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The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature; Reading, Thinking, Writing

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780312434458

ISBN10:
0312434456
Format:
Trade Paper
Pub. Date:
5/13/2005
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 5/13/2005.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

This new compact edition ofThe Bedford Introduction to Literatureoffers all the distinctive features of Michael Meyer's best-selling introduction to literature in a shorter, less expensive paperback format. A generous and vibrant selection of stories, poems, and plays are supported by editorial features proven to help students read, think, and write effectively about literature. Now featuring unique visual portfolios and a CD-ROM packed with activities and contextual material, the new edition brings literature to life for students like never before.

Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors vii
Introduction: Reading Imaginative Literature 1(1)
The Nature of Literature
1(3)
Emily Dickinson, A narrow Fellow in the Grass
2(2)
The Value of Literature
4(2)
The Changing Literary Canon
6(3)
FICTION
9(2)
The Elements of Fiction
11(290)
Reading Fiction
13(33)
Reading Fiction Responsively
13(10)
Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
15(1)
Photo: Kate Chopin
15(1)
A Sample Close Reading: An Annotated Section of ``The Story of an Hour''
16(3)
A Sample Paper: Differences in Responses to Kate Chopin's ``The Story of an Hour''
19(4)
Explorations and Formulas
23(6)
A Composite of a Romance Tip Sheet
25(3)
Photo: Romance Novel Cover
28(1)
A Comparison of Two Stories
29(17)
Karen Van Der Zee, From A Secret Sorrow
30(8)
Gail Godwin, A Sorrowful Woman
38(1)
Photo: Gail Godwin
38(5)
Perspective: Kay Mussell, Are Feminism and Romance Novels Mutually Exclusive?
43(2)
Perspective: Thomas Jefferson, On the Dangers of Reading Fiction
45(1)
Writing about Fiction
46(17)
From Reading to Writing
46(17)
Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing
47(2)
A Sample Paper in Progress
49(1)
First Response
50(1)
Brainstorming
50(1)
Revising: First and Second Drafts
51(8)
A Sample Paper, Final Draft: Fulfillment or Failure? Marriage in A Secret Sorrow and ``A Sorrowful Woman''
59(4)
Plot
63(41)
Edgar Rice Burroughs, From Tarzan of the Apes
66
Photo: Edgar Rice Burroughs
65(1)
Cover: All-Story Magazine, 1912 (Tarzan Issue)
65(8)
Joyce Carol Oates, Three Girls
73(1)
Photo: Joyce Carol Oates
73(7)
William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily
80(1)
Photo: William Faulkner
80(7)
Perspective: William Faulkner, On ``A Rose for Emily''
87(2)
Andre Dubus, Killings
89(1)
Photo: Andre Dubus
89(13)
Perspective: A. L. Bader, Nothing Happens in Modern Short Stories
102(2)
Character
104(47)
Charles Dickens, From Hard Times
105(1)
Portrait: Charles Dickens
105(5)
May-Lee Chai, Saving Sourdi
110(1)
Photo: May-lee Chai
110(14)
Herman Melville, Bartleby, the Scrivener
124
Photo: Herman Melville
123(26)
Perspective: Nathaniel Hawthorne, On Herman Melville's Philosophic Stance
149(2)
Setting
151(22)
Ernest Hemingway, Soldier's Home
154
Photo: Ernest Hemingway
153(7)
Perspective: Ernest Hemingway, On What Every Writer Needs
160(1)
Fay Weldon, Ind AFF, or Out of Love in Sarajevo
161
Photo: Fay Weldon
160(7)
Perspective: Fay Weldon, On the Importance of Place in ``IND AFF''
167(1)
Helena Maria Viramontes, The Moths
168(5)
Point of View
173(38)
Third-Person Narrator (Nonparticipant)
174(2)
First-Person Narrator (Participant)
176(35)
Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Pet Dog
179
Photo: Anton Chekhov
178(12)
Perspective: Anton Chekhov, On Morality in Fiction
190(1)
Joyce Carol Oates, The Lady with the Pet Dog
191(13)
Perspective: Matthew C. Brennan, Point of View and Plotting in Chekhov's and Oates's ``The Lady with the Pet Dog''
204(3)
Alice Walker, Roselily
207
Photo: Alice Walker
206(5)
Symbolism
211(28)
Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Clothes
214(1)
Photo: Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni
214(9)
Colette [Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette], The Hand
223(3)
Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal
226(1)
Photo: Ralph Ellison
226(11)
Perspective: Mordecai Marcus, What Is an Initiation Story?
237(2)
Theme
239(20)
Stephen Crane, The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky
243(1)
Photo: Stephen Crane
243(9)
Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill
252
Photo: Katherine Mansfield
251(5)
Dagoberto Gilb, Love in L.A.
256
Photo: Dagoberto Gilb
255(4)
Style, Tone, and Irony
259(31)
Style
259(2)
Tone
261(1)
Irony
262(28)
Raymond Carver, Popular Mechanics
264(1)
Photo: Raymond Carver
264(2)
Perspective: John Barth, On Minimalist Fiction
266(1)
T. Coraghessan Boyle, Carnal Knowledge
267(1)
Photo: T. Coraghessan Boyle
267(15)
Susan Minot, Lust
282(1)
Photo: Susan Minot
282(8)
Combining the Elements of Fiction
290(11)
The Elements Together
290(1)
Mapping the Story
291(10)
David Updike, Summer
292
Photo: David Updike
291(6)
Questions for Writing: Developing a Topic into a Thesis
297(4)
Approaches to Fiction
301(192)
A Study of Nathaniel Hawthorne
303(42)
A Brief Biography and Introduction
305(35)
Portrait: Nathaniel Hawthorne, by Charles Osgood
304(1)
Portrait: Sophia Peabody, by Chester Harding [?]
