9780199338351

Communication Research Methods

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780199338351

  • ISBN10:

    0199338353

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 10/14/2014
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Effective argumentation is at the very heart of communication and a key component to understanding and conducting communication research. Using clear language, concrete examples, and the Toulmin model of claim-data-warrants, Communication Research Methods introduces students to multiple ways of knowing, helps them think critically about communication, and provides them with the tools they need to explore the often murky depths of communication research.

Ideal for research methods courses covering multiple methodologies, this is the only text that uses a research-as-argument approach to help students become not only more effective researchers, but more insightful consumers of research.

Author Biography


Gerianne Merrigan is Professor of Communication Studies at San Francisco State University.

Carole L. Huston is Associate Provost and Professor of Communication Studies at the University of San Diego.

Table of Contents


Preface
Foreword

PART ONE: The What and Why of Communication Research

1. Introduction to Communication Research
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
Communication Theories
Theory and Research Methods
Everyday Ways of Knowing
Research Methods as Argument
Making Good Academic and Practical Arguments
Audiences for Communication Research
Professional Networks and Associations
Scholarly Journals
Trade Journals and Popular Press Publications
Two Academic Manuscripts: Research Reports and Critical Essays
Research Reports
Elements of Research Reports
Characteristics of Research Reports
Critical Essays
Elements of Critical Essay
Characteristics of Critical Essays
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

2. Three Paradigms of Knowing
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Methodological Ways of Knowing
The Dichotomy of Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Three Epistemological Paradigms
Interpreting Communication
Critiquing Communication
Discovering Communication
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

3. Ethics and Communication Research
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
A Brief History of Communication Ethics
Ethical Choices in Research
Before Doing Research: Motives for Projects and Topics
During Research Projects: Protecting the Rights of Research Participants
Right to Freely Choose Research Participation
Right to Privacy
Right to Be Treated With Honesty
Afterward: Reporting and Evaluating Research Ethically
Summary
Ethical Issues and Choices Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

4.Making Claims
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
The Process of Making Claims
Definition of Claim
Types of Claims
Interpretive Claims
Grounded theory
Hermeneutic circle
Evaluative and Reformist Claims
Explanatory and Predictive Claims
Research questions and hypotheses
Causal relationships: Independent and dependent variables
Associative relationships
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

5. What Counts as Communication Data?
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Data Collection Sources
Texts
Direct Observations of Communicative Behaviors
Self-Reports of Communicative Behaviors, Beliefs, and Characteristics
Other-Reports of Communicative Behaviors, Beliefs, and Characteristics
Data Collection Settings
Data Collection Strategies
Selecting Data Sources
Random Selection Methods
Nonrandom Selection Methods
Selection in Critical Studies
Capturing Observed Behaviors
Capturing Self-Reports and Other-Reports
Research Design
Design as a Bypassing Term
Cross-Sectional Research Designs
Longitudinal Research Designs
Triangulation & Mixed Methods Research
Multiple Data Sources
Multiple Data Settings
Multiple Data Collection Strategies
Multiple Data Analytic Strategies
Multiple Investigators' Viewpoints
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

6. Warrants for Research Arguments
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Interpretive Paradigm Warrants
Interpretive Values: Subjectivity and Rich Description
Form of Argument: Demonstrating Multiple Realities
Researcher Credibility as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Training and Experience
Degree of Membership
Faithfulness
Plausible Interpretations as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Adequacy of Evidence
Coherence
Negative Case Analysis
Transferable Findings as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Confirmability
Relevance
Critical Paradigm Warrants
Emancipatory Values: Voice and Liberation
Form of Argument: Demonstrating Ideological Need for Change
Coherence as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Researcher Positionality as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Change in Awareness & Praxis as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Discovery Paradigm Warrants
Scientific Values: Precision, Power, and Parsimony
Form of Argument: Demonstrating Causality
Validity as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Bias: A Threat to Accurate Measurement
Types of Measurement Validity
Content validity
Face validity
Criterion-related validity
Construct validity
External validity
Reliability as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
Noise: A Threat to Consistent Measurement
Types of Measurement Reliability
Three Views of Truth
Interpretive Paradigm
Critical Paradigm
Discovery Paradigm
Summary
Warrants for Research Arguments Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

