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Communication : Making Connections

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205392391

ISBN10:
0205392393
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $86.60
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Summary

Lively, clear, and geared to students' needs, Communication: Making Connections directs students on a path to becoming more skilled, educated, and competent communicators in their everyday lives. Centered on the authors' belief that communication is about connecting, linking, sharing, participating, bonding, coupling, and joining with others, this text introduces students to the skills and theory of communication.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
About the Authors xxx
PART ONE Making Connections through Communication
Connecting Process and Principles
1(27)
Communication in the Workplace
2(1)
What Is Communication?
3(2)
Why Should We Study Communication?
5(6)
Communication and Career Development
5(1)
Communication and Ethical Behavior
6(1)
Communication and Our Multicultural Society
7(2)
Communication and Our Technological Society
9(2)
Principles of Communication
11(4)
Communication Is a Process
11(1)
Communication Is a System
12(1)
Communication Is Both Interactional and Transactional
12(1)
Communication Can Be Intentional or Unintentional
13(2)
Essential Components of Communication
15(5)
Source
16(1)
Message
17(1)
Interference
18(1)
Channel
18(1)
Receiver
18(1)
Feedback
19(1)
Environment
19(1)
Context
20(1)
Types of Communication
20(3)
Intrapersonal Communication
21(1)
Interpersonal Communication
21(1)
Public Communication
22(1)
Mass and Mediated Communication
22(1)
Misconceptions about Communication
23(2)
Myth 1: Communication Is a Cure-All
24(1)
Myth 2: Quantity Means Quality
24(1)
Myth 3: Meaning Is in the Words We Use
24(1)
Myth 4: We Have a Natural Ability to Communicate
24(1)
Myth 5: Communication Is Reversible
25(1)
Improving Communication Competence
25(1)
Summary
26(1)
Discussion Starters
26(1)
Answers and Explanations
27(1)
Notes
27(1)
Connecting Perceptions and Communication
28(26)
Perception and Communication
30(2)
Understanding Perception
32(1)
Awareness
32(1)
Cognitive Process
32(1)
Verbal Communication
33(1)
The Nature of Perception
33(7)
Selection
34(1)
Organization
35(2)
Interpretation
37(3)
Perceptual Differences
40(9)
Perceptual Set
40(1)
Attribution Error
41(1)
Physical Characteristics
42(1)
Psychological State
43(1)
Cultural Background
43(3)
Gender
46(1)
Media
47(1)
Internet
48(1)
Improving Perception Competencies and Perception Checking
49(3)
Become an Active Perceiver
49(1)
Recognize That Each Person's Frame of Reference Is Unique
50(1)
Distinguish Facts from Inferences
50(1)
Become Aware of the Role Perceptions Play in Communication
50(1)
Keep an Open Mind
50(1)
Perception Checking: Being a Competent Communicator
51(1)
Summary
52(1)
Discussion Starters
53(1)
Notes
53(1)
Connecting Self and Communication
54(24)
Understanding Self-Concept
56(8)
Self-Concept as a Process
57(1)
Development of Self-Concept
58(4)
The Hierarchy of Self-Concept
62(2)
Communication and Self-Concept
64(2)
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Impression Management
66(2)
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
66(1)
Impression Management
67(1)
Culture and Self-Concept
68(2)
Gender and Self-Concept
70(4)
Sex and Gender
70(1)
Gender Stereotypes
71(1)
Gender Expectations
72(2)
Enhancing Self-Concept
74(1)
Summary
75(1)
Discussion Starters
76(1)
Notes
76(2)
Connecting through Verbal Communication
78(30)
The Importance of Language
81(3)
Language Is Powerful
81(2)
Language Affects Thought
83(1)
The Elements of Language
84(8)
Sounds
84(1)
Words
84(1)
Grammar
85(1)
Meaning
85(7)
Language-Based Barriers to Communication
92(8)
Meanings Can Be Misunderstood
92(2)
Language Can Shape Our Attitudes
94(1)
Language Can Cause Polarization
95(1)
Language Can Be Sexist
96(3)
Culture Affects Language Use
99(1)
How to Use Language Effectively
100(6)
Use Accurate Language
100(2)
Use Vivid Language
102(1)
Use Immediate Language
103(1)
Use Appropriate Language
104(1)
Use Metaphorical Language
104(2)
Summary
106(1)
Discussion Starters
106(1)
Notes
107(1)
Connecting through Nonverbal Communication
108(30)
What Is Nonverbal Communication?