304(1)
Photo: The Hawthorne Children
304(3)
Photo: Old Manse Garden
307(1)
Photo: Nathaniel Hawthorne
308(1)
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown
309(7)
Image: The Witch of the Woodlands
316(3)
Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Minister's Black Veil
319(9)
Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Birthmark
328(12)
Perspectives
340(5)
Nathaniel Hawthorne, On Solitude
340(1)
Nathaniel Hawthorne, On the Power of the Writer's Imagination
341(2)
Nathaniel Hawthorne, On His Short Stories
343(1)
Herman Melville, On Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tragic Vision
343(2)
A Study of Flannery O'Connor
345(51)
A Brief Biography and Introduction
346(45)
Photo: Flannery O'Connor, Age 12
347(1)
Photo: Flannery O'Connor as a Teen
347(1)
Photo: Flannery O'Connor (with Self-Portrait)
347(1)
Photo: Flannery O'Connor and the Corinthian Staff
348(1)
Cartoon: ``Targets Are Where You Find 'Em,'' from The Colonnade
348(2)
Photo: Flannery O'Connor at Andalusia
350(1)
Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find
351(11)
Flannery O'Connor, Good Country People
362(14)
Flannery O'Connor, Revelation
376(15)
Perspectives
391(5)
Flannery O'Connor, On Faith
391(1)
Flannery O'Connor, On the Materials of Fiction
392(1)
Flannery O'Connor, On the Use of Exaggeration and Distortion
392(1)
Josephine Hendin, On O'Connor's Refusal to ``Do Pretty''
393(1)
Claire Kahane, The Function of Violence in O'Connor's Fiction
394(1)
Edward Kessler, On O'Connor's Use of History
394(2)
A Critical Case Study: William Faulkner's ``Barn Burning''
396(30)
Photo: William Faulkner
397(1)
Photo: Oxford Hardware Store
398(1)
Photo: Oxford's General Store
398(1)
Photo: Rowan Oak, William Faulkner's Home
399(1)
Photo: Faulkner at His Writing Desk
399(1)
William Faulkner, Barn Burning
400(13)
Perspectives
413(1)
Jane Hiles, Blood Ties in ``Barn Burning''
413(1)
Benjamin DeMott, Abner Snopes as a Victim of Class
414(2)
Gayle Edward Wilson, Conflict in ``Barn Burning''
416(3)
James Ferguson, Narrative Strategy in ``Barn Burning''
419(1)
Questions for Writing: Incorporating the Critics
420(2)
A Sample Paper (Excerpt): The Fires of Class Conflict in ``Barn Burning''
422(4)
A Cultural Case Study: James Joyce's ``Eveline''
426(18)
A Brief Biography and Introduction
427(17)
Image: ``Eveline'' in The Irish Homestead
430(1)
Photo: James Joyce
430(1)
Drawing: Desmond Harmsworth, ``Joyce at Midnight''
431(1)
Photo: James Joyce, Nora Barnacle, and Friends
431(1)
Photo: James Joyce in Paris
431(1)
James Joyce, Eveline
432(4)
Documents
436(1)
Photo: Poole Street, Dublin
436(1)
Resources of Ireland (from The Alliance Temperance Almanack for 1910)
437(3)
A Letter Home from an Irish Emigrant in Australia
440(1)
A Plot Synopsis of The Bohemian Girl
441(1)
Poster: The Bohemian Girl
442(2)
A Thematic Case Study: The Literature of the South
444(18)
Map: The South, according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census
445(1)
John Shelton Reed and Dale Volberg Reed, Definitions of the South
446(1)
W.J. Cash, The Old and the New South
447(1)
Movie Still: Vivien Leigh in Gone with the Wind
448(1)
Lithograph: Currier and Ives, The Old Plantation Home
449(1)
Irving Howe, The Southern Myth
449(2)
Painting: John Richards, The Battle of Gettysburg
451(1)
Flannery O'Connor, The Regional Writer
452(1)
Painting: Clyde Broadway, Trinity--Elvis, Jesus, and Robert E. Lee
453(1)
Margaret Walker, The Southern Writer and Race
453(1)
Photo: Ernest C. Withers, ``Bus Station, Colored Waiting Room, Memphis, Tennessee''
454(1)
Photo: Elizabeth Eckford at Little Rock Central High School
455(1)
Photo: Ernest C. Withers, ``Sanitation Workers' Strike, Memphis, Tennessee''
455(1)
Richard Wright, The Ethics of Living Jim Crow
456(1)
Collage: Romare Bearden, Watching the Good Trains Go By
457(1)
Donald R. Noble, The Future of Southern Writing
458(2)
Lee Smith, On Southern Change and Permanence
460(2)
A Thematic Case Study: The Nature of Storytelling
462(31)
Metafiction
463(20)
Margaret Atwood, There Was Once
464
Photo: Margaret Atwood
462(5)
Lorrie Moore, How to Become a Writer
467
Photo: Lorrie Moore
466(7)
Tim O'Brien, How to Tell a True War Story
473
Photo: Tim O'Brien
472(11)
Encountering Fiction: Comics and Graphic Stories
483(10)
Comic Strip: Matt Groening, Life in Hell
484(1)
Comic Strip: Lynda Barry, Spelling
485(1)
Graphic Story: Edward Gorey, from The Hapless Child
486(3)
Graphic Story: Marjane Satrapi, ``The Trip,'' from Persepolis
489(4)
A Collection of Stories
493(66)
An Album of Contemporary Stories
495(21)
Amy Bloom, By-and-by
496
Photo: Amy Bloom
495(7)
A. S. Byatt, Baglady
502
Photo: A. S. Byatt
501(4)
Richard Russo, The Whore's Child
505(1)
Photo: Richard Russo
505(11)
Stories for Further Reading
516(43)
Jamaica Kincaid, Girl
517
Photo: Jamaica Kincaid
516(3)
D. H. Lawrence, The Horse Dealer's Daughter
519
Photo: D. H. Lawrence
518(13)
Alice Munro, An Ounce of Cure
531
Photo: Alice Munro
530(9)
Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado
