9780849305856

Composites Manufacturing: Materials, Product, and Process Engineering

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780849305856

  • ISBN10:

    0849305853

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2001-12-27
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

More and more companies manufacture reinforced composite products. To meet the market need, researchers and industries are developing manufacturing methods without a reference that thoroughly covers the manufacturing guidelines. Composites Manufacturing: Materials, Product, and Process Engineering fills this void. The author presents a fundamental classification of processes, helping you understand where a process fits within the overall scheme and which process is best suited for a particular component. You will understand:· Types of raw materials available for the fabrication of composite products· Methods of selecting right material for an application· Six important phases of a product development process· Design for manufacturing (DFM) approach for integrating benefits and capabilities of the manufacturing process into design of the product so that the best product can be produced in a shortest possible time and with limited resources· Detailed description of composites manufacturing processes with some case studies on actual part making such as boat hulls, bathtubs, fishing rods and more· Process models and process selection criteria· Design and manufacturing guidelines for making cost-competitive composite products· Procedures for writing manufacturing instructions and bill of materials· Joining and machining techniques for composite materials· Cost-estimating techniques and methods of comparing technologies/manufacturing processes based on cost· Recycling approach to deal with post-market composite productsTo stay ahead in this quickly changing field, you need information you can trust. You need Composites Manufacturing: Materials, Product, and Process Engineering.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(22)
Conventional Engineering Materials
1(3)
Metals
2(1)
Plastics
3(1)
Ceramics
3(1)
Composites
3(1)
What Are Composites?
4(1)
Functions of Fibers and Matrix
5(1)
Special Features of Composites
6(3)
Drawbacks of Composites
9(1)
Composites Processing
10(1)
Composites Product Fabrication
11(2)
Composites Markets
13(7)
The Aerospace Industry
14(3)
The Automotive Industry
17(1)
The Sporting Goods Industry
18(1)
Marine Applications
18(1)
Consumer Goods
19(1)
Construction and Civil Structures
19(1)
Industrial Applications
19(1)
Barriers in Composite Markets
20(3)
References
20(1)
Questions
20(3)
Raw Materials for Part Fabrication
23(34)
Introduction
23(1)
Reinforcements
23(5)
Glass Fiber Manufacturing
27(1)
Carbon Fiber Manufacturing
27(1)
Aramid Fiber Manufacturing
28(1)
Matrix Materials
28(8)
Thermoset Resins
29(1)
Epoxy
30(1)
Phenolics
31(1)
Polyesters
31(1)
Vinylesters
32(1)
Cyanate Esters
32(1)
Bismaleimide (BMI) and Polyimde
32(1)
Polyurethane
32(1)
Thermoplastic Resins
33(1)
Nylons
34(1)
Polypropylene (PP)
35(1)
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
35(1)
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS)
35(1)
Fabrics
36(4)
Woven Fabrics
36(1)
Noncrimp Fabrics
37(3)
Prepregs
40(4)
Thermoset Prepregs
43(1)
Thermoplastic Prepregs
43(1)
Preforms
44(3)
Molding Compound
47(5)
Sheet Molding Compound
48(1)
Thick Molding Compound (TMC)
49(2)
Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)
51(1)
Injection Moldable Compounds
52(1)
Honeycomb and Other Core Materials
52(5)
References
55(1)
Questions
55(2)
Material Selection Guidelines
57(14)
Introduction
57(1)
The Need for Material Selection
57(1)
Reasons for Material Selection
58(1)
Material Property Information
59(1)
Steps in the Material Selection Process
60(3)
Understanding and Determining the Requirements
60(1)
Selection of Possible Materials
60(1)
Determination of Candidate Materials
61(1)
Testing and Evaluation
62(1)
Material Selection Methods
63(8)
Cost vs. Property Analysis
63(3)
Weighted Property Comparison Method
66(1)
Scaling for Maximum Property Requirement
67(1)
Scaling for Minimum Property Requirement
67(1)
Scaling for Nonquantitative Property
67(1)
Expert System for Material Selection
68(1)
Bibliography
69(1)
Questions
69(2)
Product Development
71(14)
Introduction
71(1)
What Is the Product Development Process
72(1)
Reasons for Product Development
72(1)
Importance of Product Development
73(1)
Concurrent Engineering
74(2)
Product Life Cycle
76(1)
Phases of Product Development
77(3)
Concept Feasibility Phase
77(1)
Detailed Design Phase
78(1)
Prototype Development and Testing Phase
78(1)
Preproduction Demonstration, or Pilot-Scale Production
79(1)
Full-Scale Production and Distribution
80(1)
Continuous Improvement
80(1)
Design Review
80(1)
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
81(4)
References
83(1)
Bibliography
83(1)
Questions
83(2)
Design for Manufacturing
85(14)
Introduction
85(1)
Design Problems
86(1)
What Is DFM?
87(1)
DFM Implementation Guidelines
88(4)
