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Communication Systems Engineering

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130617934

ISBN10:
0130617938
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/21/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Thorough coverage of basic digital communication system principles ensures that readers are exposed to all basic relevant topics in digital communication system design. The use of CD player and JPEG image coding standard as examples of systems that employ modern communication principles allows readers to relate the theory to practical systems. Over 180 worked-out examples throughout the book aids readers in understanding basic concepts. Over 480 problems involving applications to practical systems such as satellite communications systems, ionospheric channels, and mobile radio channels gives readers ample opportunity to practice the concepts they have just learned.With an emphasis on digital communications,Communication Systems Engineering, Second Editionintroduces the basic principles underlying the analysis and design of communication systems. In addition, this book gives a solid introduction to analog communications and a review of important mathematical foundation topics. New material has been added on wireless communication systemsGSM and CDMA/IS-94; turbo codes and iterative decoding; multicarrier (OFDM) systems; multiple antenna systems. Includes thorough coverage of basic digital communication system principlesincluding source coding, channel coding, baseband and carrier modulation, channel distortion, channel equalization, synchronization, and wireless communications. Includes basic coverage of analog modulation such as amplitude modulation, phase modulation, and frequency modulation as well as demodulation methods.For use as a reference for electrical engineers for all basic relevant topics in digital communication system design.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction
1(23)
Historical Review
1(3)
Elements of an Electrical Communication System
4(8)
Digital Communication System
7(3)
Early Work in Digital Communications
10(2)
Communication Channels and Their Characteristics
12(7)
Mathematical Models for Communication Channels
19(3)
Organization of the Book
22(1)
Further Reading
23(1)
Frequency Domain Analysis of Signals and Systems
24(46)
Fourier Series
24(7)
Fourier Series for Real Signals: The Trigonometric Fourier Series
29(2)
Fourier Transforms
31(9)
Fourier Transform of Real, Even, and Odd Signals
35(1)
Basic Properties of the Fourier Transform
36(3)
Fourier Transform for Periodic Signals
39(1)
Power and Energy
40(5)
Energy-Type Signals
41(1)
Power-Type Signals
42(3)
Sampling of Bandlimited Signals
45(4)
Bandpass Signals
49(8)
Further Reading
57(13)
Problems
57(13)
Analog Signal Transmission and Reception
70(74)
Introduction to Modulation
70(1)
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
71(25)
Double-Sideband Suppressed Carrier AM
71(7)
Conventional Amplitude Modulation
78(3)
Single-Sideband AM
81(4)
Vestigial-Sideband AM
85(3)
Implementation of AM Modulators and Demodulators
88(6)
Signal Multiplexing
94(2)
Angle Modulation
96(19)
Representation of FM and PM Signals
97(4)
Spectral Characteristics of Angle-Modulated Signals
101(6)
Implementation of Angle Modulators and Demodulators
107(8)
Radio and Television Broadcasting
115(13)
AM Radio Broadcasting
115(1)
FM Radio Broadcasting
116(4)
Television Broadcasting
120(8)
Mobile Radio Systems
128(3)
Further Reading
131(13)
Problems
131(13)
Random Processes
144(73)
Probability and Random Variables
144(15)
Random Processes: Basic Concepts
159(18)
Description of Random Processes
162(2)
Statistical Averages
164(2)
Stationary Processes
166(8)
Random Processes and Linear Systems
174(3)
Random Processes in the Frequency Domain
177(9)
Power Spectrum of Stochastic Processes
177(6)
Transmission over LTI Systems
183(3)
Gaussian and White Processes
186(6)
Gaussian Processes
186(2)
White Processes
188(4)
Bandlimited Processes and Sampling
192(2)
Bandpass Processes
194(7)
Further Reading
201(16)
Problems
202(15)
Effect of Noise on Analog Communication Systems
217(50)
Effect of Noise on Linear-Modulation Systems
217(8)
Effect of Noise on a Baseband System
218(1)
Effect of Noise on DSB-SC AM
218(2)
Effect of Noise on SSB AM
220(1)
Effect of Noise on Conventional AM
221(4)
Carrier-Phase Estimation with a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
225(9)
The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
226(3)
Effect of Additive Noise on Phase Estimation
229(5)
Effect of Noise on Angle Modulation
234(17)
Threshold Effect in Angle Modulation
244(4)
Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis Filtering
248(3)
Comparison of Analog-Modulation Systems
251(1)
Effects of Transmission Losses and Noise in Analog Communication Systems
252(9)
Characterization of Thermal Noise Sources
253(1)
Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure
254(3)
Transmission Losses
257(1)
Repeaters for Signal Transmission
258(3)