539
Photo: Edgar Allan Poe
538(6)
E. Annie Proulx, 55 Miles to the Gas Pump
544(1)
John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums
545
Photo: John Steinbeck
544(9)
John Updike, A & P
553
Photo: John Updike
552(7)
POETRY
559(2)
The Elements of Poetry
561(240)
Reading Poetry
563(42)
Reading Poetry Responsively
563(3)
Marge Piercy, The Secretary Chant
564(1)
Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays
565(1)
John Updike, Dog's Death
566(1)
The Pleasure of Words
566(16)
William Hathaway, Oh, Oh
568(1)
Photo: William Hathaway
568(1)
A Sample Close Reading: An Annotated Version of ``Oh, Oh''
568(2)
Robert Francis, Catch
570(1)
A Sample Student Analysis: Tossing Metaphors Together in ``Catch''
571(3)
Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish
574(1)
Photo: Elizabeth Bishop
574(2)
Philip Larkin, A Study of Reading Habits
576(2)
Robert Morgan, Mountain Graveyard
578(1)
E. E. Cummings, l(a
579(1)
Photo: E. E. Cummings
579(1)
Anonymous, Western Wind
580(1)
Regina Barreca, Nighttime Fires
581(1)
Suggestions for Approaching Poetry
582(3)
Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry
584(1)
Encountering Poetry: Images of Poetry in Popular Culture
585(8)
Poster: Dorothy Parker, ``Unfortunate Coincidence''
586(1)
Photo: Carl Sandburg, ``Window''
587(1)
Photo: Philip Levine and Terry Allen, ``Corporate Head''
588(1)
Cartoon: Roz Chast, ``The Love Song of J. Alfred Crew''
589(1)
Photo: Tim Taylor, ``I shake the delicate apparatus''
590(1)
Poster and Photos: Eric Dunn, Mike Wigton, and David Huang, National Poetry Slam
591(1)
Web Site: Poetry-portal.com
592(1)
Poetry in Popular Forms
593(6)
Helen Farries, Magic of Love
594(1)
John Frederick Nims, Love Poem
594(2)
Bruce Springsteen, You're Missing
596(1)
Saundra Sharp, It's the Law: A Rap Poem
597(1)
Perspective: Robert Francis, On ``Hard'' Poetry
598(1)
Poems for Further Study
599(6)
Rudyard Kipling, If---
599(1)
Alberto Rios, Seniors
600(1)
Photo: Alberto Rios
600(2)
Li Ho, A Beautiful Girl Combs Her Hair
602(1)
Luisa Lopez, Junior Year Abroad
603(2)
Writing about Poetry
605(7)
From Reading to Writing
605(7)
Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing
606(1)
Elizabeth Bishop, Manners
607(1)
A Sample Student Analysis: Memory in Elizabeth Bishop's ``Manners''
608(4)
Word Choice, Word Order, and Tone
612(32)
Word Choice
612(6)
Diction
612(2)
Denotations and Connotations
614(1)
Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
615(2)
E. E. Cummings, she being Brand
617(1)
Word Order
618(1)
Tone
619(3)
Ted Kooser, Year's End
619(1)
Katharyn Howd Machan, Hazel Tells LaVerne
620(1)
Martin Espada, Latin Night at the Pawnshop
621(1)
Pat Mora, Veiled
621(1)
Diction and Tone in Four Love Poems
622(9)
Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time
622(1)
Portrait: Robert Herrick
622(2)
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
624(1)
Portrait: Andrew Marvell
624(1)
Perspective: Bernard Duyfhuizen, ``To His Coy Mistress'': On How a Female Might Respond
625(2)
Richard Wilbur, A Late Aubade
627(1)
Diane Ackerman, A Fine, a Private Place
628(3)
Poems for Further Study
631(8)
Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain
631(1)
David R. Slavitt, Titanic
632(1)
Sharon Olds, Sex without Love
633(1)
John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn
634(2)
Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool
636(1)
Eric Ormsby, Nose
637(1)
Alice Jones, The Larynx
637(1)
Louis Simpson, In the Suburbs
638(1)
A Note on Reading Translations
639(5)
Four Translations of a Poem by Sappho
640(1)
Portrait: Sappho
640(1)
Sappho, Immortal Aphrodite of the broidered throne
640(1)
Henry T. Wharton
Sappho, Beautiful-throned, immortal Aphrodite
641(1)
T. W. Higginson
Sappho, Prayer to my lady of Paphos
642(1)
Mary Barnard
Sappho, Artfully adorned Aphrodite, deathless
642(2)
Jim Powell
Images
644(21)
Poetry's Appeal to the Senses
644(8)
William Carlos Williams, Poem
645(1)
Photo: William Carlos Williams
645(1)
Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford
646(1)
David Solway, Windsurfing
646(2)
Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar
648(1)
Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach
649(1)
Jimmy Santiago Baca, Green Chile
650(2)
Poems for Further Study
652(13)
Mary Robinson, London's Summer Morning
652(1)
William Blake, London
653(1)
Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est
654(1)
Patricia Smith, What It's Like to Be a Black Girl (for Those of You Who Aren't)
655(1)
Photo: Patricia Smith
655(1)
Rainer Maria Rilke, The Panther
656(1)
Jane Kenyon, The Blue Bowl
656(1)
Sally Croft, Home-Baked Bread
657(1)
Mark Jarman, Ground Swell
658(2)
John Keats, To Autumn
660(1)
Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro
661(1)
Photo: Ezra Pound
661(1)
Cathy Song, The White Porch
661(2)
Perspective: T. E. Hulme, On the Differences between Poetry and Prose
663(2)
Figures of Speech
665(18)
William Shakespeare, From Macbeth (Act V, scene v)
666(1)
Simile and Metaphor
