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This compact edition retains all the features that have made the full edition so successful within a smaller, affordable volume. Combining the broadest selection of readings with time-proven and class-tested instruction, COMPACT LITERATURE: READING, REACTING, WRITING, Eighth Edition, remains the most useful and student-friendly introduction to literature text available. The text includes a comprehensive guide to writing about literature, with full coverage of critical thinking, argument, and the writing process. Teachers themselves, authors Kirszner and Mandell take students through each step of the research and writing process, helping them to craft literary analyses and arguments and to understand that writing about literature is a process of discovery, examination, and debate.
Table of Contents
PART 1 A GUIDE TO WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE. 1. Understanding Literature. Imaginative Literature. Conventional Themes. The Literary Canon. LUISA VALENZUELA, "All about Suicide". WOLE SOYINKA, "Telephone Conversation." Interpreting Literature. Evaluating Literature. The Function of Literary Criticism. CHECKLIST: Evaluating Literary Criticism. 2. Reading and Writing about Literature. Reading Literature. Previewing. Highlighting. CHECKLIST: Using Highlighting Symbols. MAYA ANGELOU, "My Arkansas." Annotating. Writing about Literature. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Revising and Editing an Essay. CHECKLIST: Using Sources. CHECKLIST: Conventions of Writing about Literature. EXERCISE: Evaluating Two Student Papers. Student Paper: Initiation into Adulthood. Student Paper: Hard Choices. 3. Writing Special Kinds of Papers. Writing a Response Paper. CHECKLIST: Writing a Response Paper. Responding to a Short Story. Student Paper: Response to Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried." Writing a Comparison-Contrast. CHECKLIST: Writing a Comparison-Contrast. Comparing a Short Story and a Film. Student Paper: Two Cathedrals. Writing an Explication. CHECKLIST: Writing an Explication. Explicating a Poem. Student Paper: A Lingering Doubt. Writing a Character Analysis. CHECKLIST: Writing a Character Analysis. Analyzing a Character in a Play. Student Paper: Linda Loman: Breaking the Mold. Writing about a Work's Cultural Context. CHECKLIST: Writing about a Work's Cultural Context. Writing about a Poem's Cultural Context. Student Paper: Dreaming of Home. 4. Thinking Critically about Your Writing. Distinguishing Fact from Opinion. Evaluating Supporting Evidence. Detecting Bias in Your Writing. CHECKLIST: Detecting Bias. Understanding Logic. Inductive Reasoning. Deductive Reasoning. Toulmin Logic. Recognizing Logical Fallacies. 5. Writing Literary Arguments. Planning a Literary Argument. Choosing a Topic. Developing an Argumentative Thesis. CHECKLIST: Developing an Argumentative Thesis. Defining Your Terms. Considering Your Audience. Refuting Opposing Arguments. Using Evidence Effectively. Supporting Your Literary Argument. Establishing Credibility. Being Fair. CHECKLIST: Being Fair. Using Visuals as Evidence. Organizing a Literary Argument. Writing a Literary Argument. Student Paper: The Politics of "Everyday Use." Student Paper: The Literary Merit of Video Games. 6. Using Sources in Your Writing. Choosing a Topic. Doing Exploratory Research. Narrowing Your Topic. Doing Focused Research. Library Research. CHECKLIST: Evaluating Library Sources. Internet Research. CHECKLIST: Evaluating Web Sites. Taking Notes. Integrating Sources. EXERCISE: Integrating Quotations. Drafting a Thesis Statement. Making a Formal Outline. Drafting Your Paper. Model Literature Paper with MLA Documentation. Student Paper: And Again She Makes the Journey: Character and Act in Eudora Welty's "A Worn Path." 7. Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism. Avoiding Plagiarism. Document All Material That Requires Documentation. Enclose Borrowed Words in Quotation Marks. Do Not Imitate a Source's Syntax and Phrasing. Differentiate Your Words from Those of Your Source. CHECKLIST: Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism. Documenting Sources. Parenthetical References in the Text. CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Punctuating Parenthetical References. The Works-Cited List. Content Notes. 