9780190270995

Comparative Politics Integrating Theories, Methods, and Cases

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190270995

  • ISBN10:

    0190270993

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/15/2015
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Why do countries have different institutions and forms of government? Why do some social revolutions succeed and endure while others fail? Why are some societies subjected to terrorism and not others? An engaging and accessible introduction to the subject, Comparative Politics: Integrating Theories, Methods, and Cases, Second Edition, gives students the methodological tools they need to answer the "big questions" in the field. The authors introduce methods early in the text and integrate them throughout in order to help students develop a systematic way of thinking about comparative politics.

FEATURES

* A unique structure offers the best of thematic and country-by-country approaches. Sixteen succinct thematic chapters--organized around the "big questions" in the field--are followed by a separate section at the end of the book offering full-length profiles and case studies for twelve countries

* Each chapter integrates several standalone country case studies in "Case in Context" boxes; these features tie into the narrative, pose questions, and point students to the full case discussions in the country profiles

* "Thinking Comparatively" sections at the end of each chapter introduce new methodological tools and help students apply the theories and concepts covered in that chapter

* "Thinking It Through" questions help students test their ability to apply comparative politics theories to cases

* "Research Prompts" in every case-study section help students develop comparative projects and papers

Author Biography


J. Tyler Dickovick is the Grigsby Term Associate Professor of Politics at Washington and Lee University. He is the author of Decentralization and Recentralization in the Developing World: Comparative Studies from Africa and Latin America (2011) and coeditor of Decentralization in Africa: The Paradox of State Strength (2014). His current research focuses on the comparative causes and consequences of decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Jonathan Eastwood is Associate Professor of Sociology at Washington and Lee University. He is the coeditor of The Revolution in Venezuela: Social and Political Change under Chávez (2011) and the author or coauthor of several articles. Dr. Eastwood works on a variety of topics in sociological theory and comparative social science, and is especially interested in relationships between collective identities, collective action, and conflict.