667(3)
Margaret Atwood, you fit into me
667(1)
Photo: Margaret Atwood
667(1)
Emily Dickinson, Presentiment--is that long Shadow -- on the lawn---
668(1)
Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book
669(1)
Other Figures
670(4)
Edmund Conti, Pragmatist
670(1)
Dylan Thomas, The Hand That Signed the Paper
671(1)
Photo: Dylan Thomas
671(1)
Janice Townley Moore, To a Wasp
672(2)
J. Patrick Lewis, The Unkindest Cut
674(1)
Poems for Further Study
674(9)
Margaret Atwood, February
674(1)
Ernest Slyman, Lightning Bugs
675(1)
Sylvia Plath, Mirror
676(1)
Photo: Sylvia Plath
676(1)
William Wordsworth, London, 1802
676(1)
Jim Stevens, Schizophrenia
677(1)
John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
678(1)
Linda Pastan, Marks
679(1)
Ronald Wallace, Building an Outhouse
680(1)
Ruth Fainlight, The Clarinettist
680(1)
Perspective: John R. Searle, Figuring Out Metaphors
681(2)
Symbol, Allegory, and Irony
683(22)
Symbol
683(3)
Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night
684(2)
Allegory
686(2)
Edgar Allan Poe, The Haunted Palace
686(2)
Irony
688(3)
Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory
688(1)
Kenneth Fearing, AD
689(1)
E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america I
690(1)
Stephen Crane, A Man Said to the Universe
691(1)
Poems for Further Study
691(14)
Jane Kenyon, Surprise
691(1)
Photo: Jane Kenyon
691(1)
Martin Espada, Bully
692(1)
Carl Sandburg, Buttons
693(1)
William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark
694(1)
Alden Nowlan, The Bull Moose
695(1)
Julio Marzan, Ethnic Poetry
696(1)
James Merrill, Casual Wear
697(1)
Henry Reed, Naming of Parts
698(1)
John Ciardi, Suburban
699(1)
Robert Browning, My Last Duchess
700(1)
Portrait: Robert Browning
700(1)
William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper
701(1)
Lorna Dee Cervantes, To We Who Were Saved by the Stars
702(1)
Bob Hicok, Spam leaves an aftertaste
703(1)
Perspective: Ezra Pound, On Symbols
704(1)
Sounds
705(25)
Listening to Poetry
705(7)
Anonymous, Scarborough Fair
706(1)
John Updike, Player Piano
707(1)
May Swenson, A Nosty Fright
708(1)
Emily Dickinson, A Bird came down the Walk---
709(2)
Galway Kinnell, Blackberry Eating
711(1)
Photo: Galway Kinnell
711(1)
Rhyme
712(4)
Richard Armour, Going to Extremes
712(1)
Robert Southey, From ``The Cataract of Lodore''
713(2)
Perspective: David Lenson, On the Contemporary Use of Rhyme
715(1)
Sound and Meaning
716(2)
Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur
716(2)
Poems for Further Study
718(12)
Amy Lowell, Summer Rain
718(1)
Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), Jabberwocky
718(1)
Sylvia Plath, Mushrooms
719(1)
William Heyen, The Trains
720(1)
John Donne, Song
721(1)
Rachel Hadas, Thick and Thin
722(1)
Alexander Pope, From An Essay on Criticism
723(1)
Gwendolyn Brooks, Sadie and Maud
724(1)
Maxine Hong Kingston, Restaurant
725(1)
Photo: Maxine Hong Kingston
725(1)
Paul Humphrey, Blow
726(1)
Robert Francis, The Pitcher
726(1)
Helen Chasin, The Word Plum
727(1)
Perspective: Dylan Thomas, On the Words in Poetry
728(2)
Patterns of Rhythm
730(19)
Some Principles of Meter
731(4)
Walt Whitman, From ``Song of the Open Road''
731(3)
William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up
734(1)
Suggestions for Scanning a Poem
735(2)
Timothy Steele, Waiting for the Storm
736(1)
William Butler Yeats, That the Night Come
736(1)
Poems for Further Study
737(12)
Alice Jones, The Foot
737(1)
A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty
738(1)
Virginia Hamilton Adair, Pro Snake
739(1)
Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder
739(1)
Ben Jonson, Still to Be Neat
740(1)
Diane Burns, Sure You Can Ask Me a Personal Question
741(1)
William Blake, The Lamb
742(1)
Portrait: William Blake
742(1)
William Blake, The Tyger
743(1)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Charge of the Light Brigade
744(1)
Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz
745(1)
Norman Stock, What I Said
746(1)
Edward Hirsch, Fast Break
747(1)
Perspective: Louise Bogan, On Formal Poetry
748(1)
Poetic Forms
749(25)
Some Common Poetic Forms
750(22)
A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now
750(1)
Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes
751(1)
Sonnet
752(1)
John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
753(1)
Portrait: John Keats
753(1)
William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us
754(1)
William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
755(1)
William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun
755(1)
Edna St. Vincent Millay, I will put Chaos into fourteen lines
756(1)
Molly Peacock, Desire
757(1)
Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet
757(1)
Villanelle
758(1)
Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night
758(1)
Sestina
759(1)
Algernon Charles Swinburne, Sestina
759(2)
Florence Cassen Mayers, All-American Sestina
761(1)
Epigram
762(1)
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, What Is an Epigram?
