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Why do countries have different institutions and forms of government? Why do some social revolutions succeed and endure while others fail? Why are some societies subjected to terrorism and not others? An engaging and accessible introduction to the subject, Comparative Politics: IntegratingTheories, Methods, and Cases, Second Edition, gives students the methodological tools they need to answer the "big questions" in the field. The authors introduce methods early in the text and integrate them throughout in order to help students develop a systematic way of thinking about comparative politics.
* A unique structure offers the best of thematic and country-by-country approaches. Sixteen succinct thematic chapters--organized around the "big questions" in the field--are followed by a separate section at the end of the book offering full-length profiles and case studies for twelve countries
* Each chapter integrates several standalone country case studies in "Case in Context" boxes; these features tie into the narrative, pose questions, and point students to the full case discussions in the country profiles
* "Thinking Comparatively" sections at the end of each chapter introduce new methodological tools and help students apply the theories and concepts covered in that chapter
* "Thinking It Through" questions help students test their ability to apply comparative politics theories to cases
* "Research Prompts" in every case-study section help students develop comparative projects and papers
J. Tyler Dickovick is the Grigsby Term Associate Professor of Politics at Washington and Lee University. He is the author of Decentralization and Recentralization in the Developing World: Comparative Studies from Africa and Latin America (2011) and coeditor of Decentralization in Africa: The Paradoxof State Strength (2014). His current research focuses on the comparative causes and consequences of decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Jonathan Eastwood is Associate Professor of Sociology at Washington and Lee University. He is the coeditor of The Revolution in Venezuela: Social and Political Change under Chávez (2011) and the author or coauthor of several articles. Dr. Eastwood works on a variety of topics in sociological theory and comparative social science, and is especially interested in relationships between collective identities, collective action, and conflict.
Table of Contents
Insights Preface Maps of the World PART I: COMPARATIVE POLITICAL ANALYSIS Chapter 1. The Comparative Approach: An Introduction Asking Why: Research Questions in Comparative Politics Major Questions in Comparative Politics Empirical Arguments versus Normative Arguments Solving Intellectual Puzzles: A Contemporary Analogy Concepts Features of Good Concepts Conceptualization Operationalizing: From Concepts to Measures Empirical Evidence Facts and Evidence Cases and Case Studies The Comparative Method Variables and Comparison The Most-Similar-Systems Design The Most-Different-Systems Design Comparative Checking Within-Case Comparison Is the Study of Politics a Science? The Limits of the Comparative Method Chapter 2. Theories, Hypotheses, and Evidence Introduction to Theories, Hypotheses, and Evidence Theories Hypotheses How Theories Emerge and Are Used Types of Evidence Hypothesis Testing Correlation Causation Critiques: Using Theory and Evidence Empirical Critiques: Confirming Cases and Deviant Cases Theoretical Critiques: Improving Theories and Hypotheses The Challenge of Measurement: Errors, Biases, and Validity Thinking Comparatively: Qualities of Good Analysis and Argumentation Step 1: Asking Good Questions: Why? Step 2: Hypotheses Testing: Generating Good Hypotheses and Testing Them Fairly Step 3: Balancing Argumentation: Evidence, Originality, and Meaningfulness PART II: THE STATE, DEVELOPMENT, DEMOCRACY, AND AUTHORITARIANISM Chapter 3. The State Concepts The Modern State State Capacity Failed States The State-Society Relationship Types Characteristics of Modern States Bureaucracy Impersonality Sovereignty Traditional Functions of Modern States Defense Policing Taxation Order, Administration, and "Legibility" Causes and Effects: Why Did States Emerge and Expand? Political/Conflict Theories Economic Theories Cultural Theories Diffusion Theories Thinking