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Comparative Criminal Justice Systems,9780534615420

Comparative Criminal Justice Systems

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534615420

ISBN10:
0534615422
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/19/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $207.66

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Summary

The revision of this best-selling book presents a comprehensive analysis of how various criminal justice systems throughout the world compare. Harry Dammer has extensively revised the text to reflect the latest trends and most up-to-date information on international juvenile justice, policing and terrorism. By using a topical approach (examining various aspects of each system, such as policing, drugs, sentencing, and juvenile justice) rather than a country- by-country approach, the book gives students a more realistic understanding of the similarities and differences of each system. The authors use six "model" countries (China, England, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and France) to provide specific examples and explore historical, political, economic, social, and cultural influences on each system.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART I SETTING THE STAGE
1(100)
Introduction
3(14)
Defining Terms
5(1)
The Origins and Growth of Comparative Criminal Justice
6(2)
Why Compare Systems of and Issues in Criminal Justice?
8(4)
To Benefit from Others' Experience
8(1)
To Broaden Our Understanding of the World
9(1)
To Deal with Transnational Crime Problems
10(1)
The Extent of Transnational Crime
11(1)
The Historical-Political Approach
12(1)
Model Systems
13(1)
Basic Values in the Criminal Justice System
13(1)
Political Culture Versus Politicized Justice
14(1)
The Plan of This Book
15(1)
Summary
16(1)
Discussion Questions
16(1)
For Further Reading
16(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
16(1)
Measuring and Comparing Crime in and Across Nations
17(29)
Why Measure Crime and Compare Crime Data?
18(1)
The Historical Background of International Crime Data
19(1)
The Different Kinds of Crime Data
20(10)
The Uniform Crime Reports
20(1)
The National Crime Victimization Surveys
21(1)
Self-Report Surveys
21(1)
International Police Data
22(1)
United Nations Surveys
23(1)
Interpol and Interpol Crime Data
24(2)
International Victimization Surveys
26(1)
Alternative Sources of International Crime Data
27(3)
Limitations of International Crime Data
30(3)
Underreporting
30(1)
Nonstandard Definitions
30(1)
Differences in Collection and Recording Practices
31(2)
How to Compare International Crime Data
33(2)
Ways to Improve the Comparability of Crime Data
33(1)
Cautions in Comparing Crime Data
34(1)
International Crime Rates
35(5)
Overall Crime Rates
35(1)
Homicide Rates
35(4)
Crime Rates in Model Countries
39(1)
The Exceptions: Countries with Low Crime
40(3)
Japan
40(3)
Saudi Arabia
43(1)
How Does the United States Measure Up?
43(2)
Summary
45(1)
Discussion Questions
45(1)
For Further Reading
45(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
45(1)
Families of Law
46(24)
Ancient and Lesser-Employed Legal Traditions
48(2)
Ancient/Historical Legal Traditions
48(1)
Indigenous Law
49(1)
Clarifying Terms
50(1)
The Civil Law
51(4)
Roman Law
52(1)
Canon and Commercial Law
52(1)
The Napoleonic Code
53(1)
The German Civil Code
54(1)
The Importance of the French and German Civil Codes
54(1)
The Common Law
55(4)
The King's Court
55(1)
Equity Courts
56(1)
The Modern History of the Common Law
56(1)
The Development of Criminal Procedure
57(1)
The Definition of Crimes
57(1)
The Current Status of the Common Law
57(2)
The Socialist Law
59(5)
The Historical Background of Socialist Law
59(1)
Socialism and the People's Republic of China
60(1)
Socialist Versus Civil Law
61(1)
The Public Law/Private Law Distinction
61(1)
Economic Crimes
61(1)
The Educational Function of the Law
62(1)
The Role of the Procurator
62(1)
Political Versus Nonpolitical Justice
63(1)
The Independence of the Judiciary
63(1)
The Sacred Law
64(4)
Sources of Islamic Law
65(1)
The Prevalence of Shari'a
66(1)
Crime and Punishment Under Shari'a
66(1)
Equality and Islamic Justice
67(1)
Summary
68(1)
Discussion Questions
69(1)
For Further Reading
69(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
69(1)
Six Model Nations
70(31)
England
72(5)
Overview
72(1)
Historical Developments
72(3)
Crime
75(1)
Criminal Law
76(1)
The Criminal Justice System
76(1)
Comparisons with the United States
77(1)
France
77(4)
Overview
77(1)
Historical Developments
78(1)
Crime
79(1)
Criminal Law
79(1)
The Criminal Justice System
80(1)
Comparisons with the United States
80(1)
Germany
81(3)
Overview
81(1)