110(1)
Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication
111(4)
Nonverbal Communication Occurs Constantly
111(1)
Nonverbal Communication Depends on Context
112(1)
Nonverbal Communication Is More Believable than Verbal Communication
112(1)
Nonverbal Communication Is a Primary Means of Expression
113(1)
Nonverbal Communication Is Related to Culture
114(1)
Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous
114(1)
Functions of Nonverbal Communication
115(3)
Complementing Verbal Behavior
115(1)
Repeating Verbal Behavior
116(1)
Regulating Verbal Behavior
116(1)
Substituting for Verbal Behavior
116(1)
Deceiving
116(2)
Types of Nonverbal Communication
118(14)
Facial Expressions and Body Movements
118(5)
Physical Characteristics
123(2)
Touch
125(2)
Space
127(2)
Time
129(1)
Paralanguage/Vocalics
129(1)
Silence
130(1)
Smell
131(1)
Artifacts
131(1)
Environment
132(1)
Interpreting and Improving Nonverbal Communication
132(3)
Improving Our Interpretation of Nonverbal Communication
133(1)
Improving the Nonverbal Communication We Send
134(1)
Summary
135(1)
Discussion Starters
136(1)
Notes
136(2)
Connecting Listening and Thinking in the Communication Process
138(24)
The Importance of Effective Listening
141(2)
Listening and Hearing: Is There a Difference?
143(1)
The Stages of Effective Listening
144(4)
Hearing
144(1)
Understanding
145(1)
Remembering
145(1)
Interpreting
145(1)
Evaluating
145(1)
Responding: Sending Feedback
146(2)
The Functions of Listening
148(2)
Listening to Obtain Information
149(1)
Listening to Evaluate
149(1)
Listening with Empathy
149(1)
Listening for Enjoyment
150(1)
Barriers to Effective Listening
150(3)
Considering the Topic or Speaker Uninteresting
150(1)
Criticizing the Speaker Instead of the Message
151(1)
Concentrating on Details, Not Main Ideas
151(1)
Avoiding Difficult Listening Situations
151(1)
Tolerating or Failing to Adjust to Distractions
152(1)
Faking Attention
152(1)
Critical Listening and Critical Thinking: Analyzing and Evaluating Messages
153(2)
Assessing the Speaker's Motivation
154(1)
Judging the Accuracy of the Speaker's Conclusions
155(1)
Improving Listening Competence
155(1)
Listening and Technology
156(2)
Intercultural Listening
158(1)
Summary
159(1)
Discussion Starters
160(1)
Notes
160(2)
PART TWO Connecting in the Public Context
Selecting a Topic and Relating to the Audience
162(28)
Selecting a Speech Topic
165(8)
Selecting an Appropriate Topic
166(1)
Techniques for Finding a Topic
167(5)
Assessing the Appropriateness of a Topic
172(1)
Narrowing the Topic
173(1)
Determining the General Purpose, Specific Purpose, and Thesis of a Speech
173(6)
The General Purpose
174(2)
The Specific Purpose
176(2)
The Thesis
178(1)
Relating to the Audience
179(10)
Understanding the Audience's Point of View
180(1)
Captive versus Voluntary Participants
180(1)
Key Audience Information
181(4)
Ways to Learn about the Audience
185(4)
Summary
189(1)
Discussion Starters
189(1)
Notes
189(1)
Gathering and Using Information
190(24)
Gathering Information
192(8)
Using Yourself as a Source of Information
192(1)
The Interview as a Source of Information
193(2)
The Library as a Source of Information
195(1)
Electronic Information Sources
196(1)
Surfing the Web: The Internet as a Source of Information
197(3)
Suggestions for Doing Research
200(1)
Using Research to Support and Clarify Ideas
200(11)
Testimony
203(2)
Examples
205(2)
Definitions
207(1)
Statistics
208(3)
Summary
211(1)
Discussion Starters
212(1)
Notes
212(2)
Organizing and Outlining Your Speech
214(36)
Organize the Body of Your Speech
216(11)
Develop the Main Points
217(3)
Order the Main Points
220(6)
Connect the Main Points
226(1)
Support the Main Points
227(1)
Organize the Introduction of Your Speech
227(6)
Orient the Audience to the Topic
228(2)
Motivate the Audience to Listen
230(1)
Forecast the Main Points
231(2)