762(1)
A. R. Ammons, Coward
762(1)
David McCord, Epitaph on a Waiter
762(1)
Paul Laurence Dunbar, Theology
763(1)
Photo: Paul Laurence Dunbar
763(1)
Limerick
763(1)
Anonymous, There was a young lady named Bright
763(1)
Laurence Perrine, The limerick's never averse
764(1)
Keith Casto, She Don't Bop
764(1)
Haiku
764(1)
Matsuo Basho, Under cherry trees
765(1)
Carolyn Kizer, After Basho
765(1)
Sonia Sanchez, c'mon man hold me
765(1)
Elegy
765(1)
Seamus Heaney, Mid-term Break
766(1)
Ode
767(1)
Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind
767(2)
Joy Harjo, Perhaps the World Ends Here
769(1)
Photo: Joy Harjo
769(1)
Picture Poem
770(1)
Michael McFee, In Medias Res
770(1)
Parody
771(1)
X. J. Kennedy, A Visit from St. Sigmund
771(1)
Perspectives
772(2)
Robert Morgan, On the Shape of a Poem
772(1)
Elaine Mitchell, Form
773(1)
Open Form
774(17)
E. E. Cummings, in Just
774(1)
Walt Whitman, From ``I Sing the Body Electric''
775(1)
Portrait: Walt Whitman
776(1)
Perspective: Walt Whitman, On Rhyme and Meter
777(1)
Galway Kinnell, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps
778(1)
Kelly Cherry, Alzheimer's
779(1)
William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow
780(1)
Judith Ortiz Cofer, Latin Women Pray
780(1)
Photo: Judith Ortiz Cofer
780(1)
Gary Gildner, First Practice
781(1)
Marilyn Nelson Waniek, Emily Dickinson's Defunct
781(1)
Robert Hass, A Story about the Body
782(1)
Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage
783(1)
Julio Marzan, The Translator at the Reception for Latin American Writers
784(1)
Aurora Levins Morales, Child of the Americas
785(1)
Photo: Aurora Levins Morales
785(1)
Tato Laviera, American
786(2)
Peter Meinke, The ABC of Aerobics
788(1)
Gary Soto, Mexicans Begin Jogging
789(1)
Photo: Gary Soto
789(1)
Found Poem
790(1)
Donald Justice, Order in the Streets
790(1)
Combining the Elements of Poetry
791(10)
The Elements Together
791(1)
Mapping the Poem
792(1)
John Donne, Death Be Not Proud
793(1)
Portrait: John Donne
793(1)
Asking Questions about the Elements
793(2)
A Sample First Response
794(1)
Organizing Your Thoughts
795(1)
A Sample Informal Outline
795(1)
The Elements and Theme
796(5)
A Sample Explication: The Use of Conventional Metaphors for Death in John Donne's ``Death Be Not Proud''
796(5)
Approaches to Poetry
801(144)
A Study of Emily Dickinson
803(41)
A Brief Biography
804(5)
Portrait: Silhouette of Emily Dickinson
805(1)
Photo: Emily Dickinson
805(1)
Photo: Emily Dickinson (Not Authenticated)
805(1)
Photo: Edward Dickinson
806(1)
Image: Illustrated Letter to William Cowper Dickinson
806(1)
Photo: Dickinson Homestead
806(1)
Photo: The Evergreens (Home of Austin and Susan Dickinson)
807(1)
Photo: Susan Dickinson
807(1)
Image: Cartoon in Letter to Susan Dickinson
807(2)
An Introduction to Her Work
809(20)
Facsimile: Manuscript Page, ``What Soft---Cherubic Creatures---''
809(1)
Emily Dickinson, If I can stop one Heart from breaking
810(1)
Emily Dickinson, If I shouldn't be alive
811(1)
Emily Dickinson, The Thought beneath so slight a film
812(1)
Emily Dickinson, To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee
813(1)
Emily Dickinson, Success is counted sweetest
813(1)
Emily Dickinson, Water, is taught by thirst
814(1)
Emily Dickinson, Safe in their Alabaster Chambers---(1859 version)
814(1)
Emily Dickinson, Safe in their Alabaster Chambers---(1861 version)
815(1)
Emily Dickinson, Papa above!
815(1)
Emily Dickinson, Portraits are to daily faces
816(1)
Emily Dickinson, Some keep the Sabbath going to Church
817(1)
Emily Dickinson, ``Heaven''---is what I cannot reach!
817(1)
Emily Dickinson, I like a look of Agony
818(1)
Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights---Wild Nights!