Comparatively: Great Britain, the United Kingdom, or Neither? State and Nation in England and Scotland Chapter 4. Political Economy Concepts Inequality Employment and Inflation Types Markets and States in Modern Economies Markets and Economic Performance States and Economic Performance Economic Functions of Modern States States and Economic Management Investments in Human Capital: Education and Health Infrastructure and Other Public Goods Welfare State Functions Causes and Effects: Why Do Welfare States Emerge? Cultural Changes Industrial Capitalism Mobilization and Political Action International Learning Effects Thinking Comparatively: Welfare States in the Nordic Countries: What Can We Learn and How? Chapter 5. Development Concepts Types Poverty Social Outcomes and Human Development Gender Relations and Racial and Ethnic Identities Satisfaction and Happiness Cultural Development Sustainability Causes and Effects: Why Does Development Happen (or Not)? Institutions: The Markets-States Debate, Revisited Institutions: Beyond the Markets-States Debate Culture and Development Systems and Structures: International and Domestic Thinking Comparatively: Explaining the Development of North and South Korea Chapter 6. Democracy and Democratization Concepts Democracy and Democratic Regimes Procedural (Minimal) Definitions of Democracy Substantive Definitions of Democracy Regime Change and Democratization Types Types of Democracy Representative Democracy Direct Democracy Types of Democratization Democratic Transitions Democratic Consolidation Causes and Effects: What Causes Democratization? Modernization Culture and Democracy The International System Domestic Institutions Agents and Actors: The Role of Individuals and Groups Combining Arguments and Theories: Multiple Causes Thinking Comparatively: Is American Democracy a Model? Chapter 7. Authoritarian Regimes and Democratic Breakdown Concepts Authoritarianism and Authoritarian Regimes Transitions to Authoritarian Regimes Types Types of Authoritarianism Totalitarian Regimes Theocracies Personalistic Dictatorships Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes Hybrid and Semi-authoritarian Regimes Types of Transition (or Nontransition) to Authoritarianism Authoritarian Persistence Democratic Breakdown Transition to Hybrid or Semi-authoritarian Regime Causes and Effects: What Causes Authoritarian Regimes to Emerge and Persist? Historical Institutionalist Theories Poverty and Inequality State Weakness and Failure Political Culture Theories of Authoritarian Resistance Barriers to Collective Action Special Causal Circumstances Surrounding Hybrid and Semi-authoritarian Regimes Thinking Comparatively: Why Did Zimbabwe Become and Remain Authoritarian? PART III: INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENT Chapter 8. Constitutions and Constitutional Design Concepts Constitutions Constitutional Design Types Flexible and Rigid Constitutions Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and Parliamentary Sovereignty Federalism and Unitarism Federalism Unitarism Authoritarian and Democratic Constitutions Causes and Effects: What Are the Effects of Federal Constitutions? Are Federal Constitutions Good for Social Stability? Are Federal Constitutions Good for Democratic Rights? Are Federal Constitutions Good for the Economy? Judicial Review and Democracy Thinking Comparatively: What Explains the Similarities Between the Brazilian and South African Constitutions? Chapter 9. Legislatures and Legislative Elections Concepts What Legislatures Are What Legislatures Do Types Unicameral and Bicameral Legislatures Electoral Systems District Systems Proportional Representation (PR) Mixed or Hybrid Executive--Legislative Relations Causes and Effects: What Explains Patterns of Representation? Patterns of Representation Electoral Systems and Representation Legislative Decision Making and Representation Executive-Legislative Relations and Representation Thinking Comparatively: Representation in New Zealand and Beyond Chapter 10. Executives Concepts Concepts Types Executive Structures: Presidential and Parliamentary Formal Powers Partisan Powers Coalitions Informal Powers Causes and Effects: What Explains Executive Stability? Stable and Unstable Regimes: Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy Stable and Unstable Executives: Styles of