Organize the Conclusion of Your Speech
233(3)
Show That You Are Finishing the Speech
234(1)
Make Your Thesis Clear
234(1)
Review the Main Points
234(1)
End with a Memorable Thought
234(2)
Outline Your Speech
236(12)
The Preliminary Outline
237(1)
The Full-Sentence Outline
238(5)
The Presentational Outline
243(5)
Summary
248(1)
Discussion Starters
248(1)
Answers and Explanations
248(1)
Notes
248(2)
Managing Anxiety and Delivering Your Speech
250(36)
Qualities of Effective Speakers
252(4)
Ethics
252(1)
Knowledge
253(1)
Preparation
254(2)
Self-Confidence
256(1)
Managing Speech Anxiety
256(7)
Communication Apprehension
257(1)
Symptoms of Speech Anxiety
257(1)
Causes of Speech Anxiety
258(1)
Speech Anxiety and Other Cultures
259(1)
Treating Speech Anxiety
260(3)
Methods of Delivery
263(4)
Impromptu Delivery
265(1)
Manuscript Delivery
265(1)
Memorized Delivery
265(1)
Extemporaneous Delivery
266(1)
Vocal and Physical Aspects of Delivery
267(7)
Vocal Aspects
267(3)
Physical Aspects
270(4)
Presentational Aids
274(10)
Choosing and Using Presentational Aids
275(1)
Kinds of Presentational Aids
275(5)
Methods of Presentation
280(2)
Computer-Generated Presentational Aids
282(1)
Developing Presentational Aids
283(1)
Your Delivery
284(1)
Summary
284(1)
Discussion Starters
285(1)
Notes
285(1)
Informative Speaking
286(30)
Information and Power
288(2)
Distinctions between Informative and Persuasive Speaking
290(1)
Topics for Informative Speeches
290(5)
Objects
292(1)
Processes
292(1)
Events
293(1)
Concepts
293(2)
Preparing and Developing an Informative Speech
295(10)
Gain and Maintain Audience Attention
295(3)
Increase Understanding of the Topic
298(4)
Hints for Effective Informative Speaking
302(3)
Evaluating the Informative Speech
305(4)
Topic
305(1)
General Requirements
306(1)
Audience Analysis
306(1)
Supporting Materials
307(1)
Organization
307(1)
Delivery
308(1)
Language Choice
308(1)
A Sample Informative Speech with Commentary
309(4)
Analysis and Evaluation
312(1)
Summary
313(1)
Discussion Starters
314(1)
Notes
314(1)
Appendix: Informative Speech Topics
315(1)
Persuasive Speaking
316(32)
The Goal of Persuasive Speaking
318(2)
Topics for Persuasive Speeches
320(5)
Questions of Fact
321(1)
Questions of Value
322(2)
Questions of Policy
324(1)
Persuasive Claims
325(1)
Establishing Credibility
326(3)
Competence
327(1)
Character
328(1)
Charisma
328(1)
Becoming Effective Consumers of Persuasion
329(1)
Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech
330(5)
Researching the Topic
331(1)
Organizing the Speech
331(1)
Supporting Materials
331(4)
Persuasive Strategies
335(1)
Fallacies in Argument Development
335(3)
Fallacies of Reason
336(1)
Fallacies of Evidence
336(2)
Evaluating the Persuasive Speech
338(4)
Topic
338(1)
General Requirements
338(1)
Audience Analysis
338(1)
Supporting Materials
339(1)
Organization
339(1)
Delivery
340(1)
Language Choice
340(2)
A Sample Persuasive Speech with Commentary
342(4)
Evaluation and Analysis
345(1)
Summary
346(1)
Discussion Starters
346(1)
Notes
346(1)
Appendix: Persuasive Speech Topics
347(1)
PART THREE Connecting in Relational Contexts
Interpersonal Communication
348(28)
Interpersonal Communication and Relationships
350(6)
Motivation and Need to Form Relationships
352(1)
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
352(1)
Predicted Outcome Value Theory
353(1)
Social Exchange Theory
353(1)
Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Theory
354(2)
Relationships: Getting to Know Others and Getting to Know Ourselves
356(6)
Learning about Others through Face-to-Face Relationships
356(3)
Learning about Others through Online Relationships
359(3)
Self-Disclosure in Relationships
362(10)
Self-Disclosure: The Process
362(1)
Johari Window Model
363(2)
Social Penetration Model
365(1)
Why Do We Self-Disclose?
366(1)
When Shouldn't We Self-Disclose Too Much?
