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Community Psychology

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205350261

ISBN10:
0205350267
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Community Psychology provides students with an introduction to the concepts, theories, and research emerging in the field of community psychology. Historical and alternative methods of effecting social change are explored in this book through an examination of the mental health system, the educational system, the criminal justice system, and the social service system. The central theme underlying all of the chapters is the idea that the setting or environment is as important as the individual in it. Community Psychology focuses on the importance of and strategies for producing social change in order to allow students to discover how community psychology interventions solve community problems, and how the principles of prevent and empowerment can be shifted from one community arena to another.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
About the Authors xv
PART I INTRODUCTION
Introduction to Community Psychology
1(24)
Brief Historical Background
3(4)
Case in Point 1.1 Clinical Psychology, Community Psychology: What's the Difference?
5(2)
Philosophy and Goals of Community Psychology
7(12)
Prevention Rather than Treatment
8(2)
Case in Point 1.2 Does Primary Prevention Work?
10(1)
Emphasis on Strengths and Competencies
11(1)
Importance of the Ecological Perspective
11(1)
Respect for Diversity
12(1)
Empowerment
13(1)
Choice among Alternatives
14(1)
Action Research
15(1)
Social Change
15(1)
Collaboration with and Integration of Other Disciplines
15(1)
A Sense of Community
16(1)
Case in Point 1.3 Social Psychology, Community Psychology, and Homelessness
16(3)
Community Psychology Today: Progress in the Field
19(1)
Community Psychology Today: What's in it for you?
20(2)
Undergraduate Education
20(2)
Advanced Training in Community Psychology
22(1)
Plan of the Book
22(2)
Summary
24(1)
Scientific Research Methods
25(29)
The Essence of Scientific Research
26(12)
Why Do Scientific Research?
27(1)
What Is Scientific Research?
27(3)
Case in Point 2.1 A Theory of Substance Abuse and HIV/STDs That Incorporates the Principles of Community Psychology
30(5)
The Fidelity of Scientific Research
35(2)
Community Researchers as Consultants
37(1)
Traditional Scientific Research Methods
38(3)
Correlational Research
38(2)
Experimental Research
40(1)
Quasi-Experimental Research
40(1)
Other Research Methods Used in Community Psychology
41(5)
Ethnography
41(1)
Case in Point 2.2 Cracking Network
42(1)
Epidemiology
43(1)
Needs Assessment and Program Evaluation
44(2)
The Urgency of Research in Community Psychology and Related Pitfalls
46(6)
The Politics of Science and the Science of Politics
46(1)
Ethics: Cultural Relativism or Universal Human Rights?
47(2)
The Continuum of Research: The Value of Multiple Measures
49(1)
Case in Point 2.3 Creating a Uniform Data Set for Racial and Ethnic Minority Health in the United States: Some Guiding Principles
50(2)
The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity
52(1)
Summary
52(2)
PART II SOCIAL CHANGE
The Importance of Social Change
54(18)
Reasons for Social Change
56(7)
Diverse Populations
56(1)
Declining Resources
57(1)
Accountability
58(1)
Case in Point 3.1 Funding Dilemmas for Nonprofit Organizations
58(1)
Knowledge-Based and Technological Change
59(1)
Community Conflict
60(1)
Dissatisfaction with Traditional Services
61(1)
Case in Point 3.2 Community Conflict: Adversity Turns to Opportunity
62(1)
Desire for Diversity of Solutions
62(1)
Types of Social Change
63(5)
Spontaneous or Unplanned Social Change
64(1)
Planned Social Change
65(1)
Issues Related to Planned Change
66(2)
Why Change Plans Fail
68(2)
Summary
70(2)
Creating and Sustaining Social Change
72(22)
Creating Planned Change
73(1)
Citizen Participation
74(6)
Case in Point 4.1 The Community Development Society
75(1)
Issues Related to Citizen Participation
76(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Citizen Participation
79(1)
Networking
80(3)
Case in Point 4.2 Grass-Roots Activism on a College Campus
81(1)
Issues Related to Networks