Table of Contents


Insights
Preface
Maps of the World
PART I: COMPARATIVE POLITICAL ANALYSIS
Chapter 1. The Comparative Approach: An Introduction
Asking Why: Research Questions in Comparative Politics
Major Questions in Comparative Politics
Empirical Arguments versus Normative Arguments
Solving Intellectual Puzzles: A Contemporary Analogy
Concepts
Features of Good Concepts
Conceptualization
Operationalizing: From Concepts to Measures
Empirical Evidence
Facts and Evidence
Cases and Case Studies
The Comparative Method
Variables and Comparison
The Most-Similar-Systems Design
The Most-Different-Systems Design
Comparative Checking
Within-Case Comparison
Is the Study of Politics a Science? The Limits of the Comparative Method
Chapter 2. Theories, Hypotheses, and Evidence
Introduction to Theories, Hypotheses, and Evidence
Theories
Hypotheses
How Theories Emerge and Are Used
Types of Evidence
Hypothesis Testing
Correlation
Causation
Critiques: Using Theory and Evidence
Empirical Critiques: Confirming Cases and Deviant Cases
Theoretical Critiques: Improving Theories and Hypotheses
The Challenge of Measurement: Errors, Biases, and Validity
Thinking Comparatively: Qualities of Good Analysis and Argumentation
Step 1: Asking Good Questions: Why?
Step 2: Hypotheses Testing: Generating Good Hypotheses and Testing Them Fairly
Step 3: Balancing Argumentation: Evidence, Originality, and Meaningfulness
PART II: THE STATE, DEVELOPMENT, DEMOCRACY, AND AUTHORITARIANISM
Chapter 3. The State
Concepts
The Modern State
State Capacity
Failed States
The State-Society Relationship
Types
Characteristics of Modern States
Bureaucracy
Impersonality
Sovereignty
Traditional Functions of Modern States
Defense
Policing
Taxation
Order, Administration, and "Legibility"
Causes and Effects: Why Did States Emerge and Expand?
Political/Conflict Theories
Economic Theories
Cultural Theories
Diffusion Theories
Thinking Comparatively: Great Britain, the United Kingdom, or Neither? State and Nation in England and Scotland
Chapter 4. Political Economy
Concepts
Inequality
Employment and Inflation
Types
Markets and States in Modern Economies
Markets and Economic Performance
States and Economic Performance
Economic Functions of Modern States
States and Economic Management
Investments in Human Capital: Education and Health
Infrastructure and Other Public Goods
Welfare State Functions
Causes and Effects: Why Do Welfare States Emerge?
Cultural Changes
Industrial Capitalism
Mobilization and Political Action
International Learning Effects
Thinking Comparatively: Welfare States in the Nordic Countries: What Can We Learn and How?
Chapter 5. Development
Concepts
Types
Poverty
Social Outcomes and Human Development
Gender Relations and Racial and Ethnic Identities
Satisfaction and Happiness
Cultural Development
Sustainability
Causes and Effects: Why Does Development Happen (or Not)?
Institutions: The Markets-States Debate, Revisited
Institutions: Beyond the Markets-States Debate
Culture and Development
Systems and Structures: International and Domestic
Thinking Comparatively: Explaining the Development of North and South Korea
Chapter 6. Democracy and Democratization
Concepts
Democracy and Democratic Regimes
Procedural (Minimal) Definitions of Democracy
Substantive Definitions of Democracy
Regime Change and Democratization
Types
Types of Democracy
Representative Democracy
Direct Democracy
Types of Democratization
Democratic Transitions
Democratic Consolidation
Causes and Effects: What Causes Democratization?
Modernization
Culture and Democracy
The International System
Domestic Institutions
Agents and Actors: The Role of Individuals and Groups
Combining Arguments and Theories: Multiple Causes
Thinking Comparatively: Is American Democracy a Model?
Chapter 7. Authoritarian Regimes and Democratic Breakdown
Concepts
Authoritarianism and Authoritarian Regimes
Transitions to Authoritarian Regimes
Types
Types of Authoritarianism
Totalitarian Regimes
Theocracies
Personalistic Dictatorships
Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes
Hybrid and Semi-authoritarian Regimes
Types of Transition (or Nontransition) to
Authoritarianism
Authoritarian Persistence
Democratic Breakdown
Transition to Hybrid or Semi-authoritarian Regime
Causes and Effects: What Causes Authoritarian Regimes to Emerge and Persist?
Historical Institutionalist Theories
Poverty and Inequality
State Weakness and Failure
Political Culture Theories of Authoritarian Resistance
Barriers to Collective Action
Special Causal Circumstances Surrounding Hybrid and Semi-authoritarian Regimes
Thinking Comparatively: Why Did Zimbabwe Become and Remain Authoritarian?
PART III: INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENT
Chapter 8. Constitutions and Constitutional Design
Concepts
Constitutions
Constitutional Design
Types
Flexible and Rigid Constitutions
Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and Parliamentary Sovereignty
Federalism and Unitarism
Federalism
Unitarism
Authoritarian and Democratic Constitutions
