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The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature; Reading, Thinking , Writing,9780312398811

The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature; Reading, Thinking , Writing

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780312398811

ISBN10:
0312398816
Format:
Trade Paper
Pub. Date:
8/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $68.26

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Summary

Ideally suited for courses emphasizing writing about literature, this new compact edition of The Bedford Introduction to Literature offers all the distinctive features of Michael Meyer's best-selling introduction to literature in a shorter, less expensive paperback format. With its rich array of selections, its many innovative editorial features, and now fully integrated with its own companion Web site, this new compact edition of the most comprehensive three-genre literature anthology available provides more options than ever before to help students read, think, and write effectively about literature.

Table of Contents

Resources for Writing about Literature
Inside front
Preface for Instructors ix
Introduction: Reading Imaginative Literature 1(6)
The Nature of Literature
1(2)
EMILY DICKINSON,
A narrow Fellow in the Grass
2(1)
The Value of Literature
3(2)
The Changing Literary Canon
5(2)
FICTION 7(488)
THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
9(272)
1. Reading Fiction
11(32)
Reading Fiction Responsively
11(9)
KATE CHOPIN,
The Story of an Hour
12(3)
A SAMPLE PAPER: Differences in Responses to Kate Chopin 's "The Story of an Hour"
15(5)
Explorations and Formulas
20(2)
A Composite of a Romance Tip Sheet
22(4)
PHOTO: Romance Novel Cover
25(1)
A Comparison of Two Stories
26(17)
KAREN van der ZEE,
From A Secret Sorrow
27(8)
GAIL GODWIN,
A Sorrowful Woman
35(5)
PERSPECTIVE: KAY MUSSELL, Are Feminism and Romance Novels Mutually Exclusive?
40(1)
PERSPECTIVE: THOMAS JEFFERSON, On the Dangers of Reading Fiction
41(2)
2. Writing about Fiction
43(21)
From Reading to Writing
43(3)
Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing
44(2)
A Sample Paper in Progress
46(13)
First Response
46(2)
Brainstorming
48(1)
Revising: First and Second Drafts
48(11)
FINAL DRAFT: Fulfillment or Failure? Marriage in A Secret Sorrow and "A Sorrowful Woman"
59(5)
3. Plot
64(34)
EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS,
From Tarzan of the Apes
65(7)
ALICE WALKER,
The Flowers
72(2)
WILLIAM FAULKNER,
A Rose for Emily
74(9)
PERSPECTIVE: WILLIAM FAULKNER, On "A Rose for Emily" 82 ANDRE DUBUS, Killings
83(14)
PERSPECTIVE: A, L. BADER, Nothing Happens in Modern Short Stories
97(1)
4. Character
98(36)
CHARLES DICKENS,
From Hard Times
99(4)
BESSIE HEAD,
The Prisoner Who Wore Glasses
103(5)
HERMAN MELVILLE,
Bardeby, the Scrivener
108(25)
PERSPECTIVE ON MELVILLE: NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On Herman Melville 's Philosophic Stance
133(1)
5. Setting
134(22)
ERNEST HEMINGWAY,
Soldiers Home
136(6)
PERSPECTIVE: ERNEST HEMINGWAY, On What Every Writer Needs
142(1)
RON HANSEN,
Nebraska
143(4)
PERSPECTIVE: RON HANSEN, On "Nebraska" as an Unconventional Short Story
147(1)
FAY WELDON,
IND AFF, or Out of Love in Sarajevo
147(7)
PERSPECTIVE: FAY WELDON, On the Importance of Place in "IND AFF"
154(2)
6. Point of View
156(42)
Third-Person Narrator (Nonparticipant)
157(2)
First-Person Narrator (Participant)
159(39)
GISH JEN,
Who s Irish?
167(2)
ANTON CHEKHOV,
The Lady with the Pet Dog
169(18)
PERSPECTIVE: ANTON CHEKHOV, On Morality in Fiction
187
JOYCE CAROL GATES:
The Lady with the Pet Dog
182(13)
PERSPECTIVE: MATTHEW C. BRENNAN, Point of View and Plotting in Chekhov s and Oates 's "The Lady with the Pet Dog"
195(3)
7. Symbolism
198(22)
ALBERTO ALVARO RÍOS,
The Secret Lion
201(4)
COLETTE [Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette],
The Hand
205(3)
RALPH ELLISON,
Battle Royal
208(11)
PERSPECTIVE: MORDECAI MARCUS, What is an Initiation Story?
219(1)
8. Theme
220(24)
STEPHEN CRANE,
The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky
223(9)
KATHERINE MANSFIELD,
Miss Brill
232(4)
DAGOBERTO GILB,
Love in L.A.