8. Writing Essay Exams about Literature. Planning an Essay Exam Answer. Review Your Material. Consider Your Audience and Purpose. Read Through the Entire Exam. Read Each Question Carefully. Brainstorm to Find Ideas. State Your Thesis. Make a Scratch Outline. Drafting and Revising an Essay Exam Answer. Model Student Essay Exam Answer . PART 2 FICTION. 9. Understanding Fiction. Origins of Modern Fiction. The History of the Novel. The History of the Short Story. Defining the Short Story. ERNEST HEMINGWAY, "Hills Like White Elephants." The Boundaries of Fiction. 10. Fiction Sampler: The Short-Short Story. JULIA ALVAREZ, "Snow." *BONNIE JO CAMPBELL, "Sleep-over." *SANDRA CISNEROS, "Pilon." AMANDA HOLZER, "Love and Other Catastrophes: A Mix Tape." JAMAICA KINCAID, "Girl." *AUGUSTO MONTERROSO, "The Eclipse." Writing Suggestions: The Short-Short Story. 11. Fiction Sampler: Graphic Fiction. *LYND WARD, "The Girl." *ART SPIEGELMAN, from "Maus." R. CRUMB, "A Hunger Artist." MARJANE SATRAPI, from "Persepolis." LYNDA BARRY, "Two Questions." Writing Suggestions: Graphic Fiction. 12. Reading and Writing about Fiction. Reading Fiction. Active Reading. ALBERTO ALVARO RÍOS, "The Secret Lion." Writing about Fiction. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: Symbols in "The Secret Lion" (First Draft). Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: Symbols in "The Secret Lion" (Second Draft). Student Paper: "The Secret Lion": Everything Changes (Final Draft). 13. Plot. Conflict. Stages of Plot. Order and Sequence. CHECKLIST: Writing about Plot. KATE CHOPIN, "The Story of an Hour." LARRY FONDATION, "Deportation at Breakfast." *NEIL GAIMAN, "How to Talk to Girls at Parties." WILLIAM FAULKNER, "A Rose for Emily." Writing Suggestions: Plot. DICK POTHIER AND THOMAS J. GIBBONS JR., "A Woman's Wintry Death Leads to a Long-Dead Friend." 14. Character. Round and Flat Characters. Dynamic and Static Characters. Motivation. CHECKLIST: Writing about Character. JOHN UPDIKE, "A&P." Fiction in Film: John Updike's "A&P." KATHERINE MANSFIELD, "Miss Brill." CHARLES BAXTER, "Gryphon." *LAN SAMANTHA CHANG, "Hangzhou 1925." Writing Suggestions: Character. 15. Setting. Historical Setting. Geographical Setting. Physical Setting. CHECKLIST: Writing about Setting. KATE CHOPIN, "The Storm." SHERMAN J. ALEXIE, "This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona." RALPH ELLISON, "Battle Royal." TILLIE OLSEN, "I Stand Here Ironing." Fiction in Film: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing." Writing Suggestions: Setting. 16. Point of View. First-Person Narrators. Unreliable Narrators. Third-Person Narrators. Omniscient Narrators. Limited Omniscient Narrators. Objective Narrators. Selecting an Appropriate Point of View. CHECKLIST: Selecting an Appropriate Point of View: Review. CHECKLIST: Writing about Point of View. RICHARD WRIGHT, "Big Black Good Man." EDGAR ALLAN POE, "The Cask of Amontillado." WILLIAM FAULKNER, "Barn Burning." EDWIDGE DANTICAT, "New York Day Women."Writing Suggestions: Point of View. 17. Style, Tone, and Language. Style and Tone. The Uses of Language. Formal and Informal Diction. Imagery. Figures of Speech. CHECKLIST: Writing about Style, Tone, and Language. JAMES JOYCE, "Araby." (MARY) FLANNERY O'CONNOR, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, "The Yellow Wallpaper." TIM O'BRIEN, "The Things They Carried." Writing Suggestions: Style, Tone, and Language. 18. Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. Symbol. Literary Symbols. Symbols. Allegory. Myth. CHECKLIST: Writing about Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. *ROSE TREMAIN, "A Game of Cards." SHIRLEY JACKSON, "The Lottery." ALICE WALKER, "Everyday Use." Fiction in Film: Alice Walker's "Everyday Use." RAYMOND CARVER, Cathedral. Fiction in Film: Raymond Carver's "Cathedral." NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, "Young Goodman Brown." Writing Suggestions: Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. 