Causes and Effects: What Are the Effects of Federal Constitutions?
Are Federal Constitutions Good for Social Stability?
Are Federal Constitutions Good for Democratic Rights?
Are Federal Constitutions Good for the Economy?
Judicial Review and Democracy
Thinking Comparatively: What Explains the Similarities Between the Brazilian and South African Constitutions?
Chapter 9. Legislatures and Legislative Elections
Concepts
What Legislatures Are
What Legislatures Do
Types
Unicameral and Bicameral Legislatures
Electoral Systems
District Systems
Proportional Representation (PR)
Mixed or Hybrid
Executive--Legislative Relations
Causes and Effects: What Explains Patterns of Representation?
Patterns of Representation
Electoral Systems and Representation
Legislative Decision Making and Representation
Executive-Legislative Relations and Representation
Thinking Comparatively: Representation in New Zealand and Beyond
Chapter 10. Executives
Concepts
Concepts
Types
Executive Structures: Presidential and Parliamentary
Formal Powers
Partisan Powers
Coalitions
Informal Powers
Causes and Effects: What Explains Executive Stability?
Stable and Unstable Regimes: Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy
Stable and Unstable Executives: Styles of Presidential Rule
Stable and Unstable Executives: Patterns of Parliamentary Rule
Thinking Comparatively: Beyond the American and British Models
Chapter 11. Political Parties, Party Systems, and Interest Groups
Concepts
Political Parties
Party Systems
Interest Groups
Types
Political Parties: Elite, Mass, and Catch-All Parties
Party Systems: Dominant-Party, Two-Party, and Multiparty Systems
Interest Groups: Pluralism and Corporatism
Causes and Effects: Why Do Party Systems Emerge, and What Effects Do They Have?
Party Systems and Representation
What Factors Shape Party Systems?
How Do Party Systems Shape Political Outcomes?
Interest Groups and Representation
Thinking Comparatively: Party Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa
PART IV: POLITICS, SOCIETY, AND CULTURE
Chapter 12. Revolutions and Contention
Concepts
What Is "Contention"?
Revolutionary and Non-revolutionary Contention
Types
Social Movements
Revolutions
Insurgencies and Civil Wars
Terrorism
"Everyday Resistance"
Thinking about Contention: Summary
Causes and Effects: Why Do Revolutions Happen?
Relative Deprivation
Resource Mobilization and Political Opportunities
Rational Choice
Culture or "Framing" Explanations
Thinking Comparatively: The "Arab Spring" of 2011
Chapter 13. Nationalism and National Identity
Concepts
Identity
Nationalism and the Nation
Types
Primordialist Approaches
Perennialist Approaches
Modernist Approaches
Types of Nationalism
Causes and Effects: What Causes Ethno-national Conflict?
Primordial Bonds
Cultural Boundaries
Material Interests
Rational Calculation
Social Psychology
Thinking Comparatively: Ending Ethnic and National Violence
Chapter 14. Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
Concepts
Race and Ethnicity
Gender
Sexual Orientation
Types
Disentangling Race and Ethnicity
Discrimination Based on Race and Ethnicity
Gender Discrimination
Empowerment of Women and Minority Groups
Causes and Effects: What Factors Influence the Political Representation of Women and Minority Groups?
Social Movement Mobilization
Political Parties Based on Gender or Ethnicity
Institutions for Promoting Women's and Minority Group Representation
Thinking Comparatively: Indicators of Gender Empowerment
Chapter 15. Ideology and Religion
Concepts
Modernity and Modernization
Ideology
Religion
Secularization, Religion, and Modern Politics
Religious Conflict
Types
Modern Ideologies
Liberalism
Fascism
Socialism
Modern Forms of Religion in Politics
Lay and Religious States
Denominationalism
Causes and Effects: Why Do Religion and Ideology Remain Prevalent in Modern Politics?
Why (and How) Does Modernization Alter Religion's Role in Politics?
Modernization Theory and Secularization
The "Religious Economies" Approach
Institutional Theories
Why Didn't Ideology (and History) End?
Thinking Comparatively: Two Lefts in Latin America?
PART V: THE COMPARATIVE-INTERNATIONAL NEXUS
Chapter 16. Comparative Politics and International Relations
Concepts
Issues
Globalization and Trade
International Institutions and Integration
Immigration
Environment and Sustainability
Transnational Networks
Nuclear Threats and Terrorism
Causes and Effects: What Are the Main Causes in International Relations?
Realism
Liberalism
Constructivism
Marxism
Thinking Comparatively: The EU and Levels of Analysis
PART VI: COUNTRY PROFILES AND CASES
BRAZIL
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary Brazil
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
Does the Global Economy Help or Hurt Developing Nations like Brazil? (Ch. 5)
Democratic Consolidation in Brazil (Ch. 6)
Electoral Rules and Party (In)Discipline in Brazil's Legislature (Ch. 9)
Brazil's Landless Movement (Ch. 12)
Gender and Political Representation in Brazil: Where Has Progress Come From? (Ch. 14)
CHINA