236(3)
MARK TWAIN,
The Story of the Good Little Boy
239(5)
9. Style, Tone, and Irony
244(26)
Style
244(2)
Tone
246(1)
Irony
247(23)
RAYMOND CARVER,
Popular Mechanics
248(2)
PERSPECTIVE: JOHN BARTH, On Minimalist Fiction
250(1)
PERSPECTIVE: T. CORAGHESSAN BOYLE, Carnal Knowledge
251(15)
PERSPECTIVE: PUNYAKANTE WIJENAIKE, Anoma
266(4)
10. Combining the Elements of Fiction
270(11)
The Elements Together
270(1)
Mapping the Story
271(1)
DAVID UPDIKE,
Summer
271(5)
Questions for Writing: Developing a Topic into a Revised Thesis
276(5)
APPROACHES TO FICTION
281(156)
11. A Study of Nathaniel Hawthorne
283(40)
A Brief Biography and Introduction
283(34)
PHOTO: Nathaniel Hawthorne
284(3)
NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE,
Young Goodman Brown
287(10)
NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE,
Lady Eleanore's Mantle
297(9)
NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE,
The Birthmark
306(11)
Perspectives on Hawthorne
317(5)
Hawthorne on Solitude
317(2)
Hawthorne on the Power of the Writers Imagination
319(1)
Hawthorne on His Short Stories
320(1)
HERMAN MELVILLE,
On Nathaniel Hawthorne s Tragic Vision
321(1)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
322(1)
12. A Study of Flannery O'Connor
323(49)
PHOTO: Flannery O'Connor
323(1)
A Brief Biography and Introduction
324(43)
FLANNERY O'CONNOR,
A Good Man Is Hard to Find
327(11)
FLANNERY O'CONNOR,
Revelation
338(15)
FLANNERY O'CONNOR,
Parkers Back
353(14)
Perspectives on O'Connor
367(4)
O'Connor on Faith
367(1)
O'Connor on the Materials of Fiction
367(1)
O'Connor on the Use of Exaggeration and Distortion
368(1)
JOSEPHINE HENDIN,
On O'Connor's Refusal to "Do Pretty"
369(1)
CLAIRE KAHANE,
The Function of Violence in O'Connor's Fiction
369(1)
EDWARD KESSLER,
On O'Connor's Use of History
370(1)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
371(1)
13. A Critical Case Study: William Faulkner's "Barn Burning"
372(27)
PHOTO: William Faulkner
373(1)
WILLIAM FAULKNER, Barn Burning
373(13)
Perspectives on Faulkner
386(12)
JANE HILES,
Blood Ties in "Barn Burning"
386(1)
BENJAMIN DeMOTT,
Abner Snopes as a Victim of Class
387(2)
GAYLE EDWARD WILSON,
Conflict in "Barn Burning"
389(3)
JAMES FERGUSON,
Narrative Strategy in "Barn Burning"
392(1)
Questions for Writing: Incorporating the Critics
393(2)
AN EXCERPT FROM A SAMPLE PAPER: The Fires of Class Conflict in "Barn Burning"
395(3)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
398(1)
14. A Cultural Case Study: James Joyce's "Eveline"
399(17)
JAMESJOYCE,
Eveline
400(1)
PHOTO: James Joyce in Paris
401(7)
Documents
408(7)
PHOTO: Poole Street, Dublin
408(1)
Resources of Ireland (From the Alliance Temperance Almanack for 1910)
409(3)
A Letter Home from an Irish Emigrant in Australia
412(1)
A Plot Synopsis o f The Bohemian Girl
413(2)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
415(1)
15. A Thematic Case Study: The Nature of Storytelling
416(21)
Metafiction
416(19)
MARGARET ATWOOD,
There Was Once
417(3)
TIM O'BRIEN,
How to Tell a True War Story
420(10)
DON DeLILLO,
Videotape
430(5)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
435(2)
A COLLECTI0N OF STORIES
437(58)
16. Stories for Further Reading
439(34)
JAMAICA KINCAID,
Girl
439(2)
D. H. LAWRENCE,
The Horse Dealers Daughter
441(12)
NAGUIB MAHFOUZ,
The Answer Is No
453(2)
ALICE MUNRO,
Wild Swans
455(7)
EDGAR ALLAN POE,
The Cask of Amontillado
462(5)
JOHN UPDIKE,
A & P
467(6)
17. An Album of Contemporary Stories
473(22)
SHERMAN ALEXIE,
Class
473(13)
AMY BLOOM,
Hold Tight
486(4)
E. ANNIE PROULX,
55 Miles to the Gas Pump
490(5)
POETRY 495(430)
THE ELEMENTS OF POETRY
495(238)
18. Reading Poetry
497(33)
Reading Poetry Responsively
497(3)
MARGE PIERCY,
The Secretary Chant
498(1)
ROBERT HAYDEN,
Those Winter Sundays
499(1)
JOHN UPDIKE,
Dog's Death
500(1)
The Pleasure of Words
500(17)
WILLIAM HATHAWAY,
Oh, Oh
502(1)
ROBERT FRANCIS,
Catch
503(1)
A SAMPLE ANALYSIS: Tossing Metaphors Together in "Catch"
504(4)
WOLE SOYINKA,
Telephone Conversation
508(1)
ELIZABETH BISHOP,
The Fish
509(8)
PHILIP LARKIN,
A Study of Reading Habits
517
ROBERT MORGAN,
Mountain Graveyard
513(1)
E. E. CUMMINGS,
l(a
514(1)
ANONYMOUS,
Western Wind
515(1)
REGINA BARRECA,
Nighttime Fires
515(2)
