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Communicating for Success

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205524754

ISBN10:
0205524753
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/4/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $146.80

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Summary

This book focuses on the key communication competencies recommended by the National Communication Association. Introduced at the beginning of each chapter and integrated throughout the book, these learning outcomes help focus readers as they study the theory and skills needed to become better, more effective communicators. Well-written with interesting examples and a vibrant and engaging design, the book covers all the expected topics in an introductory course with a special appendix on interviewing. Each chapter begins with scenarios to which a reader can relate and then solve as they learn about the concepts discussed in each chapter. A concentrated focus on careers in communication, highlighted in a two-page spread near the end of each chapter, brings home the relevance of communication within the real world and helps the reader learn more about how studying communication can help them throughout their lives. Additional emphasis on topics such as ethics, culture, gender, and technology can be found throughout the book.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Building Communication Foundations

      Communication Defined

      Communication Is a Transactional Process

      Communication Occurs in a Context

      Communication Involves Negotiated Meanings of Symbols

      Communication Involves Shared Understanding
Types of Communication Contexts

     Intrapersonal

      Interpersonal/Dyad

      Group

      Organizational

      Public

      Mass Communication

      * Developing Skills: How To Determine Your Confidence/Anxiety Levels
Basic Communication Process

      Communication Models: A Brief Overview

      Elements of the Basic Communication Model

Exploring the Communication Model: Special Concepts

      Communication and Culture

      Communication and Gender

      Communication and Technology

      Communication and Ethics

Communication Competencies

Benefits of Communication Skills

      Increased Self-Awareness

      Empowered Participation

      Improved Relationships

      Enhanced Professional Success

      Improved Citizenship
Communication and Your Career

 

Chapter 2: Perception

Perception: Definitions and Steps

      Step 1: Selecting Available Data

      Step 2: Organizing Data into a Usable Form

      Step 3: Interpreting the Data by Adding Meaning and Making Predictions

Factors That Lead to Differences in Perception

      Physiological Factors in Perceptual Errors

      Psychological Factors in Perceptual Errors

      Cultural Factors in Perceptual Errors

Perception and Self

      Self-Concept Defined

      Barnlund’s “6 Person Concept”: A “Self” Orientation

      Plus-2 Concept: An “Other” Orientation

      Barriers to Accurate Self-Concept

Perception and Others

      First Impressions

      Stereotyping

      Perceptual Constancy

      Fundamental Attribution Error

      * Making Theory Practical: Attribution Theory

      Projection

Developing Perceptual Skills

      Using Perceptual Skills to Improve Self-Concept

            Using Perceptual Skills to Improve Your Perception with Others

      Perception and Your Career

           

Chapter 3: Listening

Listening Defined

      General Definition

      Stages of Listening

   *Developing Skills: How To Improve Your Memory

Importance of Listening

      Helps Us Develop and Maintain Our Mental Health

      Helps Us Develop and Maintain Relationships

      Helps Us in Our Careers

      Helps Us Become Better citizens

Barriers to Listening

      Noise

      Information Processing

      Cultural Differences

      Gender Orientation

      Poor Listening Habits

      *   Making Theory Practical: Listening Styles Inventory

Informational Listening

      Prepare to Listen

      Avoid Pre-Judging

      Mentally Organize, Summarize & Link Information

      Personalize Information While Listening

      Take Skillful Notes

      Ask Questions & Paraphrase

Critical Listening

      Listening Critically to Speaker Ethos

      Listening Critically to Speaker Logos         

      Listening Critically to Speaker Pathos

      Using Critical Listening Skills

Empathic Listening   

      Judging Response

      Supportive Response

      Interpreting Response

      Advising Response

Listening and Your Career

 

Chapter 4: Verbal Communication

Nature of Language

      Language and Verbal Communication Defined

      Language and the Ability to Think

      Language is Rule-governed

         Language and Types of Meaning

         Language and Culture

      Language and Gender

Power of Language

      Language has the power to influence our perceptions.

      *   Making Theory Practical: Theory of Linguistic Relativity

      Language has the power to reflect our attitudes to others.

      Language has the power to affect others’ perceptions of us.

Obstacles to Effective Verbal Encoding

     Insufficient Vocabulary

       Jargon

      Euphemisms

      Trigger Words

      Abstracting and Allness

      Polarizing Terms

      Imprecise Language and Relative Terms

     *   Developing Skills: How To Read a Journal Article

Overcoming Obstacles to Effective Verbal Encoding

      Expanding a Poor Vocabulary

      Avoiding Jargon

      Using Euphemisms with Care

      Being Alert to Trigger Words

      Being Conscious of Abstracting and Allness

      Using Dating and Indexing

      Defining and Describing with Care

Language and Your Career

 

Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

What is Nonverbal Communication

      Key Communication Concepts

      Nonverbal Communication Defined
The Nature of Nonverbal Communication
      Percent of Meaning
      Ambiguous Meaning