Further Reading
261(6)
Problems
261(6)
Information Sources and Source Coding
267(73)
Modeling of Information Sources
268(5)
Measure of Information
269(2)
Joint and Conditional Entropy
271(2)
Source-Coding Theorem
273(3)
Source-Coding Algorithms
276(6)
The Huffman Source-Coding Algorithm
276(4)
The Lempel-Ziv Source-Coding Algorithm
280(2)
Rate-Distortion Theory
282(8)
Mutual Information
283(1)
Differential Entropy
284(1)
Rate-Distortion Function
285(5)
Quantization
290(12)
Scalar Quantization
291(9)
Vector Quantization
300(2)
Waveform Coding
302(10)
Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM)
302(5)
Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (DPCM)
307(3)
Delta Modulation (ΔM)
310(2)
Analysis-Synthesis Techniques
312(4)
Digital Audio Transmission and Digital Audio Recording
316(7)
Digital Audio in Telephone Transmission Systems
317(2)
Digital Audio Recording
319(4)
The JPEG Image-Coding Standard
323(4)
Further Reading
327(13)
Problems
327(13)
Digital Transmission Through the Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel
340(134)
Geometric Representation of Signal Waveforms
341(4)
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
345(5)
Two-dimensional Signal Waveforms
350(10)
Baseband Signals
350(4)
Two-dimensional Bandpass Signals-Carrier-Phase Modulation
354(3)
Two-dimensional Bandpass Signals-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
357(3)
Multidimensional Signal Waveforms
360(10)
Orthogonal Signal Waveforms
360(5)
Biorthogonal Signal Waveforms
365(1)
Simplex Signal Waveforms
366(1)
Binary-Coded Signal Waveforms
367(3)
Optimum Receiver for Digitally Modulated Signals in Additive White Gaussian Noise
370(35)
Correlation-Type Demodulator
370(5)
Matched-Filter-Type Demodulator
375(6)
The Optimum Detector
381(5)
Demodulation and Detection of Carrier-Amplitude Modulated Signals
386(2)
Demodulation and Detection of Carrier-Phase Modulated Signals
388(8)
Demodulation and Detection of Quadrature Amplitude Modulated Signals
396(2)
Demodulation and Detection of Frequency-Modulated Signals
398(7)
Probability of Error for Signal Detection in Additive White Gaussian Noise
405(31)
Probability of Error for Binary Modulation
405(3)
Probability of Error for M-ary PAM
408(5)
Probability of Error for Phase-Coherent PSK Modulation
413(4)
Probability of Error for DPSK
417(1)
Probability of Error for QAM
418(5)
Probability of Error for M-ary Orthogonal Signals
423(5)
Probability of Error for M-ary Biorthogonal Signals
428(1)
Probability of Error for M-ary Simplex Signals
429(1)
Probability of Error for Noncoherent Detection of FSK
430(2)
Comparison of Modulation Methods
432(4)
Performance Analysis for Wireline and Radio Communication Channels
436(6)
Regenerative Repeaters
437(1)
Link Budget Analysis for Radio Channels
438(4)
Symbol Synchronization
442(10)
Early-Late Gate Synchronizers
443(2)
Minimum Mean-Square-Error Method
445(3)
Maximum-Likelihood Methods
448(1)
Spectral Line Methods
449(2)
Symbol Synchronization for Carrier-Modulated Signals
451(1)
Further Reading
452(22)
Problems
453(21)
Digital Transmission Through Bandlimited Awgn Channels
474(102)
Digital Transmission through Bandlimited Channels
474(8)
Digital PAM Transmission through Bandlimited Baseband Channels
478(2)
Digital Transmission through Bandlimited Bandpass Channels
480(2)
The Power Specturm of Digitally Modulated Signals
482(8)
The Power Spectrum of the Baseband Signal
483(5)
The Power Spectrum of a Carrier-Modulated Signal
488(2)
Signal Design for Bandlimited Channels
490(9)
Design of Bandlimited Signals for Zero ISI-The Nyquist Criterion
492(5)
Design of Bandlimited Signals with Controlled ISI-Partial Response Signals
497(2)
Probability of Error in Detection of Digital PAM
499(8)
Probability of Error for Detection of Digital PAM with Zero ISI
500(1)
Symbol-by-Symbol Detection of Data with Controlled ISI
501(3)
Probability of Error for Detection of Partial Response Signals
504(3)
Digitally Modulated Signals with Memory
507(27)
Modulation Codes and Modulation Signals with Memory
508(13)
The Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detector
521(4)
Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detection of Partial Response Signals
525(5)
The Power Spectrum of Digital Signals with Memory
530(4)
System Design in the Presence of Channel Distortion
534(22)
Design of Transmitting and Receiving Filters for a Known Channel
535(3)
Channel Equalization
538(18)
Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM
556(4)
An OFDM System Implemented via the FFT Algorithm
557(3)
Further Reading
560(16)
Problems
561(15)
Channel Capacity and Coding
576(98)
Modeling of Communication Channels
576(3)
Channel Capacity
579(7)
Gaussian Channel Capacity
583(3)
Bounds on Communication
586(5)
Transmission of Analog Sources by PCM
590(1)
Coding for Reliable Communication
591(10)
A Tight Bound on Error Probability of Orthogonal Signals
592(3)
The Promise of Coding
595(6)
Linear Block Codes
601(14)
Decoding and Performance of Linear Block Codes
606(8)
Burst-Error-Correcting-Codes
614(1)
Cyclic Codes
