Learn how to write about literature the convenient, affordable way! Combining the broadest selection of literature available and time-proven writing instruction, *2009 MLA Update Edition - COMPACT Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing*,Seventh Edition, provides all the help you need to make literature a part of your life. This useful, reader-friendly book provides step-by-step guidance through the entire research and writing process. You¿ll also learn to craft literary analyses and arguments, and that writing about literature is a process of discovery, examination, and debate. The book includes a comprehensive guide to writing about literature, with full coverage of critical thinking, argument, and the writing process. This edition has been updated to reflect guidelines from the *2009 MLA HANDBOOK FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS*, Seventh Edition.
Table of Contents
PREFACE. Part 1: A GUIDE TO WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE. 1. Understanding Literature. Imaginative Literature. Conventional Themes. The Literary Canon. Luisa Valenzuela, All about Suicide. Wole Soyinka, Telephone Conversation. Interpreting Literature. Evaluating Literature. The Function of Literary Criticism. Checklist: Evaluating Literary Criticism. 2. Reading and Writing about Literature. Reading Literature. Previewing. Highlighting. Checklist: Using Highlighting Symbols. Maya Angelou, My Arkansas. Annotating. Writing about Literature. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Revising and Editing an Essay. Checklist: Using Sources. Checklist: Conventions of Writing about Literature. Exercise: Two Student Papers. Student Paper: Initiation into Adulthood. Student Paper: Hard Choices. 3. Writing Special Kinds of Papers. Writing a Response Paper. Checklist: Writing a Response Paper. Responding to a Short Story. Student Paper: Response Paper on Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried". Writing a Comparison-Contrast. Checklist: Writing a Comparison-Contrast. Comparing a Story and a Film. Student Paper: Two Cathedrals. Writing an Explication. Checklist: Writing an Explication. Explicating a Poem. Student Paper: A Lingering Doubt. Writing a Character Analysis. Checklist: Writing a Character Analysis. Analyzing a Character in a Play. Student Paper: Linda Loman: Breaking the Mold. Writing about a Work's Cultural Context. Checklist: Writing about a Work's Cultural Context. Writing about a Poem's Cultural Context. Student Paper: Dreaming of Home. 4. Thinking Critically about Your Writing. Distinguishing Fact from Opinion. Evaluating Supporting Evidence. Detecting Bias in Your Writing. Understanding Logic. Inductive Reasoning. Deductive Reasoning. Toulmin Logic. Recognizing Logical Fallacies. 5. Writing Literary Arguments. Planning a Literary Argument. Choosing a Debatable Topic. Developing an Argumentative Thesis. Checklist: Developing an Argumentative Thesis. Defining Your Terms. Considering Your Audience. Refuting Opposing Arguments. Using Evidence Effectively. Supporting Your Literary Argument. Establishing Credibility. Being Fair. Using Visuals as Evidence. Organizing a Literary Argument. Writing a Literary Argument. Student Paper: The Politics of "Everyday Use". 6. Using Sources in Your Writing. Choosing a Topic. Doing Exploratory Research. Narrowing Your Topic. Doing Focused Research. Library Research. Internet Research. Taking Notes. Integrating Sources. Exercise: Integrating Quotations. Drafting a Thesis Statement. Making an Outline. Drafting Your Paper. Sample Literature Paper with MLA Documentation. Student Paper: And Again She Makes the Journey: Character and Act in Eudora Welty's "A Worn Path". 7. Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism. Avoiding Plagiarism. Document All Material That Requires Documentation. Enclose Borrowed Words in Quotation Marks. Do Not Imitate a Source's Syntax and Phrasing. Differentiate Your Words from Those of Your Source. Checklist: Plagiarism and Internet Sources. Documenting Sources. Parenthetical References in the Text. Checklist: Guidelines for Punctuating Parenthetical References. The Works-Cited List. Content Notes. 8. Writing Essay Exams about Literature. Planning an Essay Exam Answer. Review Your Material. Consider Your Audience and Purpose. Read through the Entire Exam. Read Each Question Carefully. Brainstorm to Find Ideas. Shaping an Essay Exam Answer. State Your Thesis. Make a Scratch Outline. Drafting and Revising an Essay Exam Answer. Sample Student Essay Exam Answer. Part 2: FICTION. 9. Understanding Fiction. Origins of Modern Fiction. The History of the Novel. The History of the Short Story. Defining the Short Story. Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants. Recognizing Kinds of Fiction. 10. Fiction Sampler: The Short-Short. Julia Alvarez, Snow. Aimee Bender, Jinx. Jorge Luis Borges, The Plot. Dave Eggers, Accident. Amanda Holzer, Love and Other Catastrophes: A Mix Tape. Jamaica Kincaid, Girl. Alice Munro, Prue. ZZ Packer, Buffalo Soldiers. Annie Proulx, 55 Miles to the Gas Pump. 11. Reading and Writing about Fiction. Reading Fiction. Active Reading. Alberto Alvaro Rios, The Secret Lion. Writing about Fiction. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: Symbols in "The Secret Lion" (First Draft). Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: Symbols in "The Secret Lion" (Second Draft). Student Paper: "The Secret Lion": Everything Changes (Final Draft). 12. Plot. Conflict. Stages of Plot. Order and Sequence. Checklist: Writing about Plot. Graphic Fiction: Ben Katchor, Goner Pillow Company. Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour. Larry Fondation, Deportation at Breakfast. Stephen Dobyns, Kansas. William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily. Writing Suggestions: Plot. 13. Character. Round and Flat Characters. Dynamic and Static Characters. Motivation. Checklist: Writing about Character. Graphic Fiction: Art Spiegelman, Eye Ball. John Updike, A&P. Fiction in Film: John Updike's "A&P". Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill. Zadie Smith, The Girl with Bangs. Charles Baxter, Gryphon. Writing Suggestions: Character. 14. Setting. Historical Setting. Geographical Setting. Physical Setting. Checklist: Writing about Setting. Graphic Fiction: Marjane Satrapi, from Persepolis. Kate Chopin, The Storm. Sherman J. Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona. Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal. Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing. Fiction in Film: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing". Writing Suggestions: Setting. 15. Point of View. First-Person Narrators. Unreliable Narrators. Third-Person Narrators. Omniscient Narrators. Limited Omniscient Narrators. Objective Narrators. Selecting an Appropriate Point of View. Checklist: Selecting an Appropriate Point of View: Review. Checklist: Writing about Point of View. Graphic Fiction: Shaun Tan, from The Arrival. Richard Wright, Big Black Good Man. Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado. William Faulkner, Barn Burning. Edwidge Danticat, New York Day Women. Writing Suggestions: Point of View. 16. Style, Tone, and Language. Style and Tone. The Uses of Language. Formal and Informal Diction. Imagery. Figures of Speech. Checklist: Writing about Style, Tone, and Language. Graphic Fiction: R. Crumb, A Hunger Artist. James Joyce, Araby. Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper. Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried. Writing Suggestions: Style, Tone, and Language. 17. Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. Symbol. Literary Symbols. Recognizing Symbols. Allegory. Myth. Checklist: Writing about Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. Graphic Fiction: Alison Bechdel, from Fun Home. Alice Hoffman, Saint Helene. Shirley Jackson, The Lottery. Alice Walker, Everyday Use. Fiction in Film: Alice Walker's "Everyday Use". Raymond Carver, Cathedral. Fiction in Film: Raymond Carver's "Cathedral". Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown. Writing Suggestions: Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. 18. Theme. Interpreting Themes. Identifying Themes. Checklist: Writing about Theme. Graphic Fiction: Lynda Barry, Two Questions. Eudora Welty, A Worn Path. Fiction in Film: Eudora Welty's "A Worn Path". David Michael Kaplan, Doe Season. D.H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner. Michael Chabon, The Little Knife. Writing Suggestions: Theme. 19. Joyce Carol Oates's "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?. Joyce Carol Oates, When Characters from the Page Are Made Flesh on the Screen. Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood, from In Fairyland, without a Map: Connie's Exploration Inward in Joyce Carol Oates's "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?". Mike Tierce and John Michael Crafton, from Connie's Tambourine Man: A New Reading of Arnold Friend. Bob Dylan, It's All Over Now, Baby Blue. Laura Kalpakian, from a review of Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been: Selected Early Stories. Don Moser, from The Pied Piper of Tucson. Anonymous, The Pied Piper of Hamelin. Charles Perrault, Little Red Riding Hood. Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: Mesmerizing Men and Vulnerable Teens: Power Relationships in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" and "Teenage Wasteland". 20. Fiction For Further Reading. Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings. James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues. T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake. Louise Erdrich, Sister Godzilla. Gabriel Garcia Márquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings. Ha Jin, Saboteur. James Joyce, Eveline. Franz Kafka, A Hunger Artist. Jhumpa Lahiri, The Third and Final Continent. Naguib Mahfouz, Half a Day. Flannery O'Connor, Everything That Rises Must Converge. Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart. Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall. John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums. Amy Tan, Two Kinds. Anne Tyler, Teenage Wasteland. Part 3: POETRY. 