19. Theme. Interpreting Themes. Identifying Themes. CHECKLIST: Writing about Theme. EUDORA WELTY, "A Worn Path." Fiction in Film: Eudora Welty's "A Worn Path." DAVID MICHAEL KAPLAN, "Doe Season." D(AVID) H(ERBERT) LAWRENCE, "The Rocking-Horse Winner ." *REBECCA MAKKAI, "The Briefcase." Writing Suggestions: Theme. ROBERT HUFF, "Rainbow." 20. Joyce Carol Oates's "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?": A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. BIOGRAPHY. STORY: JOYCE CAROL OATES, "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" SOURCES. Background. JOYCE CAROL OATES, "When Characters from the Page Are Made Flesh on the Screen." BOB DYLAN, "It's All Over Now, Baby Blue." DON MOSER, from "The Pied Piper of Tucson." ANONYMOUS, "The Pied Piper of Hamelin." CHARLES PERRAULT, "Little Red Riding Hood." Critical Perspectives. GRETCHEN SCHULZ AND R. J. R. ROCKWOOD, from "In Fairyland, without a Map: Connie's Exploration Inward in Joyce Carol Oates's 'Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?'" MIKE TIERCE AND JOHN MICHAEL CRAFTON, from "Connie's Tambourine Man: A New Reading of Arnold Friend." LAURA KALPAKIAN, from a review of "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?: Selected Early Stories." *PETER DICKINSON, from "Riding in Cars with Boys: Reconsidering 'Smooth Talk'". Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: Mesmerizing Men and Vulnerable Teens: Power Relationships in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" and "Teenage Wasteland." 21. Fiction for Further Reading. MARGARET ATWOOD, "Happy Endings." JAMES BALDWIN, "Sonny's Blues." T. CORAGHESSAN BOYLE, "Greasy Lake." *JUNOT DÍAZ, "No Face." CHITRA BANERJEE DIVAKARUNI, "The Disappearance." GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ, "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings." *HA JIN, "The Bane of the Internet." JAMES JOYCE, "Eveline." FRANZ KAFKA, "A Hunger Artist." NAGUIB MAHFOUZ, "Half a Day." *LORRIE MOORE, "The Kid's Guide to Divorce." FLANNERY O'CONNOR, "Everything That Rises Must Converge." EDGAR ALLAN POE, "The Tell-Tale Heart." KATHERINE ANNE PORTER, "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall." JOHN STEINBECK, "The Chrysanthemums." AMY TAN, "Two Kinds." ANNE TYLER, "Teenage Wasteland." PART 3 POETRY. 22. Understanding Poetry. MARIANNE MOORE, "Poetry." ADAM ZAGAJEWSKI, "Poetry Searches for Radiance." Origins of Modern Poetry. Defining Poetry. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "That time of year thou mayst in me behold." E. E. CUMMINGS, "l(a." Recognizing Kinds of Poetry. Narrative Poetry. Lyric Poetry. 23. Reading and Writing about Poetry. Reading Poetry. Active Reading. ROBERT HAYDEN, "Those Winter Sundays." SEAMUS HEANEY, "Digging." Writing about Poetry. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: A Comparison of Two Poems about Fathers (First Draft). Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: A Comparison of Two Poems about Fathers (Second Draft). Student Paper: Digging for Memories (Final Draft). 24. Voice. EMILY DICKINSON, "I'm nobody! Who are you?" The Speaker in the Poem. LOUISE GLÜCK, "Gretel in Darkness." LANGSTON HUGHES, "Negro." ROBERT BROWNING, "My Last Duchess." Further Reading: The Speaker in the Poem. LESLIE MARMON SILKO, "Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer." JANICE MIRIKITANI, "Suicide Note." The Tone of the Poem. ROBERT FROST, "Fire and Ice." THOMAS HARDY, "The Man He Killed." AMY LOWELL, "Patterns." Further Reading: The Tone of the Poem. *GARY SOTO, "How Things Work." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "The World Is Too Much with Us." CLAUDE MCKAY, "The White City." ROBERT HERRICK, "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time." Irony. ROBERT BROWNING, "Porphyria's Lover." PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, "Ozymandias." ARIEL DORFMAN, "Hope." Further Reading: Irony. *SHERMAN ALEXIE, "Evolution." *TOM WAYMAN, "Did I Miss Anything?" DUDLEY RANDALL, "Ballad of Birmingham." *WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, "Hitler's First Photograph." CHECKLIST: Writing about Voice. Writing Suggestions: Voice. EMILY DICKINSON, "'Hope' is the thing with feathers--." 