819(1)
Emily Dickinson, I'm ceded---I've stopped being Theirs
819(1)
Emily Dickinson, What Soft---Cherubic Creatures
820(1)
Emily Dickinson, The Soul selects her own Society
821(1)
Emily Dickinson, Much Madness is divinest Sense
821(1)
Emily Dickinson, I dwell in Possibility
822(1)
Emily Dickinson, After great pain, a formal feeling comes
823(1)
Emily Dickinson, I heard a Fly buzz---when I died
823(1)
Emily Dickinson, The Props assist the House
824(1)
Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death
824(1)
Emily Dickinson, I felt a Cleaving in my Mind
825(1)
Emily Dickinson, Volcanoes be in Sicily
826(1)
Emily Dickinson, Oh Sumptuous moment
826(1)
Emily Dickinson, The Bustle in a House
827(1)
Emily Dickinson, Tell all the Truth but tell it slant
827(1)
Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence
828(1)
Perspectives
829(15)
Emily Dickinson, A Description of Herself
829(1)
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, On Meeting Dickinson for the First Time
830(1)
Mabel Loomis Todd, The Character of Amherst
831(1)
Richard Wilbur, On Dickinson's Sense of Privation
831(1)
Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, On Dickinson's White Dress
832(1)
Photo: Emily Dickinson's White Dress
833(1)
Cynthia Griffin Wolff, On the Many Voices in Dickinson's Poetry
834(1)
Paula Bennett, On ``I heard a Fly buzz---when I died---''
835(1)
Martha Nell Smith, On ``Because I could not stop for Death---''
836(1)
Ronald Wallace, Miss Goff
837(1)
Questions for Writing about an Author in Depth
838(1)
A Sample In-Depth Study
839(1)
Emily Dickinson, ``Faith'' is a fine invention
839(1)
Emily Dickinson, I know that He exists
840(1)
Emily Dickinson, I never saw a Moor
840(1)
Emily Dickinson, Apparently with no surprise
840(1)
A Sample Paper: Religious Faith in Four Poems by Emily Dickinson
841(3)
A Study of Robert Frost
844(32)
A Brief Biography
845(3)
Photo: Robert Frost, Age 18
845(1)
Photo: Robert Frost in Franconia
846(1)
Photo: Robert Frost in Shaftsbury
847(1)
An Introduction to His Work
848(19)
Facsimile: Manuscript Page, ``Neither Out Far nor In Deep''
849(2)
Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken
851(1)
Robert Frost, The Pasture
852(1)
Robert Frost, Mowing
853(1)
Robert Frost, Mending Wall
853(2)
Robert Frost, Home Burial
855(3)
Robert Frost, After Apple-Picking
858(1)
Robert Frost, Birches
859(2)
Robert Frost, ``Out, Out---''
861(1)
Robert Frost, Gathering Leaves
862(1)
Robert Frost, Fire and Ice
863(1)
Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
863(1)
Robert Frost, Design
864(1)
Robert Frost, Neither Out Far nor In Deep
865(1)
Robert Frost, The Silken Tent
865(1)
Robert Frost, Never Again Would Birds' Song Be the Same
866(1)
Robert Frost, The Gift Outright
866(1)
Perspectives
867(9)
Robert Frost, ``In White'': An Early Version of ``Design''
867(1)
Robert Frost, On the Living Part of a Poem
868(1)
Amy Lowell, On Frost's Realistic Technique
868(1)
Robert Frost, On the Figure a Poem Makes
869(2)
Robert Frost, On the Way to Read a Poem
871(1)
Herbert R. Coursen Jr., A Parodic Interpretation of ``Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening''
872(1)
Blanche Farley, The Lover Not Taken
873(1)
Peter D. Poland, On ``Neither Out Far nor In Deep''
874(2)
A Study of Langston Hughes
876(31)
A Brief Biography
877(2)
Photo: Langston Hughes
877(1)
Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers
878(1)
An Introduction to His Work
879(22)
Portrait: Winold Reiss, Langston Hughes
880(1)
Facsimile: Manuscript Page, ``Old Walt''
881(1)
Photo: James VanDerZee, Harlem Couple
882(1)
Photo: Langston Hughes at McCarthy Hearings
883(1)
Langston Hughes, I, Too
884(1)
Langston Hughes, Negro
885(1)
Langston Hughes, Danse Africaine
886(1)
Langston Hughes, Mother to Son
886(1)
Langston Hughes, Justice
887(1)
Langston Hughes, Dream Variations
887(1)
Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues
888(1)
Langston Hughes, Formula
889(1)
Langston Hughes, Lenox Avenue: Midnight
890(1)
Langston Hughes, Song for a Dark Girl
891(1)
Langston Hughes, Red Silk Stockings
891(1)
Langston Hughes, Rent-Party Shout: For a Lady Dancer
892(1)
Langston Hughes, Ballad of the Landlord
893(1)
Langston Hughes, Ku Klux
894(1)
Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie
894(1)
Langston Hughes, Harlem
895(1)
Langston Hughes, Un-American Investigators
896(1)
Langston Hughes, Poet to Bigot
897(1)
Langston Hughes, Old Walt
897(1)
Langston Hughes, Dinner Guest: Me
898(1)
Langston Hughes, Frederick Douglass: 1817--1895
899(1)
Langston Hughes, The Backlash Blues
900(1)
Perspectives
901(6)
Langston Hughes, On Racial Shame and Pride
901(1)
Langston Hughes, On Harlem Rent Parties
902(1)
Donald B. Gibson, The Essential Optimism of Hughes and Whitman
903(1)
James A. Emanuel, Hughes's Attitudes toward Religion
904(1)
David Chinitz, The Romanticization of African in the 1920s
904(3)
A Critical Case Study: T. S. Eliot's ``The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock''
907(19)
Photo: T. S. Eliot, 1906
908(1)
Photo: T. S. Eliot, 1910
908(1)
Photo: T. S. Eliot, 1959
909(2)
Portrait: Wyndham Lewis, T. S. Eliot
911
T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
910(4)
Perspectives
914(12)
Elisabeth Schneider, Hints of Eliot in Prufrock
914(1)
Barbara Everett, The Problem of Tone in Prufrock
915(1)
Michael L. Baumann, The ``Overwhelming Question'' for Prufrock
916(2)
Frederik L. Rusch, Society and Character in ``The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock''
918(3)
Robert Sward, A Personal Analysis of ``The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock''
921(5)
Two Thematic Case Studies: The Love Poem and Teaching and Learning
926(19)
Poems about Love
927(7)
Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
927(1)
William Shakespeare, Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
928(1)
Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband
929(1)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways
930(1)
Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo
931(1)
Photo: Edna St. Vincent Millay
931(1)
E. E. Cummings, since feeling is first
932(1)
Jane Kenyon, The Shirt
933(1)
Gail Mazur, Desire
933(1)
Poems about Teaching and Learning
934(11)
Langston Hughes, Theme for English B
935(1)
Linda Pastan, Pass/Fail
936(1)
Paul Zimmer, Zimmer's Head Thudding against the Blackboard
937(1)
Mark Halliday, Graded Paper
938(1)
Judy Page Heitzman, The Schoolroom on the Second Floor of the Knitting Mill
939(1)
Jeffrey Harrison, Fork
940(2)
Perspective: Jeffrey Harrison, On ``Fork'' as a Work of Fiction
942(3)
A Thematic Case Study: Border Crossings Between
Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America
Diagram: 18th-Century Slaveship
Painting: Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Slave Ship
Advertisement: 1784 Slave Auction
Wole Soyinka, Telephone Conversation
Poster: Columbia Pictures, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner?
