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Community-Based Corrections

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534628765

ISBN10:
0534628761
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/3/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $119.33

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This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 8/3/2004.
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Summary

This best-selling text focuses on forms of correctional punishments and treatment programs that are based in the community for convicted offenders. Although some offenders need to be incarcerated in prison for public safety reasons, this text argues that the vast majority of offenders can be effectively supervised in the community using a wide array of programs that meet the level of risk and needs that each individual poses. Programs that are discussed include probation, parole, electronic monitoring, house arrest, day-treatment centers, bootcamps, restitution, and fines. With a balanced approach, this text reflects a strong emphasis on practical and legal matters related to alternatives to prison and jail. This Sixth Edition features a new five-part organization, a line-by-line update, a new citation style (APA), and a wide array of ancillaries.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
About the Authors xxiii
PART I: OVERVIEW OF COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
1(72)
The State of Corrections Today: Why Community Corrections Is Important
2(23)
The Correctional Dilemma
3(4)
Change in Sentencing Laws
5(1)
The Toughening of Juvenile Justice
6(1)
The Paradox
7(2)
Public Perceptions of Community Corrections
7(1)
Correctional Budgets
8(1)
The Purpose of Corrections
9(1)
Community-Based Corrections
9(1)
How Community Corrections Fits Correctional Goals
10(3)
Protection of the Public
10(1)
Rehabilitation
10(1)
Community Reintegration
11(1)
Restorative or Community Justice
12(1)
Public Shaming as Punishment
12(1)
Types of Community-Based Corrections Programs
13(7)
Probation
13(3)
Intermediate Sanctions
16(1)
Boot Camps
17(1)
Restitution
17(1)
Community Service
18(1)
Fines and Day Fines
19(1)
House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring
20(1)
Prisoner Reentry
20(1)
The Effectiveness of Community-Based Corrections
20(3)
What Works?
20(2)
How Is Effectiveness Measured?
22(1)
Other Outcome Measures for Evaluation
22(1)
Summary
23(1)
Discussion Questions
23(1)
Web Sites
24(1)
Pretrial Release, Diversion, and Sentencing
25(24)
Introduction
26(1)
Pretrial Release
26(4)
The Pretrial Release Decision
27(1)
Conditions of Pretrial Release Supervision
27(1)
Characteristics of Pretrial Releasees
28(1)
Failure to Appear
28(2)
Diversion
30(3)
Candidates for Diversion
30(1)
Approaches to Diversion Programs
31(2)
Results of Juvenile Diversion Programs
33(1)
Criticisms of Diversion Programs
33(1)
Sentencing
33(2)
Factors That Affect Granting a Community Sentence
34(1)
Sentencing Approaches
35(2)
Sentencing Guidelines
35(2)
Sentencing Commissions
37(1)
Conditions of Community Corrections
37(6)
Standard Conditions
38(1)
Special Conditions
38(2)
Limitations on the Power of Courts to Impose Conditions
40(1)
Scarlet Letter Probation Conditions
40(2)
Supervision Conditions Must Be Constitutional
42(1)
Summary
43(1)
Discussion Questions
43(1)
Web Sites
44(2)
Case Study Exercise: Pretrial Release, Diversion, and Sentencing
46(3)
The Presentence Investigation Report
49(24)
Introduction
50(1)
Purposes of the Presentence Report
50(1)
Contents of the Presentence Report
51(3)
Offender-Based PSI Reports: 1920s--1980s
51(1)
Offense-Based PSI Reports
52(2)
Preparing the Presentence Report
54(3)
When Should the PSI Report Be Prepared?
54(1)
The Initial Interview
54(1)
Investigation and Verification
55(1)
The Evaluative Summary
56(1)
The Sentence Recommendation
56(1)
Legal Issues Concerning the Presentence Report
57(3)
Disclosure of the PSI Report
57(2)
Inaccuracies in the PSI Report
59(1)
Hearsay in the PSI Report
59(1)
Does the Exclusionary Rule Apply?