PART TWO: How to Interpret & Critique Communication

7. Ethnography: How to Interpret Participants' Realities
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
The Roots of Interpretive Field Research in Ethnomethodology
Paradigm Affiliations
Levels of Analysis
Emphasis on Context in Analysis?
Ethnographic Claims
Interpretive Claims
Evaluative and Reformist Claims
Ethnographic Data
Sources for Data Collection
Participant Observation
Interviews with Key Informants
Archival Documents
Artifacts
Strategies for Data Collection
Gaining Access to the Setting
Selecting Key Informants
Taking Field Notes
Exiting the Field
Strategies for Data Analysis
Transcribing Interviews
Coding and Reducing Field Notes
Applying Descriptive Frameworks
Writing Case Studies
Ethical Issues for Ethnographers
Ethnographic Warrants
Valuing Subjectivity and Rich Description
Researcher Credibility
Degree of Membership
Faithfulness
Plausible Interpretations
Adequacy and Coherence of Evidence
Negative Case Analysis
Transferable Findings
Coherence and Researcher Positionality for Critical Ethnographic Research
Coherence
Researcher Positionality
Ethnographic Research Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

8. Conversation and Discourse Analysis: How to Explain and Interpret Talk
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Conversation Analytic Claims
Turn Taking
Adjacency Pairs
Preference
Repair
Action Sequences
Discourse Analytic Claims
Interpreting Interactional Accomplishments
Facework
Role and Identity Performances
Interpreting Social Practices and Entities
Conversation and Discourse Analytic Data
Collecting Interactive Discourse
Recording Techniques
Ethical Issues
Transcribing Interactive Discourse
Notating Transcripts
Formatting Transcripts
Transcription Programs
Collecting Narrative Discourse
Determining the Unit of Analysis
Analytic Induction
Conversation Analytic Warrants
Transcription Veracity
Detail Level
Sample Representativeness
Discourse Analytic Warrants
Researcher Credibility
Plausible Interpretations
Transferable Findings
More Ethical Issues in CA/DA Research
Conversation Analysis Summary Table
Discourse Analysis Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities for CA
"Try It!" Activity for DA

9. Rhetorical Criticism: How to Interpret Persuasive Texts & Artifacts
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Rhetorical Theory and Rhetorical Criticism
Neoclassical Analysis and Genre Criticism
Neoclassical Criticism
Claims and Data
Invention
Organization
Style
Delivery
Memory
Warrants
Genre Criticism
Traditional Aristotelian Genre
Claims and Data
New Approaches to Genre Studies
Warrants
Interpretive Rhetorical Criticism
Metaphoric Criticism
Claims and Data
Warrants
Dramatism
Claims and Data
Act
Scene
Agent
Agency
Purpose
Warrants
Narrative Analysis
Claims and Data
Warrants
New Directions for Rhetorical Criticism
Recondisering Rhetorical Contexts
Audiences and the Nature of the Public Sphere
Ethical Concerns in Rhetorical Criticism
Rhetorical Criticism Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

10. How to Critique Texts
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
New Directions: Bridges from Interpreting to Critiquing Texts
Communication as Performative and Ideological
Communication as Social Change
Claims in Critical and Cultural Studies
Evaluating and Reforming Social Structures
Marxist Criticism
Gender and Feminist Criticism
Evaluating and Reinventing Discourse Processes
Postmodern Criticism
Cultural Criticism
Semiotic Criticism
Data/Evidence in Critical Studies
Actions and Events
Texts
Researchers' Experiences and Beliefs
Analytic Moves in Critical Studies
Deconstruction
Narrative Analyses
Warrants for Critical Studies
Establishing Coherence
Establishing Researcher Positionality
Establishing Impact: Changes in Awareness and Praxis
Ethical Issues in Critiquing Texts
Critical Studies Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

PART THREE: How to Discover Communication

11. How to Design Discovery Research
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Research Design as the Essential Framework
Measurement
Conceptual and Operational Definitions
Levels of Measurement
Nominal Level
Ordinal Level
Interval Level
Ratio Level
Building Arguments Through Research Designs
Causal and Associative Arguments
Experimental Research Design
Design Elements
Comparison Groups
Random Selection and Assignment (sampling issues)
Pretesting
Types of Designs
Preexperimental Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs
True Experimental Designs
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