Historical Developments
81(1)
Crime
82(1)
Criminal Law
83(1)
The Criminal Justice System
84(1)
Comparisons with the United States
84(1)
China
84(5)
Overview
84(1)
Historical Developments
85(1)
Crime
86(2)
Criminal Law
88(1)
The Criminal Justice System
88(1)
Comparisons with the United States
89(1)
Japan
89(5)
Overview
89(1)
Historical Developments
90(1)
Crime
91(1)
Criminal Law
92(1)
The Criminal Justice System
93(1)
Comparisons with the United States
94(1)
Saudi Arabia
94(4)
Overview
94(1)
Historical Developments
95(1)
Crime
96(1)
Criminal Law
96(1)
The Criminal Justice System
97(1)
Comparisons with the United States
98(1)
Summary
98(1)
Discussion Questions
99(1)
For Further Reading
99(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
99(2)
PART II CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESSES
101(188)
Law Enforcement Functions, Organization, and Community Involvement
103(32)
Functions of Police
105(1)
Deviance Control
105(1)
Civil Order Control
105(1)
The Functional Organization of Police Forces
106(1)
Policing in the Model Countries
106(22)
England
107(1)
Organization and Training
108(1)
Civil Order Control
109(1)
France
110(1)
Organization and Training
110(2)
Civil Order Control
112(1)
Germany
113(1)
Organization and Training
113(1)
Civil Order Control
114(1)
Problems Following Reunification
114(1)
China
115(1)
Organization and Training
116(1)
Civil Order Control
117(1)
Japan
117(1)
Organization and Training
117(2)
The Koban and the Chuzaisho
119(1)
A Unique Police Culture
120(1)
Civil Order Control
120(1)
Saudi Arabia
121(1)
Organization and Training
121(1)
Civil Order Control
122(1)
Comparing Policing Structures
122(1)
Policing Styles
123(1)
Community Policing
123(1)
Zero-Tolerance Policing
124(1)
Proactive Policing
125(1)
Community Policing in the Model Countries
126(1)
England
126(1)
France
126(1)
Germany
127(1)
China
127(1)
Japan
128(1)
Saudi Arabia
128(1)
International Police Cooperation
128(4)
The Changing Role of Police
132(1)
Summary
133(1)
Discussion Questions
134(1)
For Further Reading
134(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
134(1)
Criminal Procedure
135(36)
The Adversarial System
136(2)
Common Law Criminal Procedure
138(4)
The Right to Counsel
139(1)
The Right to Remain Silent
139(1)
The Right to Trial by Jury
140(1)
The Right to Bail
141(1)
The Differences in Criminal Procedure Rules in Common Law Countries
142(1)
The Inquisitorial System
142(1)
Civil Law Criminal Procedure
143(6)
The Investigation
144(1)
The Right to Counsel
145(1)
The Right to Remain Silent
145(1)
The Trial
146(1)
Similarities and Differences Between the French, German, and American Systems
147(1)
The Mixed Court
148(1)
Socialist Criminal Procedure
149(6)
Pretrial Investigation, Arrest, and Detention
150(1)
The Right to Counsel
151(1)
The Trial Process and Judicial Fairness
151(3)
Distinctive Aspects of Socialist Law Procedure
154(1)
Japan: The Hybrid Situation
155(2)
Sacred (Islamic) Criminal Procedure
157(2)
The Convergence of Systems
159(1)
Constitutional Review
160(2)
Arrangements for Constitutional Review
160(1)
No Review
161(1)
Nonjudicial Review
161(1)
Judicial Review with Legislative Approval
161(1)
Constitutional Review in the Model Countries
162(6)
England: Indirect Judicial Review
162(1)
France: The Conseil Constitutionnel
163(1)
Germany: The Lundesverfassungsgericht
163(2)
Japan
165(1)
The Structure and Functioning of the Japanese Supreme Court
165(1)
China
166(1)
Human Rights in Chinese Context
166(1)
Nonjudicial Review, Chinese Style
167(1)
Saudi Arabia
168(1)
Beyond Constitutional Review: Supranational Courts of Human Rights
168(1)
Summary
169(1)
Discussion Questions
170(1)
For Further Reading
170(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
170(1)
Legal Actors
171(26)
The Legal Profession
172(4)
Adjudicators
173(1)
Advocates
174(1)
Advisors
175(1)
Legal Scholars
175(1)
Key Issues in the Legal Profession
176(1)
Creeping Specialization
176(1)
Stratification Within the Profession
176(1)
Legal Aid
177(1)
Bureaucratic and Political Organization of Legal Actors
177(3)
Bureaurocratically Oriented Organization
178(1)
Politically Oriented Organization
179(1)
The Legal Profession in the Model Systems of Justice
180(14)
England
180(4)
France and Germany
184(3)
China
187(3)
Japan
190(2)
Saudi Arabia
192(2)
Summary
194(1)
Discussion Questions
195(1)
For Further Reading
196(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
196(1)
Courts
197(33)
The Concept of a Court
198(1)
The Development of Courts in Western Nations
199(2)
Indigenous Courts
200(1)
The Study of Courts
201(1)
Courts in England
201(4)
Magistrates' Courts
201(1)
Crown Courts
202(2)
Appeals Courts
204(1)
Courts in France
205(3)
Trial Courts
205(2)
Appeals Courts