Suggestions for Approaching Poetry
517(1)
Poetry in Popular Forms
518(6)
HELEN FARRIES,
Magic of Love
520(1)
JOHN FREDERICK NIMS,
Love Poem
520(2)
BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN,
Streets of Philadelphia
522(1)
PERSPECTIVE: ROBERT FRANCIS, On "Hard" Poetry
523(1)
Poems for Further Study
524(6)
RUDYARD KIPLING,
If-
524(1)
WYATT PRUNTY,
Elderly Lady Crossing on Green
525(1)
JOHN DONNE,
The Sun Rising
526(1)
LI HO,
A Beautiful Girl Combs Her Hair
527(1)
ROBERT HASS,
Happiness
528(2)
19. Writing about Poetry
530(7)
From Reading to Writing
530(7)
Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing
531(1)
A SAMPLE ANALYSIS: Memory in Elizabeth Bishop's "Manners"
532(1)
ELIZABETH BISHOP,
Manners
533(4)
20. Word Choice, Word Order, and Tone
537(33)
Diction
537(2)
Denotations and Connotations
539(4)
RAN DALL JARRELL,
The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
540(2)
E F. CUMMINGS,
she being Brand
542(1)
Word Order
543(1)
Tone
543(4)
JUIDITH ORTIZ COFEK,
Common Ground
544(1)
ROBIN MORGAN,
Invocation
545(1)
KATHARYN HOWD MACHAN,
Hazel Tells Laverne
546(1)
MARTÍN ESPADA,
Latin Night at the Pawnshop
547(1)
Diction and Tone in Four Love Poems
547(9)
ROBERT HERRICK,
To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time
547(2)
ANDREW MARVELL,
To His Coy Mistress
549(1)
PERSPECTIVE: BERNARD DUYFHUIZEN, "To His Coy Mistress": On How a Female Might Respond
550(2)
RICHARD WILBUR,
A Late Aubade
552(1)
DIANE ACKERMAN,
A Fine, a Private Place
553(3)
Poems for Further Study
556(9)
THOMAS HARDY,
The Convergence of the Twain
556(1)
DAVID R. SLAVITT,
Titanic
557(1)
LIONEL JOHNSON,
A Decadent 's Lyric
558(1)
SHARON OLDS,
Sex without Love
559(1)
CATHY SONG,
The Youngest Daughter
560(1)
JOHN KEATS,
Ode on a Grecian Urn
561(2)
GWENDOLYN BROOKS,
We Real Cool
563(1)
ALICE JONES,
The Larynx
563(1)
LOUIS SIMPSON,
In the Suburbs
564(1)
A Note on Reading Translations
565(1)
Four Translations of a Poem by Sappho
566(4)
SAPPHO,
Immortal Aphrodite of the broidered throne (Translated by Henry T. Wharton)
566(1)
SAPPHO,
Beautiful-throned, immortal Aphrodite (Translated by T. W. Higginson)
566(1)
SAPPHO,
Invocation to Aphrodite (Translated by Richard Lattimore)
567(1)
SAPPHO,
On the throne of many hues, Immortal Aphrodite (Translated by Diane Rayor)
568(2)
21. Images
570(19)
Poetry's Appeal to the Senses
570(9)
WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS,
Poem
571(1)
JEANNETTE BARNES,
Battle-Piece
572(1)
WALT WHITMAN,
Cavalry Crossing a Ford
573(1)
DAVID SOLWAY,
Windsurfing
574(1)
THEODORE ROETHKE,
Root Cellar
575(1)
MATTHEW ARNOLD,
Dover Beach
576(2)
JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA,
Green Chile
578(1)
Poems for Further Study
579(10)
WILLIAM BLAKE,
London
579(1)
WILFRED OWEN,
Dulce et Decorum Est
580(1)
SANDRA M. GILBERT,
Mafioso
581(1)
PATRICIA SMITH,
What It's Like to Be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)
582(1)
RAINER MARIA RILKE,
The Panther
583(1)
SALLY CROFT,
Home-Baked Bread
583(1)
CHARLES SIMIC,
Filthy Landscape
584(1)
EZRA POUND,
In a Station of the Metro
585(1)
CATHY SONG,
The White Porch
585(2)
PERSPECTIVE: T. E. HULME, On the Differences between Poetry and Prose
587(2)
22. Figures of Speech
589(20)
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE,
From Macbeth (Act V, Scene v)
590(1)
Simile and Metaphor
591(3)
MARGARET ATWOOD,
you fit into me
591(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Presentiment-is that long Shadow-on the lawn-
592(1)
ANNE BRADSTREET,
The Author to Her Book
593(1)
ROSARIO CASTELLANOS,
Chess
593(1)
Other Figures
594(4)
EDMUND CONTI,
Pragmatist
594(1)
DYLAN THOMAS,
The Hand That Signed the Paper
595(1)
JANICE TOWNLEY MOORE,
To a Wasp
596(2)
J. PATRICK LEWIS,
The Unkindest Cut
598(1)
Poems for Further Study
598(11)
MARGARET ATWOOD,
February
598(1)
SOPHIE CABOT BLACK,
August
599(1)
ERNEST SLYMAN,
Lightning Bugs
600(1)
SHARON OLDS,
Poem for the Breasts
601(1)
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH,
London, 1802
602(1)
JIM STEVENS,
Schizophrenia
603(1)
JOHN DONNE,
A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
603(2)
LINDA PASTAN,
Marks
605(1)
THOMAS LYNCH,
Liberty
605(1)
STEPHEN DUNLA,
John & Mary
606(1)