Pat Mora, Legal Alien
Image: Jacalyn Lopez Garcia, ``I Just Wanted to Be Me''
Sandra M. Gilbert, Mafioso
Photo: ``Baggage Examined Here''
Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Indian Movie, New Jersey
Soundtrack Cover: Rawal Films, Ladki Pasand Hai (I Like This Girl)
Janice Mirikitani, Recipe
Photo: Chiaki Tsukumo, ``Girl with Licca Doll''
Thomas Lynch, Liberty
Photo: Alex MacLean, ``Somerville, Massachusetts''
An Anthology of Poems
945(48)
An Album of Contemporary Poems
947(13)
Michelle Boisseau, Self-Pity's Closet
947(1)
Billy Collins, Marginalia
948(3)
Stephen Dobyns, Do They Have a Reason?
951(1)
Jane Hirshfield, The Lives of the Heart
952(1)
Joan Murray, Play-by-Play
953(2)
Alberto Rios, The Gathering Evening
955(1)
Cathy Song, A Poet in the House
956(1)
Photo: Cathy Song
956(1)
William Trowbridge, Poets' Corner
957(2)
Ronald Wallace, Dogs
959(1)
A Collection of Poems
960(33)
Maya Angelou, Africa
960(1)
Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan
961(1)
William Blake, The Garden of Love
962(1)
William Blake, Infant Sorrow
962(1)
Anne Bradstreet, Before the Birth of One of Her Children
963(1)
Gwendolyn Brooks, a song in the front yard
963(1)
George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty
964(1)
Lucille Clifton, this morning (for the girls of eastern high school)
965(1)
Photo: Lucille Clifton
965(1)
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan: or, a Vision in a Dream
965(2)
E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill's
967(1)
John Donne, The Flea
967(1)
Louise Erdrich, Dear John Wayne
968(1)
Photo: Louise Erdrich
968(1)
Thomas Hardy, Hap
969(1)
Anthony Hecht, The Dover Bitch
969(1)
Felicia Hemans, Woman and Fame
970(1)
George Herbert, The Collar
971(1)
M. Carl Holman, Mr. Z
972(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty
973(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover
973(1)
A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young
974(1)
Colette Inez, It Didn't Serve Us Right
974(1)
Ben Jonson, To Celia
975(1)
John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be
975(1)
John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci
976(1)
Yusef Komunyakaa, Slam, Dunk, & Hook
977(1)
Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus
978(1)
Li-Young Lee, Eating Together
978(1)
Photo: Li-Young Lee
978(1)
W. S. Merwin, The Dry Stone Mason
979(1)
Photo: W. S. Merwin
979(1)
John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent
979(1)
Howard Nemerov, Walking the Dog
980(1)
Naomi Shihab Nye, Where Children Live
980(1)
Christina Georgina Rossetti, In Progress
981(1)
Portrait: Christina Georgina Rossetti
981(1)
Christina Georgina Rossetti, Promises Like Pie-Crust
981(1)
William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold
982(1)
William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes
982(1)
Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias
983(1)
Virgil Suarez, The Stayer
983(1)
Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream
984(1)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses
985(2)
Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer
987(1)
Miller Williams, Thinking about Bill, Dead of AIDS
987(1)
William Carlos Williams, Spring and All
988(1)
William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say
988(1)
William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud
989(1)
Portrait: William Wordsworth
989(1)
William Wordsworth, It Is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free
989(1)
William Wordsworth, Mutability
990(1)
William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop
990(1)
Portrait: William Butler Yeats
990(1)
William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan
991(1)
William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming
991(2)
DRAMA
993(2)
The Study of Drama
995(328)
Reading Drama
997(39)
Reading Drama Responsively
997(18)
Susan Glaspell, Trifles
1000
Photo: Susan Glaspell
999(11)
A Sample Close Reading: An Annotated Section of Trifles
1010(2)
Perspective: Susan Glaspell, From the Short Story Version of Trifles
1012(3)
Elements of Drama
1015(3)
Drama in Popular Forms
1018(18)
Larry David, From ``The Pitch,'' a Seinfeld Episode
1021(1)
Photo: Larry David
1021(10)
Kari Lizer, From ``Dolls and Dolls,'' a Will & Grace Episode
1031(5)
Writing about Drama
1036(6)
From Reading to Writing
1036(6)
Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing
1037(2)
A Sample Paper: The Feminist Evidence in Trifles
1039(3)
A Study of Sophocles
1042(58)
Portrait: Sophocles
1042(1)
Theatrical Conventions of Greek Drama
1043(3)
Drawing: A Classical Greek Theater
1045(1)
Tragedy
1046(54)
Sophocles, Oedipus the King
1049(43)
Robert Fagles
Perspectives
1092(1)
Aristotle, On Tragic Character
1092(2)
Sigmund Freud, On the Oedipus Complex
1094(1)
Sophocles, Another Translation of a Scene from Oedipus the King
1095(3)
Muriel Rukeyser, On Oedipus the King
1098(1)
David Wiles, On Oedipus the King as a Political Play
1098(2)
A Study of William Shakespeare
1100(100)
Portrait: William Shakespeare, from the First Folio
1101(1)
Portrait: William Shakespeare, the ``Chandos Portrait''
1101(2)
Shakespeare's Theater
1103(3)
Drawing: C. Walter Hodges, the Globe Theatre
1105(1)
The Range of Shakespeare's Drama: History, Comedy, and Tragedy
1106(3)
A Note on Reading Shakespeare
1109(91)
William Shakespeare, Othello the Moor of Venice
1112
Facsimile: Othello Title Page
1111(83)
Perspectives
1194(1)
Objections to the Elizabethan Theater by the Mayor of London
1194(1)
Lisa Jardine, On Boy Actors in Female Roles
1195(1)
Samuel Johnson, On Shakespeare's Characters
1195(1)
Jane Adamson, On Desdemona's Role in Othello
1196(1)
David Bevington, On Othello's Heroic Struggle
1197(1)
James Kincaid, On the Value of Comedy in the Face of Tragedy
1198(2)
Plays in Performance
Photo: Oedipus the King
Photos: Othello
Photo: A Doll House
Photo: The Glass Menagerie
Photo: Death of a Salesman
Photo: Krapp's Last Tape
Photo: A Raisin in the Sun
Photo: M. Butterfly
Photo: Mambo Mouth
Photo: Will & Grace
Modern Drama
1200(56)
Realism
1200(2)
Naturalism
1202(1)
Theatrical Conventions of Modern Drama
1203(53)
Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House
1205
Rolf Fjelde
Photo: Henrik Ibsen
1204(50)
Perspective: Henrik Ibsen, Notes for A Doll House
1254(2)
A Critical Case Study: Henrik Ibsen's A Doll House
1256(12)
Perspectives
1257(11)
A Nineteenth-Century Husband's Letter to His Wife
1257(2)
Barry Witham and John Lutterbie, A Marxist Approach to A Doll House
1259(2)
Carol Strongin Tufts, A Psychoanalytic Reading of Nora
1261(3)
Joan Templeton, Is A Doll House a Feminist Text?