615(8)
The Structure of Cyclic Codes
615(8)
Convolutional Codes
623(15)
Basic Properties of Convolutional Codes
624(5)
Optimum Decoding of Convolutional Codes-The Viterbi Algorithm
629(5)
Other Decoding Algorithms for Convolutional Codes
634(1)
Bounds on Error Probability of Convolutional Codes
634(4)
Complex Codes Based on Combination of Simple Codes
638(8)
Product Codes
639(1)
Concatenated Codes
640(1)
Turbo Codes
640(2)
The BCJR Algorithm
642(2)
Performance of Turbo Codes
644(2)
Coding for Bandwidth-Constrained Channels
646(9)
Combined Coding and Modulation
647(2)
Trellis-Coded Modulation
649(6)
Practical Applications of Coding
655(6)
Coding for Deep-Space Communications
656(1)
Coding for Telephone-Line Modems
657(1)
Coding for Compact Discs
658(3)
Further Reading
661(13)
Problems
661(13)
Wireless Communications
674(108)
Digital Transmission on Fading Multipath Channels
674(28)
Channel Models for Time-Variant Multipath Channels
676(8)
Signal Design for Fading Multipath Channels
684(2)
Performance of Binary Modulation in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading Channels
686(3)
Performance Improvement Through Signal Diversity
689(5)
Modulation and Demodulation on Frequency Selective Channels-The RAKE Demodulator
694(3)
Multiple Antenna Systems and Space-Time Codes
697(5)
Continuous Carrier-Phase Modulation
702(27)
Continuous-Phase FSK (CPFSK)
702(9)
Continuous-Phase Modulation (CPM)
711(4)
Spectral Characteristics of CPFSK and CPM Signals
715(5)
Demodulation and Detection of CPM Signals
720(6)
Performance of CPM in AWGN and Rayleigh Fading Channels
726(3)
Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems
729(37)
Model of a Spread-Spectrum Digital Communication System
730(1)
Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems
731(11)
Some Applications of DS Spread-Spectrum Signals
742(4)
Effect of Pulsed Interference and Fading
746(2)
Generation of PN Sequences
748(4)
Frequency-Hopped Spread Spectrum
752(6)
Synchronization of Spread-Spectrum Systems
758(8)
Digital Cellular Communication Systems
766(8)
The GSM System
766(2)
CDMA System Based on IS-95
768(6)
Further Reading
774(8)
Problems
775(7)
Appendix A: The Probability of Error for Multichannel Reception of Binary Signals 782(3)
References 785(9)
Index 794

Excerpts

The objective of this book is to provide an introduction to the basic principles in the analysis and design of communication systems. It is primarily intended for use as a text for a first course in communications, either at a senior level or at a first-year graduate level. BROAD TOPICAL COVERAGE Although we have placed a very strong emphasis on digital communications, we have provided a review of important mathematical foundational topics and a solid introduction to analog communications. The major topics covered are: A review of frequency domain analysis of signals and systems, and the characterization of random processes ( Chapters 2 and 4) An introduction to analog signal transmission and reception ( Chapters 3 and 5) An introduction to digital communications ( Chapters 6-10) EMPHASIS ON DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS Our motivation for emphasizing digital communications is due to the technological developments that have occurred during the past five decades. Today, digital communication systems are in common use and generally carry the bulk of our daily information transmission through a variety of communications media, such as wireline telephone channels, microwave radio, fiber optic channels, and satellite channels. We are currently witnessing an explosive growth in the development of personal communication systems and ultrahigh speed communication networks, which are based on digital transmission of the information, whether it is voice, still images, or video. We anticipate that, in the near future, we will witness a replacement of the current analog AM and FM radio and television broadcast by digital transmission systems. The development of sophisticated, high-speed digital communication systems has been accelerated by concurrent developments in inexpensive high speed integrated circuits (IC) and programmable digital signal processing chips. The developments in Microelectronic IC fabrication have made possible the implementation of high-speed, high precision A/D converters, of powerful error-correcting coders/decoders, and of complex digital modulation techniques. All of these technological developments point to a continuation in the trend toward increased use of digital communications as a means for transmitting information. OVERVIEW OF THE TEXT It is assumed that students using this book have a basic understanding of linear system theory, both continuous and discrete, including a working knowledge of Fourier series and Fourier transform techniques. Chapter 2 provides a review of basic material on signals and systems and establishes the necessary notation used in subsequent chapters. It is also assumed that students have had a first course in probability. Such courses are currently required in many undergraduate