PERSPECTIVE: JOHN R. SEARLE, Figuring Out Metaphors
607(2)
23. Symbol, Allegory, and Irony
609(24)
Symbol
609(2)
ROBERT FROST,
Acquainted with the Night
610(1)
Allegory
611(3)
EDGAR ALLAN POE,
The Haunted Palace
612(2)
Irony
614(4)
EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON,
Richard Cory
614(1)
KENNETH FEARING,
AD
615(1)
JANICE MIRIKITANI,
Recipe
616(1)
E.E. CUMMINGS,
next to of course god america i
617(1)
STEPHEN CRANE,
A Man Said to the Universe
618(1)
Poems for Further Study
618(15)
JANE KENYON,
Surprise
618(1)
LAURE-ANNE BOSSELAAR,
The Bumper-Sticker
619(1)
RENNIE McQUILKIN,
The Lighters
620(1)
CARL SANDBURG,
Buttons
621(1)
WILLIAM STAFFORD,
Traveling through the Dark
621(1)
ANDREW HUDGINS,
Seventeen
622(1)
ALDEN NOWLAN,
The Bull Moose
623(1)
JULIO MARZAN,
Ethnic Poetry
624(1)
JAMES MERRILL,
Casual Wear
625(1)
HENRY REED,
Naming of Parts
626(1)
JOHN CIARDI,
Suburban
627(1)
ROBERT BROWNING,
My Last Duchess
628(2)
WILLIAM BLAKE,
The Chimney Sweeper
630(1)
DIANE THIEL,
The Minefield
630(1)
GARY SOTO,
Behind Grandmas House
631(1)
PERSPECTIVE: EZRA POUND, On Symbols
632(1)
24. Sounds
633(24)
Listening to Poetry
633(7)
ANONYMOUS,
Scarborough Fair
634(1)
JOHN UPDIKE,
Player Piano
635(1)
MAY SWENSON,
A Nosy Fright
636(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
A Bird came down the Walk-
637(2)
GALWAY KINNELL,
Blackberry Eating
639(1)
Rhyme
640(4)
RICHARD ARMOUR,
Going to Extremes
640(1)
ROBERT SOUTHEY,
From "The Cataract of Lodore"
640(3)
PERSPECTIVE: DAVID LENSON, On the Contemporary Use of Rhyme
643(1)
Sound and Meaning
644(2)
GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS,
God's Grandeur
644(2)
Poems for Further Study
646(11)
PAULA GUNN ALLEN,
Hoop Dancer
646(1)
LEWIS CARROLL [Charles Lutwidge Dodgson],
Jabberwocky
646(1)
SYLVIA PLATH,
Mushrooms
647(1)
WILLIAM HELEN,
The Trains
648(1)
VIRGINIA HAMILTON ADAIR,
Dirty Old Man
649(1)
ALEXANDER POPE,
From An Essay on Criticism
650(1)
GWENDOLYN BROOKS,
Sadie and Maud
651(1)
MAXINE HONG KINGSTON,
Restaurant
652(1)
PAUL HUMPHREY,
Blow
652(1)
ROBERT FRANCIS,
The Pitcher
653(1)
HELEN CHASIN,
The Word Plum
654(1)
PERSPECTIVE: DYLAN THOMAS, On the Words in Poetry
654(3)
25. Patterns of Rhythm
657(21)
Some Principles of Meter
657(5)
WALT WHITMAN,
From "Song of the Open Road"
658(3)
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH,
My Heart Leaps Up
661(1)
Suggestions for Scanning a Poem
662(2)
TIMOTHY STEELS,
Waiting for the Storm
663(1)
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS,
That the Night Come
663(1)
Poems for Further Study
664(14)
ALICE JONES,
The Foot
664(1)
A. E. HOUSMAN,
When I was one-and-twenty
665(1)
RACHEL HADAS,
The Red Hat
666(1)
ROBERT HERRICK,
Delight in Disorder
667(1)
BEN JONSON,
Still to Be Neat
667(1)
DIANE BURNS,
Sure You Can Ask Me a Personal Question
668(1)
WILLIAM BLAKE,
The Lamb
669(1)
WILLIAM BLAKE,
The Tyger
670(1)
ANNA LAETITIA BARBAULD,
On a Lady's Writing
671(1)
THEODORE ROETHKE,
My Papa's Waltz
671(1)
ROBERT PINSKY,
An Old Man
672(1)
ARON KEESBURY,
Song to a Waitress
673(1)
EDWARD HIRSCH,
Fast Break
674(1)
DAVID BARBER,
A Colonial Epitaph Annotated
675(1)
PERSPECTIVE: LOUISE BOGAN, On Formal Poetry
676(2)
26. Poetic Forms
678(26)
Some Common Poetic Forms
679(2)
A. E. HOUSMAN,
Loveliest of trees, the cherry now
679(1)
ROBERT HERRICK,
Upon Julia's Clothes
680(1)
Sonnet
681(7)
JOHN KEATS,
On First Looking into Chapman 's Homer
682(1)
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH,
The World Is Too Much with Us
682(1)
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE,
Shall I compare thee to a summers day?
683(1)
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE,
My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun
684(1)
ERNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY,
I will put Chaos into fourteen lines
685(1)
MARK DOTY,
Golden Retrievals
685(1)
MOLLY PEACOCK,
Desire
686(1)
MARK JARMAN,
Unholy Sonnet
687(1)
Villanelle
688(2)
DYLAN THOMAS,
Do not go gentle into that good night
688(1)
ROBYN SARAH,
Villanelle for a Cool April
689(1)
Sestina
690(3)
ELIZABETH BISHOP,
Sestina
690(1)
FLORENCE CASSEN MAYERS,
All-American Sestina
691(2)
Epigram
693(1)
SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE,
What Is an Epigram?