25. Word Choice, Word Order. *BOB HOLMAN, Beautiful. Word Choice. WALT WHITMAN, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer. Further Reading: Word Choice. RHINA ESPAILLAT, Bilingual/Bilingue .*MARTÍN ESPADA, The Saint Vincent de Paul Food Pantry Stomp. ADRIENNE RICH, Living in Sin. E. E. CUMMINGS, in Just-. *THOMAS LUX, Pedestrian. *KAY RYAN, Blandeur. Levels of Diction. MARGARET ATWOOD, The City Planners. JIM SAGEL, "Baca Grande." Further Reading: Levels of Diction. ADRIENNE SU, "The English Canon." MARK HALLIDAY, "The Value of Education." *ANTHONY HECHT, "More Light! More Light!" MARY KARR, "A Blessing from My Sixteen Years' Son." GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "We Real Cool." GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "What Shall I Give My Children?" Word Order. EDMUND SPENSER, "One day I wrote her name upon the strand." E. E. CUMMINGS, "anyone lived in a pretty how town." Further Reading: Word Order. A. E. HOUSMAN, "To an Athlete Dying Young." CHECKLIST: Writing about Word Choice and Word Order. Writing Suggestions: Word Choice, Word Order. 26. Imagery . JANE FLANDERS, "Cloud Painter." WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, "Red Wheelbarrow." EZRA POUND, "In a Station of the Metro." GARY SNYDER, "Some Good Things to Be Said for the Iron Age." WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, "The Great Figure." Further Reading: Imagery. TED KOOSER, "Wild Plums in Blossom." *F. J. BERGMANN, "An Apology." *GEORGE BRADLEY, "The Sound of the Sun." *SARAH HANNAH, "The Colors Are Off This Season." *EAVAN BOLAND, "This Moment." *VERA PAVLOVA, "I think it will be winter." ROBERT FROST, "Nothing Gold Can Stay." KOBAYASHI ISSA, "Haiku." *SONIA SANCHEZ, "Haiku." *FREDERICK MORGAN, "The Busses." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun." OCTAVIO PAZ, "Daybreak." OCTAVIO PAZ, "Nightfall." CHECKLIST: Writing about Imagery. Writing Suggestions: Imagery. 27. Figures of Speech. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. LANGSTON HUGHES, "Harlem." LAWRENCE FERLINGHETTI, "Constantly Risking Absurdity." AUDRE LORDE, "Rooming houses are old women." Further Reading: Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. ROBERT BURNS, "Oh, my love is like a red, red rose." N. SCOTT MOMADAY, "Simile." SYLVIA PLATH, "Metaphors." *LAWRENCE RAAB, "The Poem That Can't Be Written." JOHN UPDIKE, "Ex-Basketball Player." RANDALL JARRELL, "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner." MARGE PIERCY, "The secretary chant." JOHN DONNE, "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning." MARTÍN ESPADA, "My Father as a Guitar." Hyperbole and Understatement. SYLVIA PLATH, "Daddy." *EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, "If I should learn, in some quite casual way." Further Reading: Hyperbole and Understatement.ANNE BRADSTREET, "To My Dear and Loving Husband." ANDREW MARVELL, "To His Coy Mistress." ROBERT FROST, "Out, Out--." *COUNTEE CULLEN, "Incident." MARGARET ATWOOD, "You fit into me." Metonymy and Synecdoche. RICHARD LOVELACE, "To Lucasta Going to the Wars." Further Reading: Metonymy and Synecdoche. *DYLAN THOMAS, "The Hand That Signed the Paper." Apostrophe. SONIA SANCHEZ, "On Passing thru Morgantown, Pa." Further Reading: Apostrophe. JOHN KEATS, "Ode to a Nightingale." ALLEN GINSBERG, "A Supermarket in California." CHECKLIST: Writing about Figures of Speech. Writing Suggestions: Figures of Speech. 28. Sound. WALT WHITMAN, "Had I the Choice." Rhythm. GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "Sadie and Maud." Meter. EMILY DICKINSON, "I like to see it lap the Miles--." Further Reading: Rhythm and Meter." ADRIENNE RICH, "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers." *THOMAS LUX, "A Little Tooth." *ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON, "I will make you brooches." Alliteration and Assonance. N. SCOTT MOMADAY, "Comparatives." ROBERT HERRICK, "Delight in Disorder." Rhyme. OGDEN NASH, "The Lama." ROBERT FROST, "The Road Not Taken." Further Reading: Alliteration, Assonance, and Rhyme. GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, "Pied Beauty." *SHEL SILVERSTEIN, "Where the Sidewalk Ends." *KAY RYAN, "Masterworks of Ming." LEWIS CARROLL, "Jabberwocky." CHECKLIST: Writing about Sound. Writing Suggestions: Sound. 