207(1)
Administrative Courts
208(1)
Courts in Germany
208(3)
Criminal Court Organization
209(2)
Courts in China
211(3)
Courts in Japan
214(4)
Court Organization
215(2)
Citizen Participation in the Judicial Process
217(1)
The Nonlitigious Japanese: Myth or Reality?
218(1)
Courts in Saudi Arabia
218(2)
Court Organization
219(1)
Supranational Courts
220(7)
The Background of Supranational Courts
220(1)
Supranational Courts Today
221(1)
The Development of the ECHR
221(1)
The Dilemma of the ECHR
222(1)
International Court of Justice
223(1)
Dealing with International Criminals with the ICTY, ICTR, and ICC
223(1)
International Criminal Court
224(2)
The Legal Jurisdiction of Supranational Courts
226(1)
Future Developments in Supranational Courts
227(1)
Summary
227(1)
Discussion Questions
228(1)
For Further Reading
228(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
228(2)
After Conviction: The Sentencing Process
230(29)
The Purposes of Criminal Sanctions
231(3)
Sentencing Practices
234(1)
Corporal Punishment
235(2)
Noncustodial Sanctions
237(10)
Monetary Sanctions
240(1)
Fines
240(1)
Day Fines
240(2)
Confiscation and Forfeiture
242(1)
Restitution and Community Service
242(2)
Community Supervision
244(1)
Probation
244(1)
House Arrest
244(1)
Electronic Monitoring
245(1)
Exile
246(1)
Warnings
246(1)
Other Punishments
247(1)
Imprisonment
247(4)
International Prison Data
247(2)
Limits of International Prison Data
249(1)
Commitment to Mental Hospitals
250(1)
The Death Penalty
251(4)
Public Opinion and Sentencing
255(1)
Summary
256(1)
Discussion Questions
257(1)
For Further Reading
257(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
258(1)
After Conviction: The Problem of Prison
259(30)
The Evolution of Prison Systems
260(2)
Penal Policy in the Model Nations
262(16)
England and Wales
262(4)
France
266(2)
Germany
268(2)
China
270(3)
Japan
273(4)
Saudi Arabia
277(1)
Prison Crowding
278(6)
Reasons for Crowded Prisons
278(2)
Prison Crowding Data
280(1)
Effects of Prison Crowding
281(1)
Solutions to Prison Crowding
282(2)
Rights of Prisoners
284(3)
Treatment of Offenders in the Custody of the United States
286(1)
Summary
287(1)
Discussion Questions
288(1)
For Further Reading
288(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
288(1)
PART III MODERN DILEMMAS IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE
289(78)
Terrorism
291(29)
The Historical Background of Terrorism
292(1)
Defining Terrorism
293(1)
The Goals of Terrorism
294(2)
The Prevalence of Terrorism
296(1)
Terrorist Groups
297(5)
Northern Ireland
298(1)
Palestine
299(3)
Al-Qaida
302(1)
Terrorism in the Model Nations
302(7)
England
303(1)
France
304(2)
Germany
306(1)
China
307(1)
Japan
308(1)
Saudi Arabia
308(1)
Responses to International Terrorism
309(8)
Foreign Policy
310(1)
International Cooperation Strategies
310(2)
Military and Police Detection and Apprehension Strategies
312(4)
Adjudication
316(1)
The Future of Terrorism
317(1)
Summary
318(1)
Discussion Questions
318(1)
For Further Reading
319(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
319(1)
Transnational Organized Crime
320(14)
What Is Organized Crime?
321(3)
The Scope of the Organized Crime Problem Worldwide
324(1)
Organized Crime in Selected World Regions
325(3)
Europe
325(1)
Central Asia
326(1)
Other World Regions
327(1)
Corruption
328(1)
Responses to Organized Crime
329(3)
Summary
332(1)
Discussion Questions
332(1)
For Further Reading
333(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
333(1)
Juvenile Justice in International Perspective
334(18)
What Is Delinquency?
335(2)
Measuring Delinquency
337(1)
Adjudicating Juveniles
338(2)
The United Nations and Juvenile Justice
340(2)
Correcting Juveniles: Punishment Versus Rehabilitation
342(2)
Delinquency Prevention Approaches
344(2)
Juvenile Justice in Six Model Countries
346(3)
England
346(1)
France
347(1)
Germany
347(1)
China
348(1)
Japan
348(1)
Saudi Arabia
349(1)
The Future of Juvenile Justice
349(1)
Summary
350(1)
Discussion Questions
350(1)
For Further Reading
350(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
351(1)
Contemporary Influences and Future Developments in Transnational Crime and Justice
352(15)
Convergence
353(2)
Cultural Persistence
355(2)
Political and Policy-Making Processes
357(1)
Looking to the Future
358(6)
Changes in the Model Nations
358(1)
Predictions about Transnational Crime Issues
358(1)
Computer Crime
359(2)
Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling
361(1)
Human Trafficking
361(1)
Migrant Smuggling
362(2)
Terrorism
364(1)
Summary
364(1)
Discussion Questions
364(1)
For Further Reading
365(1)
Web Pages for Chapter
365(2)
Glossary 367(14)
Works Cited 381(22)
Index 403


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