693(1)
A. R. AMMONS,
Coward
693(1)
DAVID McCORD,
Epitaph on a Waiter
693(1)
PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR,
Theology
693(1)
Limerick
694(1)
ANONYMOUS,
There was a young lady named Bright
694(1)
LAURENCE PERRINE,
The limericks never averse
694(1)
KEITH CASTO,
She Don't Bop
695(1)
Haiku
695(1)
MATSUG BASRO,
Under cherry trees
695(1)
CAROLYN KIZER,
After Bashö
695(1)
Elegy
696(1)
SEAMUS HEANEY,
Mid-term Break
696(1)
Ode
697(2)
PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY,
Ode to the West Wind
697(2)
Picture Poem
699(1)
MICHAEL McFEE,
In Medias Res
700(1)
Parody
700(4)
X. J. KENNEDY,
A Visit from St. Sigmund
701(1)
PERSPECTIVE: ROBERT MORGAN, On the Shape o f a Poem
702(1)
PERSPECTIVE: ELAINE MITCHELL, Form
703(1)
27. Open Form
704(17)
E. E. CUMMINGS,
in Just-
704(1)
WALT WHITMAN,
From "I Sing the Body Electric"
705(1)
PERSPECTIVE: WALT WHITMAN, On Rhyme and Meter
706(1)
JAY MEEK,
Swimmers
707(1)
GALWAY KINNELL,
After Making Love We Hear Footsteps
708(1)
KELLY CHERRY,
Alzheimer's
709(1)
WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS,
The Red Wheelbarrow
710(1)
JONATHAN HOLDEN,
Cutting Loose on an August Night
710(1)
MARILYN NELSON WANIEK,
Emily Dickinson's Defunct
711(1)
ROBERT HASS,
A Story about the Body
712(1)
SHARON OLDS,
Rite of Passage
713(1)
JULIO MARZAN,
The Translator at the Reception for Latin American Writers
714(1)
ALLEN GINSBERG,
First Party at Ken Kesey' s with Hell's Angels
715(1)
ANONYMOUS,
The Frog
716(1)
TATO LAMERA,
AmeRican
716(2)
PETER MEINKE,
The ABC of Aerobics
718(1)
GARY SOTO,
Mexicans Begin Jogging
719(1)
Found Poem
720(1)
DONALD JUSTICE,
Order in the Streets
720(1)
28. Combining the Elements of Poetry
721(12)
The Elements Together
721(1)
Mapping the Poem
722(1)
JOHN DONNE,
Death Be Not Proud
723(1)
Asking Questions about the Elements
723(2)
A SAMPLE FIRST RESPONSE
724(1)
Organizing Your Thoughts
725(1)
A SAMPLE INFORMAL OUTLINE
725(1)
The Elements and Theme
726(9)
A SAMPLE EXPLICATION: The Use of Conventional Metaphors for Death in John Donne's "Death Be Not Proud"
726(7)
APPROACHES TO POETKY
733(144)
29. A Study of Emily Dickinson
A Brief Biography
735(2)
PHOTO: Emily Dickinson
735(2)
An Introduction to Her Work
737(21)
PHOTO: Facsimile o f manuscript page, "What Soft - Cherubic Creatures-"
738(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
If I can stop one Heart from breaking
739(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
If I shouldn't be alive
740(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
The Thought beneath so slight a film-
741(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee
742(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Success is counted sweetest
742(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
These are the days when Birds come back-
743(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Water, is taught by thirst
743(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
How many times these low feet staggered-
744(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Portraits are to daily faces
744(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Some keep the Sabbath going to Church-
745(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
"Heaven"-is what I cannot reach!
746(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
I like a look of Agony,
746(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Wild Nights-Wild Nights!
747(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Nature-sometimes sears a Sapling-
748(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
I would not paint-a picture-
748(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
What Soft-Cherubic Creatures-
749(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
The Soul selects her own Society-
750(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Much Madness is divinest Sense-
750(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
I dwell in Possibility-
751(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
This was a Poet-It is That
752(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
After great pain, a formal feeling comes-
752(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
I heard a Fly buzz-when I died-
753(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Because I could not stop for Death -
754(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
The Wind begun to knead the Grass-
755(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
A loss of something ever felt I -
756(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Oh Sumptuous moment
756(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
The Bustle in a House
757(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Tell all the Truth but tell it slant-
757(1)
Perspectives on Dickinson
758(7)
Dickinson's Description of Herself
758(1)
THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON,
On Meeting Dickinson for the First Time
759(1)
MABEL LOOMIS TODD,
The Character of Amherst
760(1)
RICHARD WILBUR,
On Dickinson's Sense of Privation
760(1)
SANDRA M. GILBERT and SUSAN GUBAR,
On Dickinson's White Dress
761(1)
PAULA BENNETT,
On "I heard a Fly buzz-when l died-"
762(1)
Questions for Writing about an Author in Depth
763(2)
A Sample In-Depth Study: Religious Faith in Four Poems by Emily Dickinson
765(5)
EMILY DICKINSON,
"Faith" is a fine invention
765(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
I know that He exists
765(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
I never saw a Moor-
766(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
Apparently with no surprise
766(4)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
770(1)
30. A Study of Robert Frost
771(31)
A Brief Biography
771(3)
PHOTO: Robert Frost
772(2)
An Introduction to His Work
774(18)
PHOTO: Facsimile of manuscript page, "Neither Out Far nor In Deep"