21. Understanding Poetry. Marianne Moore, Poetry. Nikki Giovanni, Poetry. Origins of Modern Poetry. Defining Poetry. William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold. E. E. Cummings, l(a. Recognizing Kinds of Poetry. Narrative Poetry. Lyric Poetry. 22. Poetry Sampler: Poetry and Art. Rita Dove, Sonnet in Primary Colors. Allen Ginsberg, Cezanne's Ports. Robert Hayden, Monet's "Waterlilies". Cathy Song, Girl Powdering Her Neck. May Swenson, The Tall Figures of Giacometti. William Carlos Williams, The Dance. Kevin Young, The Fun Gallery. 23. Reading and Writing about Poetry. Reading Poetry. Active Reading. Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays. Seamus Heaney, Digging. Writing about Poetry. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: A Comparison of Two Poems about Fathers (First Draft). Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: A Comparison of Two Poems about Fathers (Second Draft). Student Paper: Digging For Memories (Final Draft). 24. Voice. Emily Dickinson, I'm nobody! Who are you?. The Speaker in the Poem. Louise Glück, Gretel in Darkness. Leonard Adame, My Grandmother Would Rock Quietly and Hum. Langston Hughes, Negro. Robert Browning, My Last Duchess. Further Reading: The Speaker in the Poem. Leslie Marmon Silko, Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer. Janice Mirikitani, Suicide Note. The Tone of the Poem. Robert Frost, Fire and Ice. Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed. Amy Lowell, Patterns. Further Reading: The Tone of the Poem. Adam Zagajewski, Try to Praise the Mutilated World. William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us. Claude McKay, The White City. Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Deborah Garrison, Please Fire Me. Irony. Robert Browning, Porphyria's Lover. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias. Ariel Dorfman, Hope. Further Reading: Irony. W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen. Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham. Checklist: Writing about Voice. Writing Suggestions: Voice. 25. Word Choice, Word Order. Sipho Sepamla, Words, Words, Words. Word Choice. Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer. William Stafford, For the Grave of Daniel Boone. Further Reading: Word Choice. Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual/Bilingue. James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio. Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin. E. E. Cummings, in Just-. Robert Pinsky, ABC. Levels of Diction. Margaret Atwood, The City Planners. Jim Sagel, Baca Grande. Further Reading: Levels of Diction. Wanda Coleman, Sears Life. Mark Halliday, The Value of Education. Hart Crane, Royal Palm. Charles Bukowski, Dog Fight. Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool. Gwendolyn Brooks, What shall I give my children? Word Order. Edmund Spenser, One day I wrote her name upon the strand. E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town. Further Reading: Word Order. A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young. Checklist: Writing about Word Choice and Word Order. Writing Suggestions: Word Choice, Word Order. 26. Imagery. Jane Flanders, Cloud Painter. William Carlos Williams, Red Wheelbarrow. Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro. Gary Snyder, Some Good Things to Be Said for the Iron Age. Suzanne E. Berger, The Meal. William Carlos Williams, The Great Figure. Further Reading: Imagery. Ted Kooser, Wild Plums in Blossom. Michael Chitwood, Division. Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay. Kobayashi Issa, Haiku. William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun. Octavio Paz, Daybreak. Octavio Paz, Nightfall. Checklist: Writing about Imagery. Writing Suggestions: Imagery. 27. Figures of Speech. William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?. Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. Langston Hughes, Harlem. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Constantly Risking Absurdity. Audre Lorde, Rooming houses are old women. Further Reading: Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. Robert Burns, Oh, my love is like a red, red rose. N. Scott Momaday, Simile. Sylvia Plath, Metaphors. Richard Wilbur, Mind. John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player. Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner. Marge Piercy, The Secretary Chant. John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning. Martin Espada, My Father as a Guitar. Hyperbole and Understatement. Sylvia Plath, Daddy. David Huddle, Holes Commence Falling. Further Reading: Hyperbole and Understatement. Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband. Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress. Robert Frost, "Out, Out--". Donald Hall, My Son, My Executioner. Margaret Atwood, you fit into me. Metonymy and Synecdoche. Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta Going to the Wars. Further Reading: Metonymy and Synecdoche. Carmine Starnino, What My Mother's Hands Smell Like. Apostrophe. Sonia Sanchez, On Passing thru Morgantown, Pa. Further Reading: Apostrophe. John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale. Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California. Checklist: Writing about Figures of Speech. Writing Suggestions: Figures of Speech. 28. Sound. Walt Whitman, Had I the Choice. Rhythm. Gwendolyn Brooks, Sadie and Maud. Meter. Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles--. Further Reading: Rhythm and Meter. Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers. Etheridge Knight, For Malcolm, a Year After. Alliteration and Assonance. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle. N. Scott Momaday, Comparatives. Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder. Rhyme. Ogden Nash, The Lama. Richard Wilbur, In Trackless Woods. Further Reading: Alliteration, Assonance, and Rhyme. Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty. W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening. Galway Kinnell, Blackberry Eating. Kay Ryan, Lighthouse Keeping. Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky. Checklist: Writing about Sound. Writing Suggestions: Sound. 29. Form. John Keats, On the Sonnet. Billy Collins, Sonnet. Closed Form. Blank Verse. Stanza. The Sonnet. William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes. Further Reading: The Sonnet. John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer. A. E. Stallings, Explaining an Affinity for Bats. Gwendolyn Brooks, First Fight. Then Fiddle. The Sestina. Alberto Alvaro Rios, Nani. Further Reading: The Sestina. Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina. The Villanelle. Theodore Roethke, The Waking. The Epigram. Further Reading: The Epigram. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, What Is an Epigram?. William Blake, Her Whole Life Is an Epigram. Martin Espada, Why I Went to College. Haiku. Further Reading: Haiku. Matsuo Bash?, Four Haiku. Carolyn Kizer, After Bash?. Jack Kerouac, American Haiku. Open Form. Carl Sandburg, Chicago. E. E. Cummings, the sky was can dy. Further Reading: Open Form. Walt Whitman, from "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking". William Carlos Williams, Spring and All. Carolyn Forche, The Colonel. Pat Mora, Immigrants. Checklist: Writing about Form. Writing Suggestions: Form. Concrete Poetry. May Swenson, Women. Further Reading: Concrete Poetry. George Herbert, Easter Wings. Greg Williamson, Group Photo with Winter Trees. 30. Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. William Blake, The Sick Rose. Symbol. Robert Frost, For Once, Then, Something. Emily Dickinson, Volcanoes be in Sicily. Further Reading: Symbol. Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven. Allegory. Christina Rossetti, Uphill. Further Reading: Allegory. Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck. Allusion. Wole Soyinka, Future Plans. William Meredith, Dreams of Suicide. Further Reading: Allusion. Bill Coyle, Post-Colonial Studies. Myth. Countee Cullen, Yet Do I Marvel. Further Reading: Myth. H. D., Helen. William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan. Derek Walcott, Sea Grapes. W. H. Auden, Musee des Beaux Arts. T. S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi. Checklist: Writing about Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. Writing Suggestions: Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. 31. Discovering Themes in Poetry. Robert Herrick, The Argument of His Book. Poems about Parents. Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz. Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays. Seamus Heaney, Digging. Louis Simpson, Working Late. Edna St. Vincent Millay, The courage that my mother had. Raymond Carver, Photograph of my Father in His Twenty-Second Year. Judith Ortiz Cofer, My Father in the Navy: A Childhood Memory. Mitsuye Yamada, The Night Before Good-bye. Adrienne Rich, A Woman Mourned by Daughters. Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night. Poems about Nature. William Wordsworth, I wandered lonely as a cloud. Mary Oliver, Sleeping in the Forest. Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover. Robert Frost, Birches. William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark. Carl Sandburg, Fog. Joy Harjo, Morning Song. Poems about Love. Robert Browning, Meeting at Night. Robert Browning, Parting at Morning. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee?. Edna St. Vincent Millay, What Lips My Lips Have Kissed. Dorothy Parker, General Review of the Sex Situation. George Elliott Clarke, Monologue for Selah Bringing Sleep to Whylah Falls. Poems about War. Rupert Brooke, The Soldier. Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est. William Butler Yeats, An Irish Airman Foresees His Death. Robert Lowell, For the Union Dead. Denise Levertov, What Were They Like?. Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It. Edwin Muir, The Horses. Wislawa Szymborska, The End and the Beginning. 32. The Poetry of Langston Hughes: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers. Langston Hughes, Mother to Son. Langston Hughes, Dream Variations. Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues. Langston Hughes, I, Too. Langston Hughes, Song for a Dark Girl. Langston Hughes, Ballad of the Landlord. Langston Hughes, Theme for English B. Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie. Langston Hughes, Birmingham Sunday (September 15, 1963). Langston Hughes, Lenox Avenue: Midnight. Langston Hughes, Un-American Investigators. Langston Hughes, Dinner Guest: Me. Langston Hughes, from The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain. Langston Hughes, To Negro Writers. Langston Hughes, from My Adventures as a Social Poet. Arnold Rampersad, from The Origins of Poetry in Langston Hughes. Herman Beavers, from Dead Rocks and Sleeping Men: Aurality in the Aesthetic of Langston Hughes. Steven C. Tracy, from "Midnight Ruffles of Cat-Gut Lace": The Boogie Poems of Langston Hughes. Karen Jackson Ford, from Do Right to Write Right: Langston Hughes's Aesthetics of Simplicity. George B. Hutchinson, from Langston Hughes and the 'Other' Whitman. Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: The Rhythms of African-American Life: Langston Hughes and the Poetics of Blues and Jazz. 33. Poetry for Further Reading. Kim Addonizio, Verities. Sherman Alexie, Defending Walt Whitman. Julia Alvarez, Papi Working. Maya Angelou, Africa. Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan. Anonymous, Go Down Moses. Anonymous, Western Wind. Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach. Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish. Elizabeth Bishop, One Art. William Blake, The Lamb. William Blake, To see a World in a Grain of Sand. William Blake, The Tyger. Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book. Gwendolyn Brooks, Medgar Evers. George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty. Thomas Campion, There is a garden in her face. Geoffrey Chaucer, from The Canterbury Tales Lucille Clifton, Praise Song. Judith Ortiz Cofer, Claims. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan. Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry. E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill's. E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america I. Emily Dickinson, After great pain, a formal feeling comes--. Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death--. Emily Dickinson, "Faith" is a fine invention. Emily Dickinson, I dwell in Possibility--. Emily Dickinson, I heard a Fly buzz--when I died--. Emily Dickinson, Success is counted sweetest. Emily Dickinson, Tell all the Truth but tell it slant--. Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights--Wild Nights!. John Donne, Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God. John Donne, Death Be Not Proud. John Donne, The Flea. Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask. T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. James A. Emanuel, Emmett Till. Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways. Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night. Robert Frost, Design. Robert Frost, Mending Wall. Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken. Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. Federico Garcia Lorca, Arbole, Arbole…. Nikki Giovanni, Nikki-Rosa. Thom Gunn, The Man with Night Sweats. Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain. Seamus Heaney, Mid-Term Break. Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur. Ted Hughes, Where I Sit Writing My Letter. Donald Justice, Men at Forty. Mary Karr, A Blessing from My Sixteen Years' Son. John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci: A Ballad. John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn. John Keats, When I Have Fears. Ted Kooser, Selecting a Reader. Philip Larkin, The Explosion. Li-Young Lee, The Gift. Doris Lessing, Learning Geography, 1943. Doris Lessing, And in 2005. Philip Levine, The Old Testament. Archibald Macleish, Ars Poetica. Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love. Claude McKay, If We Must Die. James Merrill, Page from the Koran. W. S. Merwin, Blueberries after Dark. John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent. Thylias Moss, Interpretation of a Poem by Frost. Pablo Neruda, The United Fruit Co. Frank O'Hara, Ave Maria. Sharon Olds, The One Girl at the Boys' Party. Linda Pastan, Marks. Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll. Robert Pinsky, Shirt. Sylvia Plath, Mirror. Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd. Henry Reed, Naming of Parts. Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy. Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory. Sonia Sanchez, right on: white america. William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds. William Shakespeare, Not marble, nor the gilded monuments. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind. Charles Simic, Old Soldier. Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning. Cathy Song, Lost Sister. Gary Soto, Saturday at the Canal. Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar. Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream. Adrienne Su, The English Canon. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses. Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill. Mona Van Duyn, Earth Tremors Felt in Missouri. Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America. Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider. Walt Whitman, from "Song of Myself". William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802. William Wordsworth, London, 1802. William Wordsworth, My heart leaps up when I behold. William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper. Charles Wright, October. William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop. William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree. William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium. William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming. Adam Zagajewski, Poetry Searches for Radiance. Part 4: DRAMA. 34. Understanding Drama. Origins of Modern Drama. The Ancient Greek Theater. The Elizabethan Theater. The Modern Theater. Tragedy and Comedy. Tragedy. Comedy. Defining Drama. A Note on Translations. Recognizing Kinds of Drama. Anton Chekhov, The Brute. 35. Drama Sampler: Ten-Minute Plays. Wendy Wasserstein, Workout. Jane Martin, Beauty. Jose Rivera, Tape. Zora Neale Hurston, Poker!. 36. Reading and Writing about Drama. Reading Drama. Active Reading. Writing about Drama. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: The Women's Role in Trifles (First Draft). Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: Confinement and Rebellion in Trifles (Second Draft). Student Paper: Desperate Measures: Acts of Defiance in Trifles (Final Draft). 37. Plot. Plot Structure. Plot and Subplot. Plot Development. Flashbacks. Foreshadowing. Checklist: Writing about Plot. Warren Leight, Nine Ten. Susan Glaspell, Trifles. Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House. Writing Suggestions: Plot. 38. Character. Characters' Words. Formal and Informal Language. Plain and Elaborate Language. Tone. Irony. Characters' Actions. Stage Directions. Actors' Interpretations. Checklist: Writing about Character. August Strindberg, The Stronger. David Auburn, Proof. Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman. William Shakespeare, Hamlet. Writing Suggestions: Character. 39. Staging. Stage Directions. The Uses of Staging. Costumes. Props and Furnishings. Scenery and Lighting. Music and Sound Effects. Checklist: Writing about Staging. David Ives, Words, Words, Words. Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer. Sophocles, Oedipus the King. Writing Suggestions: Staging. 40. Theme. Titles. Conflicts. Dialogue. Characters. Staging. Checklist: Writing about Theme. David Henry Hwang, Trying to Find Chinatown. Samuel Beckett, Krapp's Last Tape. August Wilson, Fences. Writing Suggestions: Theme. 41. Tennessee Williams's The Glass Menagerie: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie. Tennessee Williams, Author's Production Notes (Preface to the Published Edition). Jacqueline O'Connor, from Dramatizing Dementia: Madness in the Plays of Tennessee Williams. Tennessee Williams, from Tennessee Williams: Memoirs. Jean Evans, Interview. Thomas L. King, from Irony and Distance in The Glass Menagerie. Nancy Marie Patterson Tischler, from Student Companion to Tennessee Williams. Roger B. Stein, from The Glass Menagerie Revisited: Catastrophe without Violence. Tom Scanlan, from Family, Drama, and American Dreams. James Fisher, from "The Angels of Fructification": Tennessee Williams, Tony Kushner, and Images of Homosexuality on the American Stage. Tennessee Williams, Portrait of a Girl in Glass. Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: Laura's Gentleman Caller. Appendix: Using Literary Criticism In Your Writing. Formalism and New Criticism. A New Critical Reading: Kate Chopin's "The Storm". For Further Reading: Formalism and New Criticism. Reader-Response Criticism. Reader-Response Readings: Kate Chopin's "The Storm". For Further Reading: Reader-Response Criticism. Feminist Criticism. A Feminist Reading: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing". For Further Reading: Feminist Criticism. Marxist Criticism. A Marxist Reading: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing". For Further Reading: Marxist Criticism. Psychoanalytic Criticism. A Psychoanalytic Reading: Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado". For Further Reading: Psychoanalytic Criticism. Structuralism. A Structuralist Reading: William Faulkner's "Barn Burning". For Further Reading: Structuralism. Deconstruction. A Deconstructionist Reading: Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find". For Further Reading: Deconstruction. Cultural Studies. New Historicism. A New Historicist Reading: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper". For Further Reading: New Historicist Criticism. Queer Theory. A Queer Theory Reading: Zadie Smith's "The Girl with Bangs". For Further Reading: Queer Theory. Postcolonial Studies. A Postcolonial Reading: Jhumpa Lahiri's "The Third and Final Continent". For Further Reading: Postcolonial Studies. American Multiculturalism. An American Multicultural Reading: Alice Walker's "Everyday Use". For Further Reading: American Multiculturalism. Glossary of Literary Terms. Credits. Index of First Lines of Poetry. Index of Authors and Titles. Index of Literary Terms.