82(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Networks
82(1)
Professional Change Agents: Consultants
83(2)
Issues Related to Consultants
83(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Consultants
84(1)
The Use of Education and Information Dissemination to Produce Social Change
85(3)
Issues Related to Information Dissemination
86(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Change
87(1)
Public Policy as a Means of Social Change
88(5)
Issues Related to the Use of Public Policy
89(1)
Case in Point 4.3 Rape Crisis Centers: A National Examination
90(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Policy Changes
92(1)
Summary
93(1)
PART III COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH
Stress, Coping, and Social Support: Toward Community Mental Health
94(21)
Historical Notes on Mental Health and Mental Disorder
95(4)
The Medical Model: Psychoanalysis
95(1)
The Behavioral Model: The Social-Learning Approach
96(1)
The Humanistic Model
97(1)
Case in Point 5.1 Mental Health Care Professionals
98(1)
Stress
99(2)
A Definition
99(1)
Physical Responses to Stress
99(1)
Psychological Responses to Stress
100(1)
Factors that Influence Adjustment and Coping
101(3)
Life Events as Sources of Stress
101(1)
Hassles of Daily Life as Stressors
101(1)
Chronic versus Acute Stress
102(1)
The Environment
102(1)
The Physical Environment
102(1)
The Psychosocial Environment
103(1)
Primary Prevention: Coping Strategies
104(10)
Primary Prevention as Science or Pseudoscience
104(1)
Social Support
105(1)
Issues Related to Social Support
106(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Support Groups and Social Support
109(1)
Information and Education about Mental Health
110(1)
Case in Point 5.2 Caregiving: The Cost of Healing
111(2)
Sports, Recreation, and Exercise
113(1)
Summary
114(1)
The Mentally Disordered: A Place in the Community
115(23)
Historical Notes About Mental Disorders
116(3)
Deinstitutionalization
119(8)
The Many Aspects of Deinstitutionalization
120(3)
Case in Point 6.1 Rosenhan's Experiment about Stigmatization
123(1)
Common Alternatives to Institutionalization
124(1)
Measuring ``Success'' of Deinstitutionalized Persons
125(2)
Beyond Deinstitutionalization
127(9)
Changing Profiles and Populations
128(2)
The Privatization of Public Mental Health Delivery
130(1)
Model Programs for Individuals with Mental Disorders
131(4)
The Battle Continues: Where Do We Go from Here?
135(1)
Summary
136(2)
PART IV COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY IN OTHER SETTINGS
Social and Human Services in the Community
138(25)
Brief Historical Notes About Social Welfare in Western Society
140(6)
Case in Point 7.1 Poverty in America
140(2)
Case in Point 7.2 Are the Rich Getting Richer?
142(3)
Case in Point 7.3 The Grameen Bank
145(1)
Specific Social Issues and Social Services
146(15)
Child Maltreatment
147(1)
Scope of the Issue
147(1)
Causes of Maltreatment
147(1)
Prevention Programs
148(2)
Teen Pregnancy
150(1)
Scope of the Issue
150(1)
Causes of Teen Pregnancy
150(1)
Prevention Programs
151(2)
Secondary Prevention: Working with Pregnant Teens
153(1)
The Elderly
154(1)
Scope of the Issue
154(1)
Prevention Programs
154(2)
Homelessness
156(1)
Scope of the Issue
156(1)
Causes of Homelessness
157(2)
Prevention Programs
159(2)
Summary
161(2)
Schools, Children, and Communities
163(26)
The Early Childhood Environment
164(8)
Day Care
165(1)
Necessity for Day Care
166(1)
Effects of Day Care
166(3)
Possible Remedies to the Day-Care Dilemma
169(1)
Compensatory Education and Early Intervention
170(2)
The Public Schools
172(15)
Desegregation, Ethnicity, and Prejudice in the Schools
172(1)
The Historical Context
172(1)
Case in Point 8.1 Readiness for School
173(1)
Prejudice and Its Companions
174(1)
Fostering Acceptance of Diversity in the Classroom
175(2)
Effects of Desegregation
177(1)
The Schools and Adolescents
178(1)
The School Climate
179(1)
Case in Point 8.2 Students' Memories of Public School
180(1)
Other Factors Related to School Adjustment
181(1)
Dropping Out of School
182(2)
School Violence
184(2)
Case in Point 8.3 Children of Divorce
186(1)
Summary
187(2)
Law, Crime, and the Community
189(29)
The Traditional Justice System