774(2)
ROBERT FROST,
The Road Not Taken
776(2)
ROBERT FROST,
The Pasture
778(1)
ROBERT FROST,
Mending Wall
778(2)
ROBERT FROST,
Home Burial
780(3)
ROBERT FROST,
Birches
783(1)
ROBERT FROST,
A Girl's Garden
784(2)
ROBERT FROST,
"Out, Out-"
786(1)
ROBERT FROST,
A Boundless Moment
787(1)
ROBERT FROST,
The Investment
788(1)
ROBERT FROST,
Fire and Ice
788(1)
ROBERT FROST,
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
789(1)
ROBERT FROST,
The Armful
789(1)
ROBERT FROST,
Spring Pools
790(1)
ROBERT FROST,
Design
791(1)
ROBERT FROST,
Neither Out Far nor In Deep
791(1)
Perspectives on Frost
792(9)
"In White": Frosts Early Version of "Design"
792(1)
Frost on the Living Part of a Poem
793(1)
AMY LOWELL,
On Frosts Realistic Technique
793(1)
Frost on the Figure a Poem Makes
794(2)
Frost on the Way to Read a Poem
796(1)
LIONEL TRILLING,
On Frost as a Terrifying Poet
797(2)
HERBERT R. COURSEN JR.,
A Parodic Interpretation of "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"
799(1)
BLANCHE FARLEY,
The Lover Not Taken
800(1)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
801(1)
31. A Study of Langston Hughes
802(27)
A Brief Biography
802(2)
PHOTO: Langston Hughes
803(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
The Negro Speaks of Rivers
804(1)
An Introduction to His Work
804(19)
PHOTO: Facsimile of manuscript page, "Old Walt"
805(2)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
I, Too
807(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Negro
808(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Danse Africaine
809(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Mother to Son
809(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Jazzonia
810(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Dream Variations
811(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
The Weary Blues
812(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Cross
813(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Formula
813(1)
LANUSTON HUGHES,
Lenox Avenue: Midnight
814(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Song for a Dark Girl
815(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Red Silk Stockings
816(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Bad Man
816(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Rent-Party Shout: For a Lady Dancer
817(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Drum
818(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Uncle Tom
818(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Dream Boogie
819(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Harlem
820(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Democracy
820(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Un-American Investigators
821(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Old Walt
822(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Dinner Guest: Me
822(1)
Perspectives on Hughes
823(5)
Hughes on Racial Shame and Pride
823(1)
Hughes on Harlem Rent Parties
824(1)
DONALD B. GIBSON,
The Essential Optimism of Hughes and Whitman
825(1)
JAMES A. EMANUEL,
Hughes's Attitude toward Religion
826(1)
DAVID CHINITZ,
The Romanticization of Africa in the 1920's
827(1)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
828(1)
32. A Critical Case Study: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
829(17)
T. S. ELIOT,
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
829(1)
PHOTO: T. S. Eliot
830(4)
Perspectives on Eliot
834(11)
ELISABETH SCHNEIDER,
Hints of Eliot in Prufrock
834(1)
BARBARA EVERETT,
The Problem of Tone in Prufrock
835(1)
MICHAEL L. BAUMANN,
The "Overwhelming Question "for Prufrock
836(2)
FREDERIK L. RUSCH,
Society and Character in "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
838(2)
ROBERT SWARD,
A Personal Analysis of "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
840(5)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
845(1)
33. A Cultural Case Study: Louise Erdrich's "Dear John Wayne"
846(15)
PHOTO: Louise Erdrich
847(1)
LOUISE ERDRICH,
Dear John Wayne
847(3)
Documents
850(10)
KATIE BACON,
From an Interview with Louise Erdrich
850(2)
PAINTING: Thomas Birch, Settlers Moving West
852(1)
TERRY WILSON,
On Hollywood Indians
853(2)
RICHARD WARREN LEWIS,
From an Interview with John Wayne
855(4)
PHOTO: John Wayne As Cavalry Officer
859(1)
CHIEF LUTHER STANDING BEAR,
An Indian Perspective on the Great Plains
860(1)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
860(1)
34. Two Thematic Case Studies: The Love Poem and Teaching and Learning
861(16)
Poems about Love
861(7)
CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE,
The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
862(1)
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE,
Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
863(1)
ANNE BRADSTREET,
To My Dear and Loving Husband
864(1)
ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING,
How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways
865(1)
E. E. CUMMINGS,
since feeling is first
866(1)
JANE KENYON,
The Shirt
866(1)
TIMOTHY STEELS,
An Aubade
867(1)
Poems about Teaching and Learning
868(7)
EMILY DICKINSON,
From all the Jails the Boys and Girls
868(1)
LANGSTON HUGHES,
Theme for English B
869(2)
MARILYN HACKER,
Groves of Academe
871(1)
MARK HALLIDAY,
Graded Paper
871(2)
JUDY PAGE HEITZMAN,
The Schoolroom on the Second Floor of the Knitting Mill
873(1)
RICHARD WAKEFIELD,
In a Poetry Workshop
874(1)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
875(2)
A COLLECTION OF POEMS
877(48)
35. Poems for Further Reading
879(32)
MAYA ANGELOU,
Africa
879(1)
ANONYMOUS,
Bonny Barbara Allan
880(1)
WILLIAM BLAKE,
Infant Sorrow
881(1)
ROBERT BLY,
Snowfall in the Afternoon
881(1)
ANNE BRADSTREET,
Before the Birth of One of Her Children
881(1)
ROBERT BROWNING,
Meeting at Night
882(1)
ROBERT BROWNING,
Parting at Morning
882(1)