12. Content Analysis
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Content Analytic Claims
Explaining and Predicting Message Content
Data for Content Analysis
Selecting a Representative Sample of Messages
Encoding Texts
Data Treatment for Content Analysis
Unitizing Messages
Categorizing Messages
A Sample Coding Scheme
Content Data Analysis
Warrants for Content Analysis
Intercoder Reliability
Validity of the Coding Scheme
External Validity
Coder Training
Sample Representativeness
Ethical Issues in Content Analytic Research
Content Analysis Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

13. Survey Research
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Survey Research Claims
Explaining and Predicting Attitudes and Behaviors
Survey Research Data
Sources for Data Collection
Settings for Data Collection
Laboratory and Field Settings
Basic and Applied Research
Three Types of Applied Survey Research
Data Sampling Strategies
Random Selection Methods
Nonrandom or Purposive Selection Methods
Capturing Self-Reports and Other-Reports
Types of Survey Interviews
Formats for Survey Interviews
Training Survey Interviewers
Questionnaires
General structure of questionnaires
Formats for survey questions
Instrumentation and the Measurement of Survey Data
Operationalization of Variables
Levels of Measurement
Data Collection and Analysis Online: Qualtrix & Survey Monkey
Data Analysis Software Offline: Free Ware
Survey Research Warrants
Response Rate as an Essential Contributor to Validity
Establishing Valid Measurement
Establishing Reliable Measurement
Ethical Issues in Survey Research
Survey Research Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

14. How to Conduct Experimental Research
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Experimental Research Claims
Deductive Process
Explaining and Predicting Cause and Effect Sequences
Experimental Research Data
Data Sources
Data Settings
Research Designs for Causal Arguments
Data Collection and Analysis
Data Collection Strategies
Analysis of Variable Effects
Experimental Research Warrants
Controlling Rival Hypotheses
Internal Validity Threats
Time Progression Effects
History
Maturation
Mortality
Statistical regression
Testing
Instrumentation
Reactivity Effects
Selection
Treatment diffusion
Compensatory behavior
Researcher attributes
Demand characteristics
Evaluation apprehension
External Validity Threats
Sample Representativeness
Setting Appropriateness
Ethics in Experimental Research
Experimental Research Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

15. Descriptive Statistics and Hypothesis Testing
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
How to Describe Sample Data
Visual Representations of Variables
Nominal and Ordinal Data
Pie charts
Bar charts
Interval and Ratio Data
Histograms
Frequency Polygons
Some Ethical Issues
Numerical Representations of Variables
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode
Measures of Shape
Skew
Kurtosis
Measures of Dispersion
Range
Variance
Standard deviation
Using Excel and SPSS
Excel
SPSS
Some Ethical Issues?
How to Estimate Population Differences and Relationships Using Sample Data: The Logic of Hypothesis Testing
Three Types of Distributions
Sample Distributions
Population Distributions
Sampling Distributions
Estimation and Inference
The Logic of Hypothesis Testing
Central Limits Theorem
The Normal Curve
Areas under the Normal Curve
Standard Error
Confidence interval and level
Steps to Testing Hypotheses
Formulating Hypotheses
The research hypothesis
The null hypothesis
Framing Decisions Based on Likelihood of Error
Calculating the Test Statistic
Deciding to Accept or Reject the Null Hypothesis
Descriptive Statistics Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

16. Inferential Statistics: Differences and Relationships
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Outline
Tests of Differences
Nonparametric Tests
Nature of Data and Assumptions
Chi-Square
Single-sample chi-square
Multiple-sample chi-square
SPSS and Excel chi-square steps
Interpreting the results and APA formatting
Parametric Tests
Nature of Data and Assumptions
t-Test
Independent and paired samples
SPSS t-test
Excel t-test
Interpreting the results and APA formatting
Analysis of Variance
One-way ANOVA
SPSS Oneway ANOVA steps
Multiple Comparisons
Excel Oneway ANOVA steps
Interpreting results and APA formatting
Two-way (and greater) ANOVAs
Tests of Relationships
Correlation
Nature of Data and Assumptions
Point-Biserial Correlation
SPSS and Excel Pearson Correlation
Interpreting results and APA formatting
Causal Associations: Regression Analysis
Nature of data and assumptions
SPSS and Excel Simple Regression
Interpreting the results and APA formatting
Types of regression analysis
Two Ethical Issues
Inferential Statistics Summary Table
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

Glossary
References
Index

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