59(1)
Miranda Warnings and the PSI Interview
60(1)
Right to a Lawyer during the PSI Interview
60(1)
Summary
60(1)
Discussion Questions
60(1)
Web Sites
61(1)
Case Study Exercise: A Presentence Investigation Report
62(11)
PART II: PROBATION
73(72)
History of Probation
74(16)
Introduction
75(1)
Precursors to American Probation
75(1)
Recognizance and Suspended Sentence
76(1)
Two Kinds of Suspended Sentence
76(1)
The Power to Suspend Sentence
77(1)
Early Probation
77(6)
The Role of Volunteers and the Settlement Movement
80(1)
Development of Federal Probation
80(1)
Development of Juvenile Probation
81(1)
Early Probation Legislation in Other States
82(1)
Organization of Probation Services
83(5)
State versus Local Administration
83(2)
State-County Shared Responsibility
85(1)
Community Corrections Acts
85(2)
Judicial versus Executive Administration
87(1)
Summary
88(1)
Discussion Questions
88(1)
Web Sites
89(1)
Probation Officer Issues
90(16)
Introduction
91(1)
A Typology of Probation Officer Work Styles
91(1)
Selection and Appointment of Probation Officers
92(2)
Appointment System
92(2)
Merit System
94(1)
Combined System
94(1)
Qualification and Training of Probation and Parole Officers
94(3)
Education and Experience
94(1)
Adult Preservice Training
95(1)
Juvenile Preservice and Orientation Training
95(2)
In-Service Training
97(1)
Salaries of Probation and Parole Officers
97(1)
Firearms Policies for Probation and Parole Officers
98(3)
Probation Officer Job Stress
101(1)
Interstate Compacts on Probation
102(1)
New Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision
103(1)
Revocation and the Interstate Compact
103(1)
Privatization of Community Supervision
103(1)
Summary
104(1)
Discussion Questions
104(1)
Web Sites
104(2)
Supervision in Probation and Parole
106(21)
Introduction
107(1)
Changing Concepts of Supervision
107(3)
The Casework Era: 1900--1970
107(1)
Brokerage of Services Era: 1970--1980
108(1)
Community Resource Management Team
109(1)
The Justice Model of Supervision: 1980--1995
109(1)
Reinventing Probation
110(6)
The Surveillance Function in Supervision
112(1)
Developing Prosocial Behaviors
113(3)
Classification: The First Step in Supervision
116(6)
Actuarial Risk Assessment
117(1)
Identifying Treatment Needs
117(1)
Developing the Case Plan
117(3)
Levels of Supervision
120(1)
Technological Assistance in Community Supervision
121(1)
Caseload
121(1)
Workload Standard
122(1)
Specialized Caseloads
122(1)
Supervising Sex Offenders
122(1)
Summary
123(1)
Discussion Questions
124(1)
Web Sites
124(1)
Case Study Exercise: Supervision in Probation and Parole
125(2)
Probation Modification and Termination
127(18)
Introduction
128(1)
Modification of Probation Conditions
129(1)
Early Termination of Probation
129(1)
The Decision to Revoke
130(1)
Types of Probation Violations
130(3)
Law Violations
130(2)
Technical Violations
132(1)
Probation Absconders
132(1)
Revocation Procedure
133(4)
Filing the Report
134(1)
The Power to Arrest Probationers
134(1)
Proceedings after Arrest
135(1)
Time Served on Probation Is Not Credited
135(2)
Revocation Rights of Probationers
137(2)
Gagnon v. Scarpelli---The Facts
137(1)
The Right to a Hearing
137(1)
The Right to a Lawyer
138(1)
Level of Proof Required
138(1)
Kind of Evidence Required
138(1)
Willful and Intentional Violations
138(1)
Other Revocation Situations
139(1)
Juvenile Probation Revocation
139(1)
Revocation after Probation Term Expires
139(1)
Probation Effectiveness
140(1)
Probation Recidivism Rates
140(2)
Who Is More Likely to Succeed or Fail on Probation?
141(1)
Probationers Compared with Offenders in Other Programs
141(1)
Summary
142(1)
Discussion Questions
142(1)
Web Sites
143(1)
Case Study Exercise: Probation Modification and Termination
144(1)
PART III: INTERMEDIATE SANCTIONS
145(74)
Residential Intermediate Sanctions
146(28)
Introduction
147(1)
Shock Incarceration
148(11)
Correctional Boot Camps
149(2)
Prison Boot Camps: The Case of New York State
151(2)
Probation Boot Camps
153(3)
Offender Perspectives
156(1)
Criticisms of Boot Camps
157(1)
Evaluations of Boot Camp Programs
157(2)
The Future of Shock Incarceration Programs
159(1)
Residential Community Corrections Facilities
159(1)
Halfway Houses
160(6)
History of Halfway Houses in the United States
161(2)
Program Components
163(1)
Worker Perspectives and Role Orientation
163(2)
Examples of Halfway House Programs
165(1)
Evaluations of Halfway House Programs
165(1)
Other Types of Residential Community Corrections Facilities
166(5)
Restitution Centers
166(1)
Therapeutic Communities
167(2)
Work and Study Release
169(1)
Women Offenders Living with Children
170(1)
Summary
171(1)
Discussion Questions
172(1)
Web Sites
172(1)
Case Study Exercise: Residential Intermediate Sanctions
173(1)