Presidential Rule Stable and Unstable Executives: Patterns of Parliamentary Rule Thinking Comparatively: Beyond the American and British Models Chapter 11. Political Parties, Party Systems, and Interest Groups Concepts Political Parties Party Systems Interest Groups Types Political Parties: Elite, Mass, and Catch-All Parties Party Systems: Dominant-Party, Two-Party, and Multiparty Systems Interest Groups: Pluralism and Corporatism Causes and Effects: Why Do Party Systems Emerge, and What Effects Do They Have? Party Systems and Representation What Factors Shape Party Systems? How Do Party Systems Shape Political Outcomes? Interest Groups and Representation Thinking Comparatively: Party Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa PART IV: POLITICS, SOCIETY, AND CULTURE Chapter 12. Revolutions and Contention Concepts What Is "Contention"? Revolutionary and Non-revolutionary Contention Types Social Movements Revolutions Insurgencies and Civil Wars Terrorism "Everyday Resistance" Thinking about Contention: Summary Causes and Effects: Why Do Revolutions Happen? Relative Deprivation Resource Mobilization and Political Opportunities Rational Choice Culture or "Framing" Explanations Thinking Comparatively: The "Arab Spring" of 2011 Chapter 13. Nationalism and National Identity Concepts Identity Nationalism and the Nation Types Primordialist Approaches Perennialist Approaches Modernist Approaches Types of Nationalism Causes and Effects: What Causes Ethno-national Conflict? Primordial Bonds Cultural Boundaries Material Interests Rational Calculation Social Psychology Thinking Comparatively: Ending Ethnic and National Violence Chapter 14. Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Concepts Race and Ethnicity Gender Sexual Orientation Types Disentangling Race and Ethnicity Discrimination Based on Race and Ethnicity Gender Discrimination Empowerment of Women and Minority Groups Causes and Effects: What Factors Influence the Political Representation of Women and Minority Groups? Social Movement Mobilization Political Parties Based on Gender or Ethnicity Institutions for Promoting Women's and Minority Group Representation Thinking Comparatively: Indicators of Gender Empowerment Chapter 15. Ideology and Religion Concepts Modernity and Modernization Ideology Religion Secularization, Religion, and Modern Politics Religious Conflict Types Modern Ideologies Liberalism Fascism Socialism Modern Forms of Religion in Politics Lay and Religious States Denominationalism Causes and Effects: Why Do Religion and Ideology Remain Prevalent in Modern Politics? Why (and How) Does Modernization Alter Religion's Role in Politics? Modernization Theory and Secularization The "Religious Economies" Approach Institutional Theories Why Didn't Ideology (and History) End? Thinking Comparatively: Two Lefts in Latin America? PART V: THE COMPARATIVE-INTERNATIONAL NEXUS Chapter 16. Comparative Politics and International Relations Concepts Issues Globalization and Trade International Institutions and Integration Immigration Environment and Sustainability Transnational Networks Nuclear Threats and Terrorism Causes and Effects: What Are the Main Causes in International Relations? Realism Liberalism Constructivism Marxism Thinking Comparatively: The EU and Levels of Analysis PART VI: COUNTRY PROFILES AND CASES BRAZIL Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary Brazil Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies Does the Global Economy Help or Hurt Developing Nations like Brazil? (Ch. 5) Democratic Consolidation in Brazil (Ch. 6) Electoral Rules and Party (In)Discipline in Brazil's Legislature (Ch. 9) Brazil's Landless Movement (Ch. 12) Gender and Political Representation in Brazil: Where Has Progress Come From? (Ch. 14) CHINA Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary China Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies How Did China Become an Economic Power? (Ch. 5) Is China Destined for Democracy? (Ch. 6) Who Governs China? (Ch. 10) The Chinese Party System (Ch. 11) The Chinese Revolution (Ch. 12) FRANCE Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary France Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies The State in France (Ch. 3) Authoritarian Persistence in Nineteenth-Century France (Ch. 7) Electing the French President: What Do Runoffs Do? (Ch. 10) The