GEORGE GORDON, LORD BYRON,
She Walks in Beauty
883(1)
SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE,
Kubla Khan: or, a Vision in a Dream
883(2)
SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE,
Sonnet to the River Otter
885(1)
E. E. CUMMINGS,
Buffalo Bills
885(1)
GREGORY DJANIKIAN,
When I First Saw Snow
885(1)
JOHN DONNE,
The Flea
886(1)
THOMAS HARDY,
In Time of "The Breaking of Nations"
887(1)
JOY HARJO,
Fishing
887(1)
PRANCES E. W. HARPER,
Learning to Read
888(1)
ANTHONY HECHT,
The Dover Bitch
889(1)
GEORGE HERBERT,
The Collar
890(1)
M. CARL HOLMAN,
Mr. Z
891(1)
GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS,
Hurrahing in Harvest
892(1)
GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS,
Pied Beauty
892(1)
GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS,
The Windhoven
892(1)
A. E. HOUSMAN,
To an Athlete Dying Young
893(1)
BEN JONSON,
On My First Son
894(1)
JOHN KEATS,
La Belle Dame sans Merci
894(1)
JOHN KEATS,
To One Who Has Been Long in City Pent
895(1)
LI-YOUNG LEE,
Eating Together
896(1)
ARCHIBALD MacLEISH,
Ars Poetica
896(1)
W. S. MERWIN,
For the Anniversary of My Death
897(1)
EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY,
I, Being Born a Woman and Distressed
897(1)
JOHN MILTON,
When I consider how my light is spent
897(1)
N. SCOTT MOMADAY,
Crows in a Winter Composition
898(1)
MARIANNE MOORE,
Poetry
898(1)
SIR WALTER RALEGH,
The Nymphs Reply to the Shepherd
899(1)
CHRISTINA GEORGINA ROSSETTI,
Promises Like Pie-Crust
900(1)
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE,
That time of year thou mayst in me behold
900(1)
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE,
When forty winters shall besiege thy brow
901(1)
PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY,
Ozymandias
901(1)
GARY SOTO,
Black Hair
902(1)
WALLACE STEVENS,
The Emperor of Ice-Cream
903(1)
ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON,
Tears, Idle Tears
903(1)
PHILLIS WHEATLEY,
On Being Brought from Africa to America
904(1)
WALT WHITMAN,
Ones-Self I Sing
904(1)
WALT WHITMAN,
When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer
904(1)
MILLER WILLIAMS,
Thinking about Bill, Dead of AIDS
905(1)
WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS,
Spring and All
905(1)
WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS,
This Is Just to Say
906(1)
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH,
Lines Written in Early Spring
906(1)
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH,
Mutability
907(1)
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS,
Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop
907(1)
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS,
Sailing to Byzantium
908(1)
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS,
The Second Coming
909(1)
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS,
The Wild Swans at Coole
909(2)
36. An Album of Contemporary Poems
911(16)
BILLY COLLINS,
Marginalia
911(2)
MARTÍN ESPADA,
Coca-Cola and Coco Frio
913(1)
DEBORAH GARRISON,
The Boss
914(1)
JANE HIRSHFIELD,
The Lives of the Heart
915(2)
PHILIP LEVINE,
Reinventing America
917(1)
GAIL MAZUR,
Snake in the Grass
918(2)
ROBERT MORGAN,
Time's Music
920(1)
JOAN MURRAY,
Play-By-Play
921(1)
RONALD WALLACE,
Dogs
922(3)
DRAMA 925(574)
THE STUDY OF DKAMA
927(324)
37. Reading Drama
929(33)
Reading Drama Responsively
929(15)
SUSAN GLASPELL,
Trifles
931(11)
PERSPECTIVE: SUSAN GLASPELL, From the Short Story Version of Trifles
942(2)
Elements of Drama
944(4)
Drama in Popular Forms
948(14)
LARRY DAVID,
From "The Pitch, "a Seinfeld Episode
949(10)
PERSPECTIVE: ELAYNE RAPPING, On Television Sitcoms
959(3)
38. Writing about Drama
962(7)
From Reading to Writing
962(7)
Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing
963(1)
A SAMPLE PAPER: The Feminist Evidence in Trifles
964(5)
39. A Study of Sophocles
969(58)
PICTURE: Sophocles
969(1)
Theatrical Conventions of Greek Drama
970(3)
PHOTO: Drawing of a Classical Greek Theater
972(1)
Tragedy
973(45)
SOPHOCLES,
Oedipus the King (Translated by Robert Fagles)
975(43)
Perspectives on Sophocles
1018(8)
ARISTOTLE,
On Tragic Character
1018(2)
SIGMUND FREUD,
On the Oedipus Complex
1020(2)
SOPHOCLES,
Another Translation of a Scene from Oedipus the King
1022(2)
MURIEL RUKEYSER,
On Oedipus the King
1024(1)
BERNARD KNOX,
On Oedipus and Human Freedom
1025(1)
DAVID WILES,
On Oedipus the King as a Political Play
1026(1)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
1026(1)
40. A Study of William Shakespeare
1027(98)
PORTRAIT: William Shakespeare
1027(1)
Shakespeare's Theater
1028(4)
PHOTO: Drawing of the Globe Theatre
1031(1)
The Range of Shakespeare's Drama: History, Comedy, and Tragedy
1032(3)
A Note on Reading Shakespeare
1035(83)
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE,
Othello the Moor of Venice
1036(82)
Perspectives on Shakespeare
1118(6)
Objections to the Elizabethan Theater by the Mayor of London
1118(1)
LISA JARDINE,
On Boy Actors in Female Roles
1119(1)
SAMUEL JOHNSON,
On Shakespeare's Characters
1120(1)
JANE ADAMSON,
On Desdemona's Role in Othello
1121(1)
DAVID BEVINGTON,
On Othello s Heroic Struggle
1122(1)
JAMES KINCAID,
On the Value of Comedy in the Face of Tragedy
1122(2)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
1124(1)
41. Modern Drama
1125(56)
Realism
1125(2)
Naturalism
1127(1)
Theatrical Conventions of Modern Drama
1128(53)
HENRIK IBSEN,
A Doll House (Translated by Rolf Fjelde)
1129(50)
PERSPECTIVE: HENRIK IBSEN, Notes for A Doll House
1179(2)
42. A Critical Case Study: Henrik Ibsen's A Doll House
1181(12)
PHOTO: Henrik Ibsen
1181(1)
Perspectives
1182(10)
A Nineteenth-Century Husbands Letter to His Wife
1182(2)
RARRY WITHAM and JOHN LUTTERBIE,
A Marxist Approach to A Doll House
1184(2)
CAROL STRONGIN TUFTS,
A Psychoanalytic Reading of Nora
1186(2)
JOAN TEMPLETON,
Is A Doll House a Feminist Text?