Nonresidential Intermediate Sanctions
174(22)
Introduction
175(1)
Intensive Supervision Probation
175(3)
ISP Caseloads
176(1)
Attitudes toward ISP
176(1)
Evaluations of ISP
177(1)
House Arrest
178(3)
Purposes of Home Detention
178(1)
Criticisms of House Arrest
179(1)
Effectiveness of House Arrest
180(1)
Electronic Monitoring
181(8)
History of Electronic Monitoring
181(1)
Problems of Early EM Programs
182(1)
Remote Location Monitoring
183(1)
Global Positioning Systems
184(1)
Frequency of Use
185(2)
Legal Issues
187(1)
Citizen Attitudes
187(1)
Empirical Evaluations of Home-Based Electronic Monitoring
187(2)
The Future of Offender Tracking
189(1)
Day Reporting Centers
189(5)
Purposes of DRCs
190(1)
Treatment-Oriented versus Supervision-Oriented DRCs
190(2)
Evaluation of DRCs
192(2)
Summary
194(1)
Discussion Questions
195(1)
Web Sites
195(1)
Economic and Restorative Justice Reparations
196(23)
Introduction
197(1)
Restorative Justice Principles
198(4)
Forms of Restorative Justice
198(3)
Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Methods
201(1)
Restitution
202(5)
Restitution Centers
203(1)
Restitution in History
203(1)
Using Restitution in Restorative Justice
203(1)
Losses Available for Compensation
204(1)
Legal Problems Associated with Restitution
204(2)
Effectiveness of Restitution
206(1)
Community Service
207(3)
History of Community Service
207(1)
Purpose of Community Service
208(1)
Prevalence of Community Service
208(1)
Effectiveness of Community Service
208(2)
Fines and Day Fines
210(5)
Prevalence of Fines
211(1)
Legal Issues in the Imposition of Fines versus Costs
211(1)
Judicial Perspectives of Fines
212(1)
Probationer Perspectives
213(1)
Day Fines
213(1)
Establishing Structured Fine Units
213(1)
Evaluation of Day Fines
214(1)
Summary
215(1)
Discussion Questions
216(1)
Web Sites
216(1)
Case Study Exercise: Restorative Justice
217(2)
PART IV: PRISONER REENTRY
219(80)
The Development of Parole: From Its Origin to the Present
220(26)
Introduction
221(1)
The Origins of Parole
222(3)
Manuel Montesinos
222(1)
Georg Michael Obermaier
222(1)
Alexander Maconochie
223(2)
Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish System
225(1)
Development of Parole in the United States
225(1)
Reward for Good Conduct
225(1)
Postrelease Supervision
225(1)
Zebulon R. Brockway and the Indeterminate Sentence
226(1)
Reduce the Cost of Incarceration
226(1)
The Medical Model: 1930--1960
226(1)
Changing Public Opinion
227(1)
A Philosophical Change
227(2)
Origins of Modern Determinate Sentencing
228(1)
The Justice Model
228(1)
Changing of the Guard: From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release
229(2)
Parole Today
231(9)
Characteristics of Parolees
232(2)
Functions of Parole
234(1)
Bringing Back Parole Boards
235(2)
Prison Population Control
237(1)
Good-Time Policies
237(1)
Medical Parole
238(1)
Other Parole Functions
239(1)
Summary
240(1)
Discussion Questions
240(1)
Web Sites
241(1)
Case Study Exercise: Abolishing Discretionary Parole in Virginia
242(4)
Preparing for Prisoner Reentry: Discretionary Parole and Mandatory Release
246(24)
Introduction
247(1)
Issues in Reentry
247(4)
The Prisoner's Family
248(1)
The Victim's Role in Reentry
248(1)
Reentry and the Community
248(1)
Community-Based Reentry Initiatives
248(2)
Types of Release
250(1)
Eligibility for Parole
251(3)
Time Sheets and Eligibility Dates
251(1)
Prerelease Preparation within the Institution
252(2)
The Parole Board
254(2)
Term and Qualifications of the Parole Board
256(1)
The Parole Hearing
256(2)
Number of Parole Board Members
257(1)
Recommendations and Attendees
257(1)
Victim Participation in Parole Hearings
258(1)
Models of Parole Release Decisions
258(5)
The Surveillance Model
259(1)
The Procedural Justice Model
259(1)
The Risk Prediction Model
259(3)
State Parole Guidelines
262(1)
Prisoners' Perceptions of Parole Selection
263(1)
Due Process during Discretionary Parole Hearings
264(2)
Menechino v. Oswald
264(1)
Greenholtz v. Inmates of the Nebraska Penal and Correctional Complex
264(1)
State-Created Liberty Interest
265(1)
Guarding against Arbitrary Parole Decisions
265(1)
Imposing Parole Conditions
266(1)
Summary
266(1)
Discussion Questions
266(1)
Web Sites
267(1)
Case Study Exercise: Preparing for Prisoner Reentry
268(2)
Parole Conditions and Revocation
270(29)
Introduction
271(1)
Prisoner Perspectives of Getting Out
272(2)
California Study
272(1)
Iowa Study
273(1)
The Field Parole Officer
274(1)
The Officer's Perspective
275(1)
Conditions of Parole
275(3)
Legal Issues in Parole Conditions
276(1)
Limited Parolee Rights
277(1)
Parole Revocation
278(5)
Warrants and Citations
280(1)
Rate of Revocation
280(1)
Characteristics of Parole Violators
280(1)
Reasons for Revocation
281(1)
Why Have Revocation Rates Increased?