      Nonverbal Expectations
     *   Making Theory Practical: Expectancy Violation Theory

Categories of Nonverbal Communication

      Kinesics    

Proxemics
Haptics

      Chronemics

      Artifacts
      Paralanguage

      Functions of Nonverbal Messages

      Can Replace Verbal Messages
      Can Repeat Verbal Messages
      Can Reinforce Verbal Messages

      Can Regulate Verbal Messages
      Can Reveal Verbal Messages

      Can Reverse Verbal Messages
      Can Reflect Unconscious Needs

Improving Nonverbal Encoding

      Use Self-Monitoring

      Check for Cultural Meanings                      

      Check for Content

      Check for Personal Differences

      Ask for Feedback

Nonverbal Messages and Your Career

           

 

Chapter 6: Building Interpersonal Relationships

      Interpersonal Communication

      General Definition

      Interpersonal vs. Impersonal Communication

Interpersonal Relationships: Getting Needs Met
      Personal Needs and Wants

    * Developing Sills: How To Determine Needs and Wants

      Inclusion Needs (Extrovert-Introvert)

      Control Needs (Dominant-Submissive)

      Openness Needs (Discloser-Withholder)

      Contradictory Needs (Dialectics)

Interpersonal Relationships: Gaining Rewards and Minimizing Costs

Gathering Information and Using Effective Conversation

      Gathering Information to Reduce Uncertainty                      

      Using Effective Conversation

Improving Self-Disclosure:
      True Self-Disclosure                      

      Self-Disclosure and Culture/Gender/ Technology/Ethics

      Making Theory Practical: Face-Negotiation Theory

      Disclosure and the Model of Social Penetration

      Appropriate Self-Disclosure

Interpersonal Communication and Your Career


Chapter 7:  Managing Interpersonal Relationships and Conflict

Relationship Stages

      Stages of Relationship Development

      Stages of Relationship Deterioration

Relationships and Conflict

      Conflict Defined

      Conflict Escalators

Conflict Styles

      The Passive Style

      The Aggressive Style

      The Passive-Aggressive Style

      The Assertive Style

Conflict Outcomes

      Win-Win

      Compromise

      Win-Lose (Equitable)

      Lose-Lose

Special Issues in Conflict and Relational Communication

      Relationships and Family

      Relationships and Romance

      Relationships and Ethics

      Relationships and Technology

      *   Making Theory Practical: Dispute-Exacerbating Model of Email (DEME)

      Relationships and E-Dating.

Relationships and Your Career


Chapter 8: Communicating in Problem-Solving Groups

The Nature of Groups

      What Makes a Group?      

      Teams and Virtual Teams

      Groups and Gender/Ethics/Technology

      Types of Groups

      *   Developing Skills: How To Organize a Service-Learning Project

Individual verses Group Decisions

      When Individual Decisions Work Best

      When Group Decisions Work Best

Characteristics of Successful Small Groups

      Optimum Size

      Decision-Making Methods

      Group Cohesiveness

      Cultural Diversity

      Absence of Groupthink

      *   Making Theory Practical: Groupthink Theory

Rules, Norms, and Phases of Successful groups

      Rules

      Norms

      Phases

Group Problem-Solving Process

      Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem

      Step 2: Analyze the Problem

      Step 3: Establish and Rank Criteria

      Step 4: Generate Possible Solutions

      Step 5: Apply Criteria to Select Best Solution(s)

      Step 6: Implement and Follow-Up

Groups and Your Career


Chapter 9: Becoming Effective Group Members and Leaders

Characteristics of Effective Group Members

Becoming an Effective Member

      Performing Formal Roles

      Performing Task Roles

            Performing Maintenance Roles

            Avoiding Dysfunctional Roles

     *   Developing Skills: How To Work with Dysfunctional Members

Characteristics of Effective Group Leadership

      Using Power Effectively

      Sharing Responsibility

      Benefiting from Culture/Gender/Technology/Ethics

Becoming an Effective Leader

      Leaderships Traits

      Leadership Functions

      Leadership Power

      Leadership Styles

      Situational Leadership

      Transformational Leaders

     *   Making Theory Practical: Transformational Leadership Theory

Leadership and Your Career


Chapter 10: Public Speaking: Getting Started

Understanding the Nature of Anxiety

      What is Speaker Anxiety?

      What Causes Speaker Anxiety?