electrical engineering and computer engineering programs. Chapter 4 provides a review of probability and random processes to the extent that is necessary for a first course in communications. Chapter 3 treats modulation and demodulation of analog signals. This treatment includes amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM),and phase modulation (PM).Radio and television broadcasting and mobile radio cellular systems are discussed as examples of analog communication systems. Chapter 5 continues the treatment of analog communication systems by analyzing the effect of additive noise in the demodulation of AM, FM, and PM signals. The phase-locked loop, which is used for estimating the phase of a sinusoidal carrier in both analog and digital communication systems is also described in Chapter 5. The chapter concludes with a treatment of the effect of transmission losses and the characterization of noise sources in communication systems. A logical beginning in the introduction of digital communication systems analysis and design is the characterization of information sources and source encoding. Chapter 6 is devoted to this topic. In this chapter we introduce the reader to the modeling of information sources, both discrete and continuous (analog), and the basic mathematical concepts of entropy and mutual information. Our discussion of source encoding for discrete sources includes the Huffman coding algorithm and the Lempel-Ziv algorithm. For the case of analog sources, we treat both scalar and vector quantization and describe the common waveform-coding techniques, namely, PCM, DPCM, and DM. We also describe the LPC-based source modeling method. As practical examples of the sourcecoding methods described in this chapter we cite the digital speech transmission systems in the telephone plant, the digital audio recording systems as embodied in the compact disc (CD) player and the JPEG image-coding standard. Digital modulation and demodulation techniques are described in Chapter 7. Binary and nonbinary modulation methods are described based on a geometric representation of signals, and their error-rate performance is evaluated and compared. This chapter also describes symbol synchronization methods for digital communication systems. Chapter 8 treats digital transmission through bandlimited AWGN channels. In this chapter we derive the power-spectral density of linearly modulated baseband signals and consider the problem of signal design for a bandlimited channel. We show that the effect of channel distortion is to introduce intersymbol interference (ISI), which can be eliminated or minimized by proper signal design. The use of linear and nonlinear adaptive equalizers for reducing the effect of ISI is also described. Chapter 9 treats the topic of channel coding and decoding. The capacity of a communication channel is first defined, and the capacity of the Gaussian channel is determined. Linear block codes and convolutional codes are introduced and appropriate decoding algorithms are described. The benefits of coding for bandwidth constrained channels are also described. The final section of this chapter presents three practical applications of coding. The last chapter of this book treats topics in wireless communications. First, we consider the characterization of fading multipath channels and describe the effects of such channels on wireless digital communication systems. The design of signals that are effective in mitigating this type of channel distortion is also considered. Second, we describe the class of continuous-phase modulated signals, which are especially suitable for digital communication in wireless channels. Finally, we treat the class of spreadspectrum signals, which are suitable for mufti-user wireless communication systems. EXAMPLES AND HOMEWORK PROBLEMS We have included a large number of carefully chosen examples and homework problems. The text contains over 180 worked-out examples and over 480 problems. Examples and problems range from simple exercises to more challenging and thought-provoking problems. A Solutions Manual is available free to all adopting faculty, which is provided in both typeset form and as a diskette formatted in LATEX. Solutions are not available for sale to students. This will enable instructors to print out solutions in any configuration easily. COURSE OPTIONS This book can serve as a text in either a one- or two-semester course in communication system. An important consideration in the design of the course is whether or not the students have had a prior course in probability and random processes. Another important consideration is whether or not analog modulation and demodulation techniques are to be covered. Here, we outline three scenarios. Others are certainly possible. A one-term course in analog and digital communication: Selected review sections from Chapters 2 and 4, all of chapters 3, 5, 7, and 8, and selections from chapters 6, 9, and 10. A one-term course in digital communica


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