1264(2)
Questions for Writing: Applying a Critical Strategy
1266(2)
A Cultural Case Study: David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly
1268(55)
David Henry Hwang, M. Butterfly
1271
Photo: David Henry Hwang
1268(49)
Documents
1317(1)
Harold Rosenthal and John Warrack, A Plot Synopsis of Madame Butterfly
1317(1)
Richard Bernstein, The News Source for M. Butterfly
1318(2)
Photo: Shi Pei Pu in The Story of the Butterfly
1320(1)
David Savran, An Interview with David Henry Hwang
1321(2)
A Collection of Plays
1323(208)
Plays for Further Reading
1325(206)
Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie
1326(1)
Photo: Tennessee Williams
1326(45)
Perspective: Tennesee Williams, Production Notes to The Glass Menagerie
1371(2)
Perspective: Tennesee Williams, On Theme
1373(1)
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman
1374
Photo: Arthur Miller
1373(66)
Perspective: Arthur Miller, Tragedy and the Common Man
1439(3)
Perspective: Arthur Miller, On Biff and Willy Loman
1442(2)
Samuel Beckett, Krapp's Last Tape
1444
Photo: Samuel Beckett
1443(7)
Perspective: Martin Esslin, On the Theater of the Absurd
1450(3)
Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun
1453
Photo: Lorraine Hansberry
1452(63)
Perspective: Thomas P. Adler, The Political Basis of Lorraine Hansberry's Art
1515(2)
John Leguizamo, From Mambo Mouth
1517(1)
Photo: John Leguizamo
1517(3)
Tony Kushner, Reverse Transcription
1520
Photo: Tony Kushner
1519(10)
Jane Anderson, The Reprimand
1529
Photo: Jane Anderson
1528(3)
Critical Thinking and Writing
1531(84)
Critical Strategies for Reading
1533(24)
Critical Thinking
1533(3)
The Literary Canon: Diversity and Controversy
1536(2)
Formalist Strategies
1538(2)
Biographical Strategies
1540(2)
Psychological Strategies
1542(2)
Historical Strategies
1544(4)
Literary History Criticism
1544(1)
Marxist Criticism
1545(1)
New Historicist Criticism
1546(1)
Cultural Criticism
1547(1)
Gender Strategies
1548(2)
Feminist Criticism
1548(1)
Gay and Lesbian Criticism
1549(1)
Mythological Strategies
1550(2)
Reader-Response Strategies
1552(2)
Deconstructionist Strategies
1554(3)
Reading and Writing
1557(33)
The Purpose and Value of Writing about Literature
1557(1)
Reading the Work Closely
1558(1)
Annotating the Text and Journal Note Taking
1559(2)
Choosing a Topic
1561(1)
Developing a Thesis
1562(3)
Arguing about Literature
1565(3)
Organizing a Paper
1568(1)
Writing a Draft
1569(4)
Writing the Introduction and Conclusion
1570(1)
Using Quotations
1571(2)
Revising and Editing
1573(1)
Revision Checklist
1573(1)
Manuscript Form
1574(1)
Types of Writing Assignments
1575(15)
Explication
1575(1)
Emily Dickinson, There's a certain Slant of light
1576(1)
A Sample Explication: A Reading of Dickinson's ``There's a certain Slant of light''
1576(4)
Analysis
1580(1)
A Sample Analysis: The A&P as a State of Mind
1580(4)
Comparison and Contrast
1584(2)
A Sample Comparison: The Struggle for Women's Self-Definition in A Doll House and M. Butterfly
1586(4)
The Literary Research Paper
1590(19)
Choosing a Topic
1591(1)
Finding Sources
1592(2)
Annotated List of References
1592(2)
Electronic Sources
1594(1)
Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes
1594(1)
Developing a Thesis and Organizing the Paper
1595(1)
Revising
1596(1)
Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
1597(12)
The List of Works Cited
1599(4)
Parenthetical References
1603(1)
A Sample Research Paper: How the Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily
1604(5)
Taking Essay Examinations
1609(6)
Preparing for an Essay Exam
1609(2)
Keep Up with the Reading
1609(1)
Take Notes and Annotate the Text
1609(1)
Anticipate Questions
1610(1)
Types of Exams
1611(1)
Closed-Book versus Open-Book Exams
1611(1)
Essay Questions
1611(1)
Strategies for Writing Essay Exams
1612(3)
Glossary of Literary Terms 1615(36)
Index of First Lines 1651(6)
Index of Authors and Titles 1657


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