Building Speaker Confidence
      Be Prepared
      Engage in Skills Training
      Use Positive Imagery

      Enjoy Breathing and Relaxation
      Apply Cognitive Restructuring        

      Become Audience-Centered

      *   Making Theory Practical: Uncertainty Reduction Theory

      Practice Speaking Often    

An Overview: Five Steps in Preparing a Successful Speech
      Step 1: Analyzing Your Audience (demographics, attitudes, situation)
      Step 2: Developing Your Topic, Purpose, and Thesis
      Step 3: Gathering materials
      Step 4: Organizing
      Step 5: Practicing

Audience Analysis: A More Detailed Look

      Demographic Analysis

      Attitude Analysis

            --Attitudes Toward Your Topic
            --Attitudes Toward You (the speaker)

            --Attitudes Toward Being There

      Situational Analysis

      *   Developing Skills: How To Conduct an Audience Analysis

Speaking Skills and Your Career

 

Chapter 11: Selecting a Topic and Gathering Supporting Materials

Developing Your Topic, Purpose and Thesis

      Topic Selection

      Purpose

      Thesis Statement

Gathering Materials: Begin with a Rough Draft

      A Rough Draft Saves Valuable Time

      A Rough Draft Makes Getting Opinions from Others Easier

Researching for Supporting Materials

      Personal Information          

      Print Sources

      Electronic Databases
      Internet Sources

      Interviews  

Types and Uses of Supporting Materials

      Definitions
      Explanations

      Examples and Illustrations

      *   Making Theory Practical: Fisher’s Narrative Paradigm

      Comparisons (Literal and Figurative)

      Quotations (Personal Testimony from Experts)

      Statistics

Quality Supporting Materials and Careers

     

Chapter 12:  Organizing For Informative Speaking

Begin by Expanding and Revising Your Rough Draft Outline

Organizational Patterns for Informative Speeches

      Chronological
      Spatial (Geographical)
      Topical
      Causal (Usually Cause-Effect)

      Problem-Solution
Speech Organization and Cultural Issues

Speech Introductions

      Catch Audience Attention

      Build Rapport

      Establish Credibility

      Point Out Benefits to Audience

      Clarify Central Idea with Thesis and Preview of Main Points

      When Each Function Should Be Used

Speech Conclusions

      Summary of Main Points

      Memorable Ending

      Questions and Answers (Q&A)

Speech Transitions

Speech Outlining

      Why Bother With Outlines?

      Outlining Principles

            --Principle #1: Use main points of relatively equal value

            --Principle #2: Include at least two items per level

            --Principle #3: Use parallel structure

            --Principle #4: Don’t use Roman numerals for Introduction, Body, or Conclusion

            --Principle #5: Use standard outline numbering

            --Principle #6: Use generous indentations

      Types of Outlines

            --Rough-draft Outlines

            --Formal Outlines

            --Speaking Outlines

Informative Presentations and Your Career

 

Chapter 13: Adding Visuals and Practicing Your Presentation

Preparing Quality Visual Aids

      Types of Visual Aids

      Guidelines for Using Visual Aids with Success

      *  Making Theory Practical:  Basic Design Principles

      Using PowerPoint Successfully

Preparing for a Specific Audience
      Identify Audience Type

      Select Best Delivery Method

Practice Your Verbal and Nonverbal Delivery

      Pick Words Carefully
      Use Direct Eye Contact
      Use Effective Facial Expressions

      Monitor Gestures, Posture, and Movement

      Monitor Clothing and Grooming

Practice Your Vocal Delivery (Paralanguage)

      Pitch

      Rate

      Volume

      Emphasis

      Vocal Quality

      Articulation

      Pronunciation

      Vocal dysfluencies (interferences)

Practice Citing Your Sources           

      *   Developing Skills: How To Cite Sources During Your Presentation

Final Preparations before Your Speech

Delivery and Your Career

 

Chapter 14: Persuasive Speaking

Understanding Persuasion

      Differences between Persuasive and Informative Speeches

      *   Making Theory Practical: Social Judgment Theory

      Factors that Affect Persuasion

Types of Persuasive Speeches

      Speech to Convince

      Speech to Actuate

Persuasive Appeals that Really Persuade
      Speaker Credibility (Ethos)

      Evidence and Reasoning (Logos)

      Emotional Appeal (Pathos)

Persuasive Organizational Patterns

      Persuasive Patterns for Arguments—Statement of Logical Reasons 

      Persuasive Patterns for Problems and Solutions      

      *   Developing Skills: How To Use Inoculation Theory

      Persuasive Pattern for Policy and Action—Motivated Sequence

Adapting Organizational Patterns to Audiences

      When Audience Favors Your Position

      When Audience Opposes Your Position

      When Audience is Neutral toward Your Position

      When Audience Exposed to Counter-Persuasion

      When You Want Your Audience to Take Action

      When Audience Opinions Vary Widely

      Sample Student Speech: Emylee Pinero

Final Thoughts from the Authors

Persuasion and Your Career         

 

Appendix A: Communicating Successfully in the Interviewing Context

 

Interviewing: An Overview

      What makes a Quality Interview?

      Interviewer and Interviewee Responsibilities

Informational Interviewing

      What is an Informational Interview?

      Benefits of Informational Interviewing

      Employment Interviewing

      Interviewer Responsibilities

      Interviewee Responsibilities



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