1188(2)
Questions for Writing: Applying a Critical Strategy
1190(2)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
1192(1)
43. A Cultural Case Study: David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly
1193(58)
DAVID HENRY HWANG
1194(1)
PHOTO: David Henry Hwang
1194(2)
DAVID HENRY HWANG,
M. Butterfly
1196(46)
Documents
1242(8)
A Plot Synopsis o f Madame Butterfly
1242(1)
RICHARD BERNSTEIN,
The News Source for M. Butterfly
1243(2)
PHOTO: Shi Pei Pu in The Story of the Butterfly
1245(1)
FRANK RICH,
A Theater Review of M. Butterfly
1246(1)
DAVID SAVRAN,
An Interview with David Henry Hwang
1247(1)
JOHN LOUIS DiGAETANI,
An Interview with David Henry Hwang
1248(2)
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
1250(1)
A COLLECTI0N 0F PLAYS
1251(248)
44. Plays for Further Reading
1253(248)
TENNESSEE WILLIAMS,
The Glass Menagerie
1253(45)
PERSPECTIVE: TENNESSE WILLIAMS, Production Notes to The Glass Menagerie
1298(2)
PERSPECTIVE: TENNESSE WILLIAMS, On Theme
1300(1)
ARTHUR MILLER,
Death of a Salesman
1300(67)
PERSPECTIVE: ARTHUR MILLER,
Tragedy and the Common Man
1367(2)
PERSPECTIVE: ARTHUR MILLER,
On Biff and Wily Loman
1369(1)
LORRAINE HANSBERRY,
A Raisin in the Sun
1370(64)
PERSPECTIVE: THOMAS P. ADLER, The Political Basis of Lorraine Hansberry's Art
1434(1)
LUIS VALDEZ,
Los Vendidos
1435(8)
DAVID IVES,
Sure Thing
1443(7)
JOHN LEGUIZAMO,
From Mambo Mouth
1450(2)
DIANA SON,
Stop Kiss
1452(44)
JANE ANDERSON,
The Reprimand
1496(3)
CRITICAL THINKING AND WRITING 1499(90)
45 Critical Strategies for Reading
1501(27)
Critical Thinking
1501(2)
The Literary Canon: Diversity and Controversy
1503(2)
Formalist Strategies
1505(2)
Biographical Strategies
1507(2)
Psychological Strategies
1509(2)
Historical Strategies
1511(4)
Literary History Criticism
1512(1)
Marxist Criticism
1513(1)
New Historicist Criticism
1513(1)
Cultural Criticism
1514(1)
Gender Strategies
1515(2)
Feminist Criticism
1516(1)
Gay and Lesbian Criticism
1517(1)
Mythological Strategies
1517(2)
Reader-Response Strategies
1519(2)
Deconstructionist Strategies
1521(2)
Selected Bibliography
1523(5)
46. Reading and Writing
1528(36)
The Purpose and Value of Writing about Literature
1528(1)
Reading the Work Closely
1529(1)
Annotating the Text and Journal Note Taking
1530(2)
Choosing a Topic
1532(1)
Developing a Thesis
1533(3)
Arguing about Literature
1536(3)
Organizing a Paper
1539(1)
Writing a Draft
1540(3)
Writing the Introduction and Conclusion
1541(1)
Using Quotations
1542(1)
Revising and Editing
1543(2)
Revision Checklist
1544(1)
Manuscript Form
1545(1)
Types of Writing Assignments
1546(18)
Explication
1546(1)
A SAMPLE EXPLICATION: A Reading of Dickinson s "There's a certain Slant of light"
1547(1)
EMILY DICKINSON,
"There's a certain Slant of light"
1547(1)
A SAMPLE ANALYSIS: The A & P as a State of Mind
1552(4)
Comparison and Contrast
1556(9)
A SAMPLE COMPARISON: The Struggle for Women's Self Definition in A Doll House and M. Butterfly
1559(5)
47. The Literary Research Paper
1564(20)
Choosing a Topic
1565(1)
Finding Sources
1565(4)
Annotated List of References
1566(1)
Electronic Sources
1567(1)
Online Resources for Research and Writing
1568(1)
Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes
1569(2)
Developing a Thesis and Organizing the Paper
1571(1)
Revising
1572(1)
Documenting Sources
1572(12)
The List of Works Cited
1574(3)
Parenthetical References
1577(1)
A SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER: How the Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily
1578(6)
48. Taking Essay Examinations
1584(5)
Preparing for an Essay Exam
1584(2)
Keep Up with the Reading
1584(1)
Take Notes and Annotate the Text
1584(1)
Anticipate Questions
1585(1)
Types of Exams
1586(1)
Closed-Book versus Open-Book Exams
1586(1)
Essay Questions
1586(1)
Strategies for Writing Essay Exams
1587(2)
Glossary of Literary Terms 1589
Index of First Lines
1622(4)
Index of Authors and Titles
1626
Index of Terms
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