39. Form. JOHN KEATS, "On the Sonnet." BILLY COLLINS, "Sonnet." Closed Form. Blank Verse. Stanza. The Sonnet. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes." Further Reading: The Sonnet. JOHN KEATS, "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer." *EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, "Love is not all." *LYNN AARTI CHANDHOK, "The Carpet Factory." GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "First Fight. Then Fiddle." The Sestina. ALBERTO ALVARO RÍOS, "Nani." Further Reading: The Sestina. ELIZABETH BISHOP, "Sestina." *PATRICIA SMITH, "Ethel's Sestina." The Villanelle. THEODORE ROETHKE, "The Waking." The Epigram. Further Reading: The Epigram. SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, "What Is an Epigram?" *DOROTHY PARKER, "News Item." MARTÍN ESPADA, "Why I Went to College." *A. R. AMMONS, "One can't have it both ways." *WANG PING, "Syntax." Haiku. Further Reading: Haiku. MATSUO BASH?, "Four Haiku." CAROLYN KIZER, "After Bash?. JACK KEROUAC, "American Haiku." Open Form. CARL SANDBURG, "Chicago." E. E. CUMMINGS, "the sky was can dy." Further Reading: Open Form. WALT WHITMAN, from "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking." WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, "Spring and All." *YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, "Nude Interrogation." *DIONISIO MARTÍNEZ, "The Prodigal Son Catches up with the Bounty Hunters." *DIONISIO MARTÍNEZ, "The Prodigal Son Jumps Bail." Concrete Poetry. MAY SWENSON, "Women." Further Reading: Concrete Poetry. GEORGE HERBERT, "Easter Wings." *JOHN HOLLANDER, "Skeleton Key." CHECKLIST: Writing about Form. Writing Suggestions: Form. MAY SWENSON, "Women Should Be Pedestals." 30. Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. WILLIAM BLAKE, "The Sick Rose." Symbol. ROBERT FROST, "For Once, Then, Something." EMILY DICKINSON, "Volcanoes be in Sicily." Further Reading: Symbol. EDGAR ALLAN POE, "The Raven." Allegory. CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, "Uphill." Further Reading: Allegory. *CARL DENNIS, "At the Border." Allusion. WILLIAM MEREDITH, "Dreams of Suicide." Further Reading: Allusion. *BILLY COLLINS, "Aristotle." *R. S. GWYNN, "Shakespearean Sonnet." Myth. COUNTEE CULLEN, "Yet Do I Marvel." Further Reading: Myth. *CHARLES SIMIC, "Charon's Cosmology." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "Leda and the Swan." DEREK WALCOTT, "Sea Grapes." W. H. AUDEN, "Musee des Beaux Arts." T. S. ELIOT, "Journey of the Magi." CHECKLIST: Writing about Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. Writing Suggestions: Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. 31. Discovering Themes in Poetry. ROBERT HERRICK, "The Argument of His Book." Poems about Parents. THEODORE ROETHKE, "My Papa's Waltz." ROBERT HAYDEN, "Those Winter Sundays." *JULIA ALVAREZ, "Dusting." SEAMUS HEANEY, "Digging." RAYMOND CARVER, "Photograph of My Father in His Twenty-Second Year." JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, "My Father in the Navy: A Childhood Memory." MITSUYE YAMADA, "The Night Before Goodbye." ADRIENNE RICH, "A Woman Mourned by Daughters." *W. S. MERWIN, "A Single Autumn." DYLAN THOMAS, "Do not go gentle into that good night." Poems about Nature. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "I wandered lonely as a cloud." GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, "The Windhover." *A. E. HOUSMAN, "Loveliest of Trees." CARL SANDBURG, "Fog." ROBERT FROST, "Birches." *MARY OLIVER, "Wild Geese." *DENISE LEVERTOV, "Living." WILLIAM STAFFORD, "Traveling through the Dark." *ANONYMOUS, "Home on the Range." Poems about Love. ROBERT BROWNING, "Meeting at Night." ROBERT BROWNING, "Parting at Morning." ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, "How Do I Love Thee?" EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, "What Lips My Lips Have Kissed." *WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "The Song of Wandering Aengus." *LEIGH HUNT, "Jenny Kissed Me." DOROTHY PARKER, "General Review of the Sex Situation." Poems about War. Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum Est." *SIEGFRIED SASSOON, "Atrocities." RUPERT BROOKE, "The Soldier." *JOHN McCRAE, "In Flanders Fields." *RADIOHEAD, "Harry Patch (in Memory of)." *LOUIS SIMPSON, "I dreamed that in a city dark as Paris." *W. H. AUDEN, from "In Time of War." YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, "Facing It." *BRIAN TURNER, "Here, Bullet." *RICHARD WILBUR, "Terza Rima." WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, "The End and the Beginning." Writing Suggestions: Discovering Themes in Poetry. 32. The Poetry of Langston Hughes: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. BIOGRAPHY. POEMS. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." "Dream Variations." "The Weary Blues." "I, Too." "Song for a Dark Girl." "Ballad of the Landlord." "Theme for English B." "Dream Boogie." "Birmingham." "Sunday (September 15, 1963)." "Lenox Avenue: Midnight." "Un-American Investigators." "Dinner Guest: Me." SOURCES." Background. LANGSTON HUGHES from "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain." LANGSTON HUGHES "To Negro Writers." LANGSTON HUGHES from "My Adventures as a Social Poet." Critical Perspectives. ARNOLD RAMPERSAD, from "The Origins of Poetry in Langston Hughes." HERMAN BEAVERS, from "Dead Rocks and Sleeping Men: Aurality in the Aesthetic of Langston Hughes." STEVEN C. TRACY, from "'Midnight Ruffles of Cat-Gut Lace': The Boogie Poems of Langston Hughes." KAREN JACKSON FORD, from "Do Right to Write Right: Langston Hughes's Aesthetics of Simplicity." GEORGE B. HUTCHINSON, from "Langston Hughes and the 'Other' Whitman." *YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, from "Langston Hughes + Poetry = The Blues." Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: The Rhythms of African-American Life: Langston Hughes and the Poetics of Blues and Jazz. 33. Poetry for Further Reading . *ELIZABETH ALEXANDER, "West Indian Primer." SHERMAN J. ALEXIE, "Defending Walt Whitman." ANONYMOUS, "Bonny Barbara Allan." ANONYMOUS, "Go Down, Moses." ANONYMOUS, "Western Wind." MATTHEW ARNOLD, "Dover Beach." *JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA, "Family Ties." ELIZABETH BISHOP, "The Fish." ELIZABETH BISHOP, "One Art." WILLIAM BLAKE, "The Lamb." WILLIAM BLAKE, "To see a World in a Grain of Sand." WILLIAM BLAKE, "The Tyger." ANNE BRADSTREET, "The Author to Her Book." GEORGE GORDON, LORD BYRON, "She Walks in Beauty." *ROSEMARY CATACALOS, "Morning Geograph." *LUCILLE CLIFTON, "At the Cemetery, Walnut Grove Plantation, South Carolina, 1989." *JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, "Lessons of the Past." SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, "Kubla Khan." BILLY COLLINS, "Introduction to Poetry." *WENDY COPE, "Bloody Men." *BILL COYLE, "Aubade." E. E. CUMMINGS, "Buffalo Bill's." E. E. CUMMINGS, "next to of course god america i." *SILVIA CURBELO, "If You Need a Reason." *JIM DANIELS, "Short-Order Cook." *ANGELA DE HOYOS, "Woman, Woman." EMILY DICKINSON, "After great pain, a formal feeling comes--." EMILY DICKINSON, "Because I could not stop for Death--." EMILY DICKINSON, "'Faith' is a fine invention." EMILY DICKINSON, "I dwell in Possibility--." EMILY DICKINSON, "I heard a Fly buzz--when I died--." EMILY DICKINSON, "Success is counted sweetest." EMILY DICKINSON, Tell all the Truth but tell it slant--."EMILY DICKINSON, "Wild Nights--Wild Nights!" JOHN DONNE, "Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God." JOHN DONNE, "Death Be Not Proud." JOHN DONNE, "The Flea." *CAROL ANN DUFFY, "Mrs. Darwin." PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, "We Wear the Mask." *RUSSELL EDSON, "The Fall." T. S. ELIOT, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." JAMES A. EMANUEL, "Emmett Till." LOUISE ERDRICH, "Indian Boarding School: The Runaways." *MARTÍN ESPADA, "The Community College Revises Its Curriculum in Response to Changing Demographics." ROBERT FROST, "Acquainted with the Night." ROBERT FROST, "Design." ROBERT FROST, "Mending Wall." ROBERT FROST, "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening." *DAVID GRAHAM, "The Dogs in Dutch Paintings." THOMAS HARDY, "The Convergence of the Twain." *JOY HARJO, "Perhaps the World Ends Here." H. D. (HILDA DOOLITTLE), "Helen." SEAMUS