191(8)
Criminal Justice Processes
191(1)
Crime and Criminals
191(3)
The Prisons
194(2)
Victims and Fear of Being Victimized
196(1)
Case in Point 9.1 The Dexter House
197(1)
Enforcement Agencies
198(1)
Addressing Diverse Justice System Needs with Community Psychology
199(19)
Preventive Measures
199(1)
Predicting At-Risk Behavior
199(3)
Prevention with At-Risk Individuals
202(1)
Designing the Environment to Prevent Crime
203(1)
Reducing the Fear of Crime
204(1)
Citizen Involvement in Police Matters
205(1)
Secondary Prevention: Early Intervention Efforts
205(1)
Reducing Recidivism in Juvenile Delinquents
205(1)
Early Assistance for Victims
206(1)
Case in Point 9.2 Working with At-Risk Youth
207(4)
Tertiary Programs: After-the-Fact Interventions for Chronic Justice System Problems
211(1)
Innovative Programs for Chronic Offenders
212(2)
Interventions for Victims
214(2)
Summary
216(2)
Health Care
218(11)
In Sickness and in Health: Social Inequity
221(2)
Case in Point 10.1 The Tide Didn't Lift Our Boat: The Intersection of Public Morality and the Public Health Response to Immigrants and Refugees with HIV/AIDS in the United States
222(1)
Public Versus Private Sector: Managed Care
223(1)
People's Power: The Missing Link
223(1)
Community Psychology and Public Health
224(3)
Seat Belt Use: Road Warriors
226(1)
Extent of the Issue
226(1)
Interventions Designed to Increase Safety
226(1)
Urban Versus Rural Health
227(1)
Summary
228(1)
Community Health and Preventive Medicine
229(27)
Tobacco
230(5)
Extent of the Problem
230(3)
Antitobacco Efforts
233(1)
Community-Based Approaches
234(1)
Alcohol
235(4)
Extent of the Problem
235(2)
Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Laws
237(1)
A Community Psychology Approach
237(1)
Case in Point 11.1 Alcohol Warning
238(1)
Illicit Drugs
239(2)
Extent of the Problem
239(1)
Possible Solutions and Challenges
240(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
241(3)
Extent of the Problem
241(1)
Possible Solutions and Challenges
242(2)
Case in Point 11.2 STDs Testing and Education in a Community Setting
244(1)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Diseases
244(9)
Overview
244(3)
Extent of the Problem
247(2)
Complexities and Controversies
249(1)
Possible Solutions: Community-Based Approaches
250(1)
Case in Point 11.3 The Bilingual Peer Advocate (BPA) Program
251(2)
Summary
253(3)
Community Organizational Psychology
256(24)
What do Organizational and Community Psychology Share?
258(2)
Everyday Problems in Community Organizations
260(6)
Stress
260(1)
Burnout
261(1)
Workaholism
262(1)
Organizational Culture
262(2)
Other Ecological Conditions
264(1)
Case in Point 12.1 Community Psychology and Unemployment
265(1)
Traditional Techniques for Managing Organizations
266(2)
Compensation Packages
266(1)
Rules and Regulations
267(1)
Overview of Organizational Change
268(2)
Reasons for Change
268(1)
Issues Related to Organizational Change
268(2)
Changing the Whole Organization
270(1)
Reorganization
270(1)
Quality of Work Life Programs
270(1)
Group Change Within the Organization
271(1)
Team Building
271(1)
Quality Circles
272(1)
Helping Individuals Change within the Organization
272(3)
Burnout and Stress
272(1)
Other Issues
273(1)
Health: The Example of Smoking
274(1)
Family Issues
274(1)
Changing What People Do: Altering Jobs
275(3)
Job Restructuring
276(1)
Management by Objectives
276(1)
Case in Point 12.2 The Role of Computers in Shaping the Organizational Community
277(1)
Realistic Job Preview
278(1)
Does Organizational Intervention Work?
278(1)
Summary
279(1)
PART V WHERE TO FROM HERE?
The Future of Community Psychology
280(11)
Recent Social and Political Agendas Affecting Community Psychology
281(3)
General Recommendations about Social Change and Community Psychology for the Coming Years
284(6)
Dissemination of Information
284(1)
Case in Point 13.1 Coalition Building: The Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program
285(1)
Prevention
286(1)
Action Research
287(1)
Diversity Issues
288(1)
Cross-Fertilization and Linkages to Other Disciplines
289(1)
Social Policy
289(1)
Summary
290(1)
References 291(45)
Name Index 336(12)
Subject Index 348


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