366(1)
Self-Disclosure, Privacy, and Gender
367(2)
Cultural Issues in Self-Disclosure
369(1)
Rhetorical Sensitivity
370(1)
General Conclusions about Self-Disclosure
371(1)
Summary
372(1)
Discussion Starters
373(1)
Notes
374(2)
Developing Relationships
376(34)
Forming and Dissolving Relationships
379(16)
Interpersonal Attraction
379(1)
Physical Attributes
380(2)
Meeting on the Internet
382(1)
Knapp's Stages of Coming Together
383(3)
Knapp's Stages of Coming Apart
386(4)
Duck's Phases of Dissolution
390(2)
Dialectical Theory: Push and Pull
392(2)
Managing Relational Tensions
394(1)
Interpersonal Conflict
395(8)
What Causes Conflict?
395(2)
Does Conflict Have to Be Destructive?
397(1)
When Is Conflict Beneficial?
398(1)
What Are Useful Strategies for Conflict Management or Resolution in Interpersonal Relationships?
399(3)
Signs That Show a Relationship Is in Trouble
402(1)
Relational Repair Strategies
403(1)
Improving Communication Competence in Relationships
403(3)
Establish Supportive and Caring Relationships
404(1)
Nurture a Supportive Environment
405(1)
Invite More Communication
406(1)
Summary
406(1)
Discussion Starters
407(1)
Notes
407(3)
Group and Team Communication
410(26)
Small-Group Communication: Making the Connection
412(1)
What Is a Group?
413(1)
Group Formation: Why Do People Join Groups?
414(2)
Types and Purposes of Small Groups
416(3)
Primary Groups
416(1)
Secondary Groups
417(2)
Project or Work Teams
419(3)
Characteristics of Small Groups
422(4)
Interdependence
422(1)
Commitment
422(1)
Cohesiveness
423(1)
Group Size
423(1)
Group Norms
424(1)
Group Culture
425(1)
Gender Differences in Group Communication
426(1)
Ethical Behavior in Group Communication
427(1)
Technology and Groups
428(2)
Disadvantages of Small Groups
430(3)
Going Along to Get Along
430(2)
Time Consuming
432(1)
Varying Communication Styles
432(1)
Unfair Workloads
432(1)
Pressure to Fail
433(1)
Grouphate Phenomenon
433(1)
Summary
433(1)
Discussion Starters
434(1)
Notes
434(2)
Participating in Groups and Teams
436(27)
Team Building
438(2)
Setting Goals
438(1)
Determining Roles
439(1)
Leadership
440(6)
Leading a Group
440(1)
Leadership Styles and Behavior
441(3)
Leadership and Gender Differences
444(2)
Conducting a Meeting
446(1)
Member Participation
447(3)
Roles of Group Members
447(1)
Contributions of Group Members
448(2)
Problem Solving and Decision Making
450(6)
Determining the Problem
450(1)
Discussing the Problem
451(1)
Applying Reflexive Thinking to Problem Solving and Decision Making
452(2)
Brainstorming
454(1)
Brainstorming via Technology
454(1)
Reaching Group Consensus
455(1)
Managing Group Conflict
456(3)
Conflict and Group Communication
456(2)
Managing Conflict
458(1)
Ethical Behavior and Conflict
459(1)
Evaluating Small-Group Performance
459(1)
Summary
460(1)
Discussion Starters
461(1)
Notes
461(2)
Connecting to Mediated and Mass Communication available online at www.ablongman.com/seiler6e
Mediated Communication
Interpersonal and Group Messages
Ethics and Chat Rooms
Keep Your Perspective!
Public Messages
Mass Communication
Historical Perspective
Books
Newspapers
Magazines
Movies
Radio
Television
The Music Industry
The Internet
Distance Education
Summary
Discussion Starters
Notes
Connecting in the Organizational Context available online at www.ablongman.com/seiler6e
Organizations---What are They?
Organizational Communication
The Role of Organizations
Theories of Managing People in Organizations
Organizational Culture
Narratives and Stories
Rites and Rituals
Material Symbols
The Role of Technology in Today's Organizations
Issues Facing Organizations
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Starters
Notes
APPENDIX Employment Interviewing: Preparing for Your Future
463(22)
Preparing for Your Career
465(1)
Career Research on the Internet
466(1)
Choosing a Career
467(1)
Qualities Employers Seek
467(2)
Preparation for an Interview
469(8)
Writing a Resume
469(6)
Searching the Job Market
475(1)
Researching the Company via the Internet
475(1)
Developing Questions to Ask the Interviewer
476(1)
How to Dress for an Interview
477(1)
The Interview
477(4)
Frequently Asked Questions
478(3)
Other Considerations
481(1)
Factors Leading to Rejection
481(1)
Factors Leading to Job Offers
482(1)
Summary
482(1)
Discussion Starters
483(1)
Notes
483(2)
Index 485


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