HEANEY, "Mid-Term Break." *WILLIAM ERNEST HENLEY, "Invictus." GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, "God's Grandeur." *A. E. HOUSMAN, "When I Was One-and-Twenty." *ANDREW HUDGINS, "Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead." DONALD JUSTICE, "Men at Forty." JOHN KEATS, "La Belle Dame sans Merci: A Ballad." JOHN KEATS, "Ode on a Grecian Urn." JOHN KEATS, "When I Have Fears." *STEVE KOWIT, "The Grammar Lesson." PHILIP LARKIN, "The Explosion." *LI-YOUNG LEE, "From Blossoms." *JAN HELLER LEVI, "Not Bad, Dad, Not Bad." *HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, "A Psalm of Life." *ROBERT LOWELL, "Skunk Hour." ARCHIBALD MACLEISH, "Ars Poetica." CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love." CLAUDE MCKAY, "If We Must Die." *W. S. MERWIN, "For the Anniversary of My Death." *CZESLAW MILOSZ, "Encounter." JOHN MILTON, "When I consider how my light is spent." *PAT MORA, "La Migra." *HOWARD NEMEROV, "The War in the Air." *PABLO NERUDA, "Tonight I Can Write." *NAOMI SHIHAB NYE, "Famous." FRANK O'HARA, "Ave Maria." SHARON OLDS, "The One Girl at the Boys' Party." LINDA PASTAN, "Ethics." LINDA PASTAN, "Marks." *LINDA PASTAN, "Reading the Obituary Page." MARGE PIERCY, "Barbie doll." *LEROY V. QUINTANA, "Poem for Salt." *LEROY V. QUINTANA, "Taps." SIR WALTER RALEIGH, "The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd." HENRY REED, "Naming of Parts." EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, "Miniver Cheevy." EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, "Richard Cory." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Let me not to the marriage of true minds." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Not marble, nor the gilded monuments." PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, "Ode to the West Wind." *CHARLES SIMIC, "The Partial Explanation." *DAVID R. SLAVITT, "Titanic." *PATRICIA SMITH, "Hip-Hop Ghazal." STEVIE SMITH, "Not Waving but Drowning." *CATHY SONG, "Picture Bride." WALLACE STEVENS, "Anecdote of the Jar." WALLACE STEVENS, "The Emperor of Ice-Cream." *VIRGIL SUÁREZ, "Aguacero." *ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, "Break, Break, Break." ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, "The Eagle." ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, "Ulysses." DYLAN THOMAS, "Fern Hill." *TOM WAYMAN, "Wayman in Love." *CHARLES WEBB, "The Death of Santa Claus." PHILLIS WHEATLEY, "On Being Brought from Africa to America." WALT WHITMAN, "A Noiseless Patient Spider." WALT WHITMAN, from "Song of Myself." *C. K. WILLIAMS, "First Desires." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "London, 1802." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "My heart leaps up when I behold." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "The Solitary Reaper." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop." *WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "He Wishes for the Cloths of Heaven." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "An Irish Airman Foresees His Death." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "The Lake Isle of Innisfree." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "Sailing to Byzantium." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "The Second Coming." *KEVIN YOUNG, "Song of Smoke." Poetry Sampler: Poetry and Art. RITA DOVE, "Sonnet in Primary Colors." ALLEN GINSBERG, "Cezanne's Ports." ROBERT HAYDEN, "Monet's 'Waterlilies.'" CATHY SONG, "Girl Powdering Her Neck." MAY SWENSON, "The Tall Figures of Giacometti." KEVIN YOUNG, "The Fun Gallery." Writing Suggestions: Poetry and Art. PART 4 DRAMA. 34. Understanding Drama. Dramatic Literature. Origins of Modern Drama. The Ancient Greek Theater. The Elizabethan Theater. The Modern Theater. Tragedy and Comedy. Tragedy. Comedy. Defining Drama. ANTON CHEKHOV, "The Brute." A Note on Translations. Recognizing Kinds of Drama. 35. Drama Sampler: Ten-Minute Plays. *LAUREN FELDMAN, "Asteroid Belt." JANE MARTIN, "Beauty." *HAROLD PINTER, "Applicant." JOSÉ RIVERA, "Tape." Writing Suggestions: Ten-Minute Plays. 36. Reading and Writing about Drama. Reading Drama. Active Reading. Writing about Drama. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: The Women's Role in "Trifles" (First Draft). Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: Confinement and Rebellion in "Trifles" (Second Draft). Student Paper: Desperate Measures: Acts of Defiance in "Trifles" (Final Draft). 37. Plot. Plot Structure. Plot and Subplot. Plot Development. Flashbacks. Foreshadowing. CHECKLIST: Writing about Plot. WARREN LEIGHT, "Nine Ten." SUSAN GLASPELL, "Trifles." HENRIK IBSEN, "A Doll House." Writing Suggestions: Plot. 38. Character . Characters' Words. Formal and Informal Language. Plain and Elaborate Language. Tone. Irony. Characters' Actions. Stage Directions. Actors' Interpretations. CHECKLIST: Writing about Character. *PAUL DOOLEY AND WINNIE HOLZMAN, "Post-its." DAVID AUBURN, "Proof." ARTHUR MILLER, "Death of a Salesman." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Hamlet." Writing Suggestions: Character. 39. Staging. Stage Directions. The Uses of Staging. Costumes. Props and Furnishings. Scenery and Lighting. Music and Sound Effects. A Final Note. CHECKLIST: Writing about Staging. *GINA BARNETT, "Alone at Last!" DAVID IVES, "Words, Words, Words." MILCHA SANCHEZ-SCOTT, "The Cuban Swimmer." SOPHOCLES, "Oedipus the King." Writing Suggestions: Staging. 40. Theme. Titles. Conflicts. Dialogue. Characters. Staging. A Final Note. CHECKLIST: Writing about Theme. *JOHN PATRICK SHANLEY, "Doubt." DAVID HENRY HWANG, "Trying to Find Chinatown." AUGUST WILSON, "Fences." Writing Suggestions: Theme. 41. Tennessee Williams's "The Glass Menagerie": A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. BIOGRAPHY. PLAY: TENNESSEE WILLIAMS, "The Glass Menagerie." SOURCES. Background. TENNESSEE WILLIAMS, "Author's Production Notes." TENNESSEE WILLIAMS, from "Tennessee Williams: Memoirs." JEAN EVANS, "Interview 1945." TENNESSEE WILLIAMS, "Portrait of a Girl in Glass." Critical Perspectives. JACQUELINE O'CONNOR, from "Dramatizing Dementia: Madness in the Plays of Tennessee Williams." THOMAS L. KING, from "Irony and Distance in 'The Glass Menagerie.'" NANCY MARIE PATTERSON TISCHLER, from "Student Companion to Tennessee Williams." ROGER B. STEIN, from "'The Glass Menagerie' Revisited: Catastrophe without Violence." TOM SCANLAN, from "Family, Drama, and American Dreams." JAMES FISHER, from "'The Angels of Fructification': Tennessee Williams, Tony Kushner, and Images of Homosexuality on the American Stage." *FRANK ARDOLINO, "Tennessee Williams's 'The Glass Menagerie.'" Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: Laura's Gentleman Caller. Appendix. Using Literary Criticism in Your Writing. Formalism and New Criticism. A New Critical Reading: Kate Chopin's "The Storm." For Further Reading: Formalism and New Criticism. Reader-Response Criticism. Reader-Response Readings: Kate Chopin's "The Storm." For Further Reading: Reader-Response Criticism. Feminist Criticism. A Feminist Reading: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing." For Further Reading: Feminist Criticism. Marxist Criticism. A Marxist Reading: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing." For Further Reading: Marxist Criticism. Psychoanalytic Criticism. A Psychoanalytic Reading: Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado." For Further Reading: Psychoanalytic Criticism. Structuralism. A Structuralist Reading: William Faulkner's "Barn Burning." For Further Reading: Structuralism. Deconstruction. A Deconstructionist Reading: Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." For Further Reading: Deconstruction. Cultural Studies. New Historicism. A New Historicist Reading: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper." For Further Reading: New Historicist Criticism. Queer Theory. A Queer Theory Reading: Zadie Smith's "The Girl with Bangs." For Further Reading: Queer Theory. Postcolonial Studies. A Postcolonial Reading: Jhumpa Lahiri's "The Third and Final Continent." For Further Reading: Postcolonial Studies. American Multiculturalism. An American Multicultural Reading: Alice Walker's "Everyday Use." For Further Reading: American Multiculturalism. Glossary of Literary Terms. Credits. Index of First Lines of Poetry. Index of Authors and Titles. Index of Literary Terms.