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary China
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
How Did China Become an Economic Power? (Ch. 5)
Is China Destined for Democracy? (Ch. 6)
Who Governs China? (Ch. 10)
The Chinese Party System (Ch. 11)
The Chinese Revolution (Ch. 12)
FRANCE
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary France
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
The State in France (Ch. 3)
Authoritarian Persistence in Nineteenth-Century France (Ch. 7)
Electing the French President: What Do Runoffs Do? (Ch. 10)
The French Revolution (Ch. 12)
Religion and Secularism in France (Ch. 14)
Globalization and Culture in France (Ch. 15)
GERMANY
Profile
Key Features of Contemporary Germany
Introduction
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
The German State: Unification and Welfare (Ch. 4)
Democracy and Authoritarianism in Germany (Ch. 7)
Institutional Design: Germany's Bundestag and Bundesrat (Ch. 9)
Consensus-Based Politics in Germany (Ch. 11)
Ethnic Boundaries of the German Nation? (Ch. 13)
INDIA
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary India
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
What Explains India's Recent Growth? (Ch. 5)
Democracy's Success in India: What Can We Learn from a Deviant Case? (Ch. 6)
Federalism and Differences in Development in India (Ch. 8)
Ethnicity and Political Parties in India (Ch. 14)
India in the Twenty-first Century: Domestic Politics, Identity, and Security (Ch. 16)
IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN)
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary Iran
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
Democratic Features of Authoritarian Systems? The Case of Iran (Ch. 7)
Constitutional Design: Theocracy in Iran (Ch. 8)
Iran's Islamic Revolution and "Green Revolution"? (Ch. 11)
Gender in Post-Revolutionary Iranian Politics (Ch. 14)
Religion and Politics in Iran (Ch. 15)
Iran and the Politics of Nuclear Proliferation (Ch. 15)
JAPAN
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary Japan
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
State-Led Development in Japan (Ch. 4)
The Hybrid Electoral System of the Japanese Diet (Ch. 9)
How Did Japan's Dominant Party Win for So Long? (Ch. 11)
Importing National Identity in Japan? (Ch. 13)
Gender Empowerment in Japan? (Ch. 14)
Resource Management in Japan (Ch. 16)
MEXICO
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary Mexico
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
The Mexican State and Rule of Law (Ch. 4)
Mexico's "Perfect Dictatorship" and Its End (Ch. 7)
The PRI and Corporatism in Mexico (Ch. 11)
Industrialization, Modernity, and National Identity in Mexico (Ch. 13)
Why Aren't There Major Ethnic Parties in Mexico? (Ch. 14)
NIGERIA
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary Nigeria
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
What Is a Weak State, and Can It Be Changed? The Case of Nigeria (Ch. 3)
Why Are Natural Resources Sometimes a Curse? The Nigerian Case (Ch. 5)
Federalism and the States in Nigeria: Holding Together or Tearing Apart? (Ch. 8)
The Presidency in Nigeria: Powers and Limitations (Ch. 10)
The Nigerian Civil War or Biafran War: Nationalism and Ethno-National Conflict in a Post-Colonial Society (Ch. 13)
Religious Difference and Conflict in Nigeria: Disentangling Ethnicity and Religion? (Ch. 15)
RUSSIA
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of Contemporary Russia
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
Oligarchy, Democracy, and Authoritarianism in Russia (Ch. 7)
Executives in Russia: Formal and Informal Powers (Ch. 10)
Personalism and the Party System in Russia (Ch. 11)
The Russian Revolution (Ch. 12)
Communist Ideology in Practice--Russia and the Soviet Union (Ch. 15)
UNITED KINGDOM
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of the Contemporary United Kingdom
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
The State in the United Kingdom (Ch. 3)
Political Economy of Britain (Ch. 4)
No Constitution or Supreme Court? Constitutionality in the United Kingdom (Ch. 8)
The Mother of Parliaments: The United Kingdom's Westminster Model (Ch. 9)
National Identity in the United Kingdom (Ch. 13)
Liberal Ideology in the United Kingdom (Ch. 15)
UNITED STATES
Profile
Introduction
Key Features of the Contemporary United States
Historical Development
Regime and Political Institutions
Political Culture
Political Economy
Case Studies
Did Free Markets Help the United States Get Rich? Will They in the Future? (Ch. 4)
Is American Democracy in Trouble? (Ch. 6)
Is Judicial Activism in the United States a Problem? (Ch. 8)
The United States Congress: Dysfunctional or Functioning by Design? (Ch. 9)
"The Most Powerful Person in the World"? Checks on American Presidents (Ch. 10)
The United States and the World: A Love-Hate Relationship? (Ch. 16)
Notes
Glossary
References and Further Reading
Credits
Index

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