282(1)
Attitudes on Revocation
283(1)
Legal Issues of Parole Revocation
283(3)
Morrissey Case Significance
284(1)
Other Legal Issues in Parole Revocation
284(2)
Parole Board and Parole Officer Immunity
286(1)
Parole Absconders
286(3)
Why Do Parolees Leave?
286(1)
Locating and Apprehending Fugitives
287(1)
Predicting Absconding Behavior
288(1)
Parole Effectiveness
289(4)
Recidivism Studies
291(1)
Predicting Parole Outcomes
292(1)
Future of Parole
293(1)
Advances in Parole Risk Assessment
293(1)
Summary
294(1)
Discussion Questions
294(1)
Web Sites
295(1)
Case Study Exercise: Parole Conditions and Revocation
296(3)
PART V: SPECIAL ISSUES IN COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
299(56)
Juvenile Justice, Probation, and Aftercare
300(28)
Introduction
301(1)
Background and History
301(1)
Parens Patriae and Its Decline
302(1)
A Civil Proceeding
302(1)
Juvenile Justice and Adult Justice Systems Compared
302(1)
Differences
302(1)
Reality
303(1)
Juvenile Courts
303(3)
Created in the U.S.A.
303(1)
Jurisdiction of Juvenile Courts
304(2)
Transfer of Jurisdiction from Juvenile Court to Adult Court
306(1)
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice Process
307(4)
Procedure before Adjudication
307(1)
The Intake Stage
308(1)
The Adjudication Stage
308(1)
The Disposition Stage
309(1)
Blended Sentence
310(1)
Major U.S. Supreme Court Decisions in Juvenile Justice
311(4)
In Re Gault: The Most Important Juvenile Justice Case
311(1)
Other Cases
312(1)
Parens Patriae Eroded
313(2)
Juvenile Probation and Aftercare
315(1)
Origin
315(1)
Structure and Administration
316(1)
Conditions of Probation and Aftercare
316(1)
Judges Have Much Discretion
316(1)
Types of Conditions
316(1)
Supervision
317(5)
Juvenile Probation Officers
317(2)
Intensive Supervision Probation
319(1)
School-Based Probation
320(1)
Fare v. Michael C.: An Important Case in Juvenile Probation Supervision
320(2)
Revocation
322(1)
Initiation of Revocation
322(1)
Few Rights during Revocation
322(1)
No Standards for Revocation
323(1)
Result of Revocation
323(1)
Summary
323(1)
Discussion Questions
324(1)
Web Sites
325(1)
Case Study Exercise: Juvenile Justice, Probation, and Aftercare
326(2)
Direct and Collateral Consequences of Conviction
328(15)
Introduction
329(1)
Civil and Political Rights Defined
329(1)
History of Civil Disabilities
330(1)
Civil Disabilities Today
330(2)
Differences by State
330(1)
Other Differences
331(1)
Civil and Political Rights Affected by Conviction
332(8)
Denial of Welfare Benefits
332(1)
Loss of Parental Rights
332(1)
Loss of Right to Vote
332(1)
Jury Service
333(1)
Witness Restrictions
333(1)
Public Office Restrictions
334(1)
Employment-Related Rights
334(3)
The Right to Own/Possess a Firearm
337(1)
Sex Offender Registration Laws
337(3)
Involuntary Commitment of Sexual Predators
340(1)
Social Stigmatization of Ex-Offenders
340(1)
Summary
341(1)
Discussion Questions
341(1)
Web Sites
342(1)
Pardon and Restoration of Rights
343(12)
Introduction
344(1)
Pardon
344(6)
The Power to Pardon
345(2)
Objectives of Pardons
347(1)
Kinds of Pardons
347(1)
Procedure for Obtaining a Pardon
347(1)
Legal Effects of a Pardon
348(1)
Restoration of Rights upon Application
349(1)
Restoring Good Moral Character
350(1)
Automatic Restoration of Rights
350(1)
Expungement
351(1)
Expungement after Successful Completion of Probation
352(1)
Sealing Criminal Records
352(1)
The Status of Civil Disabilities Today
353(1)
Summary
353(1)
Discussion Questions
353(1)
Web Sites
354(1)
Glossary 355(6)
References 361(14)
Table of Cases 375(2)
Name Index 377(4)
Subject Index 381


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