French Revolution (Ch. 12) Religion and Secularism in France (Ch. 14) Globalization and Culture in France (Ch. 15) GERMANY Profile Key Features of Contemporary Germany Introduction Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies The German State: Unification and Welfare (Ch. 4) Democracy and Authoritarianism in Germany (Ch. 7) Institutional Design: Germany's Bundestag and Bundesrat (Ch. 9) Consensus-Based Politics in Germany (Ch. 11) Ethnic Boundaries of the German Nation? (Ch. 13) INDIA Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary India Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies What Explains India's Recent Growth? (Ch. 5) Democracy's Success in India: What Can We Learn from a Deviant Case? (Ch. 6) Federalism and Differences in Development in India (Ch. 8) Ethnicity and Political Parties in India (Ch. 14) India in the Twenty-first Century: Domestic Politics, Identity, and Security (Ch. 16) IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN) Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary Iran Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies Democratic Features of Authoritarian Systems? The Case of Iran (Ch. 7) Constitutional Design: Theocracy in Iran (Ch. 8) Iran's Islamic Revolution and "Green Revolution"? (Ch. 11) Gender in Post-Revolutionary Iranian Politics (Ch. 14) Religion and Politics in Iran (Ch. 15) Iran and the Politics of Nuclear Proliferation (Ch. 15) JAPAN Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary Japan Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies State-Led Development in Japan (Ch. 4) The Hybrid Electoral System of the Japanese Diet (Ch. 9) How Did Japan's Dominant Party Win for So Long? (Ch. 11) Importing National Identity in Japan? (Ch. 13) Gender Empowerment in Japan? (Ch. 14) Resource Management in Japan (Ch. 16) MEXICO Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary Mexico Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies The Mexican State and Rule of Law (Ch. 4) Mexico's "Perfect Dictatorship" and Its End (Ch. 7) The PRI and Corporatism in Mexico (Ch. 11) Industrialization, Modernity, and National Identity in Mexico (Ch. 13) Why Aren't There Major Ethnic Parties in Mexico? (Ch. 14) NIGERIA Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary Nigeria Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies What Is a Weak State, and Can It Be Changed? The Case of Nigeria (Ch. 3) Why Are Natural Resources Sometimes a Curse? The Nigerian Case (Ch. 5) Federalism and the States in Nigeria: Holding Together or Tearing Apart? (Ch. 8) The Presidency in Nigeria: Powers and Limitations (Ch. 10) The Nigerian Civil War or Biafran War: Nationalism and Ethno-National Conflict in a Post-Colonial Society (Ch. 13) Religious Difference and Conflict in Nigeria: Disentangling Ethnicity and Religion? (Ch. 15) RUSSIA Profile Introduction Key Features of Contemporary Russia Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies Oligarchy, Democracy, and Authoritarianism in Russia (Ch. 7) Executives in Russia: Formal and Informal Powers (Ch. 10) Personalism and the Party System in Russia (Ch. 11) The Russian Revolution (Ch. 12) Communist Ideology in Practice--Russia and the Soviet Union (Ch. 15) UNITED KINGDOM Profile Introduction Key Features of the Contemporary United Kingdom Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies The State in the United Kingdom (Ch. 3) Political Economy of Britain (Ch. 4) No Constitution or Supreme Court? Constitutionality in the United Kingdom (Ch. 8) The Mother of Parliaments: The United Kingdom's Westminster Model (Ch. 9) National Identity in the United Kingdom (Ch. 13) Liberal Ideology in the United Kingdom (Ch. 15) UNITED STATES Profile Introduction Key Features of the Contemporary United States Historical Development Regime and Political Institutions Political Culture Political Economy Case Studies Did Free Markets Help the United States Get Rich? Will They in the Future? (Ch. 4) Is American Democracy in Trouble? (Ch. 6) Is Judicial Activism in the United States a Problem? (Ch. 8) The United States Congress: Dysfunctional or Functioning by Design? (Ch. 9) "The Most Powerful Person in the World"? Checks on American Presidents (Ch. 10) The United States and the World: A Love-Hate Relationship? (Ch. 16) Notes Glossary References and Further Reading Credits Index