to Participate in Meetings
345(3)
Review
346(1)
Putting Principles Into Practice
347(1)
Notes
347(1)
Appendix B Principles and Practices for Communicating to an Audience
348(8)
Panel Discussions
348(1)
Symposium Presentations
349(1)
Forum Presentations
349(1)
Review
350(1)
Planning What to Say to an Audience
350(2)
Analyze Your Audience
350(1)
Have a Clear Objective
351(1)
Identify Your Major Ideas
351(1)
Support Your Major Ideas
351(1)
Organize Your Ideas
351(1)
Presenting Information to an Audience
352(4)
Select Your Method of Delivery
352(1)
Use Effective Delivery Skills
353(1)
Consider Using Visual Aids
353(1)
Using Computer-Generated Graphics
354(1)
Notes
355(1)
Glossary 356(8)
Credits 364(1)
Index 365


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