Minimize Part Counts
88(1)
Eliminate Threaded Fasteners
89(1)
Minimize Variations
89(1)
Easy Serviceability and Maintainability
90(1)
Minimize Assembly Directions
90(1)
Provide Easy Insertion and Alignment
90(1)
Consider Ease for Handling
90(1)
Design for Multifunctionality
91(1)
Design for Ease of Fabrication
91(1)
Prefer Modular Design
91(1)
Success Stories
92(1)
Composite Pickup Box
92(1)
Laser Printer
92(1)
Black & Decker Products
93(1)
When to Apply DFM
93(1)
Design Evaluation Method
93(1)
Design for Assembly (DFA)
94(5)
Benefits of DFA
95(1)
Assembly-Related Defects
95(2)
Guidelines for Minimizing Assembly Defects
97(1)
References
98(1)
Questions
98(1)
Manufacturing Techniques
99(136)
Introduction
99(1)
Manufacturing Process Selection Criteria
100(3)
Production Rate/Speed
100(1)
Cost
101(1)
Performance
101(1)
Size
101(1)
Shape
101(2)
Product Fabrication Needs
103(1)
Mold and Tool Making
104(11)
Mold Design Criteria
104(1)
Shrinkage Allowance
104(1)
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Tool Material and End Product
104(1)
Stiffness of the Mold
105(1)
Surface Finish Quality
105(1)
Draft and Corner Radii
105(1)
Methods of Making Tools
105(1)
Machining
105(1)
FRP Tooling for Open Molding Processes
106(2)
Tooling Guidelines for Closed Molding Operations
108(7)
Basic Steps in a Composites Manufacturing Process
115(2)
Impregnation
116(1)
Lay-up
116(1)
Consolidation
116(1)
Solidification
117(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Thermoset and Thermoplastic Composites Processing
117(1)
Advantages of Thermoset Composites Processing
117(1)
Disadvantages of Thermoset Composites Processing
118(1)
Advantages of Thermoplastic Composites Processing
118(1)
Disadvantages of Thermoplastic Composites Processing
118(1)
Composites Manufacturing Processes
118(1)
Manufacturing Processes for Thermoset Composites
119(81)
Prepreg Lay-Up Process
119(1)
Major Applications
120(2)
Basic Raw Materials
122(1)
Tooling Requirements
122(1)
Making of the Part
122(4)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
126(1)
Basic Processing Steps
127(1)
Typical Manufacturing Challenges
127(1)
Advantages of the Prepreg Lay-Up Process
128(1)
Limitations of the Prepreg Lay-Up Process
128(1)
Wet Lay-Up Process
128(1)
Major Applications
128(3)
Basic Raw Materials
131(1)
Tooling Requirements
131(1)
Making of the Part
131(3)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
134(1)
Basic Processing Steps
134(1)
Advantages of the Wet lay-Up Process
135(1)
Limitations of the Wet Lay-Up Process
135(1)
Spray-Up Process
135(1)
Major Applications
135(1)
Basic Raw Materials
136(1)
Tooling Requirements
136(3)
Making of the Part
139(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
139(1)
Basic Processing Steps
139(1)
Advantages of the Spray-Up Process
140(1)
Limitations of the Spray-Up Process
140(1)
Filament Winding Process
140(1)
Major Applications
141(2)
Basic Raw Materials
143(1)
Tooling
143(1)
Making of the Part
144(2)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
146(1)
Methods of Generating the Desired Winding Angle
147(1)
Basic Processing Steps
148(1)
Advantages of the Filament Winding Process
149(1)
Limitations of the Filament Winding Process
150(1)
Pultrusion Process
150(1)
Major Applications
150(2)
Basic Raw Materials
152(2)
Tooling
154(1)
Making of the Part
154(2)
Wall Thickness
156(1)
Corner Design
157(1)
Tolerances, Flatness, and Straightness
157(1)
Surface Texture
157(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
157(1)
Basic Processing Steps
158(1)
Advantages of the Pultrusion Process
158(1)
Limitations of the Pultrusion Process
158(1)
Resin Transfer Molding Process
159(1)
Major Applications
159(2)
Basic Raw Materials
161(1)
Tooling
162(2)
Making of the Part
164(5)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
169(1)
Basic Processing Steps
170(3)
Advantages of the Resin Transfer Molding Process
173(1)
Limitations of the Resin Transfer Molding Process
174(1)
Variations of the RTM Process
175(1)
VARTM
175(1)
SCRIMP
175(1)
Structural Reaction Injection Molding (SRIM) Process
175(1)
Major Applications
176(1)
Basic Raw Materials
176(2)
Tooling
178(1)
Making of the Part
178(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
178(1)
Basic Processing Steps
179(1)
Advantages of the SRIM Process
179(1)
Limitations of the SRIM Process
179(1)
Compression Molding Process
179(1)
Major Applications
180(1)
Basic Raw Materials
181(1)
Making of the Part
181(5)
Mold Design
186(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
187(1)
Basic Processing Steps
187(1)
Advantages of the Compression Molding Process
188(1)
Limitations of the Compression Molding Process
188(1)
Roll Wrapping Process
188(1)
Major Applications
188(1)
Basic Raw Materials
189(1)
Tooling
189(1)
Making of the Part
189(5)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
194(1)
Basic Processing Steps
194(2)
Advantages of the Roll Wrapping Process
196(1)
Limitations of the Roll Wrapping Process
196(1)
Common Problems with the Roll Wrapping Process
196(1)
Injection Molding of Thermoset Composites
197(1)
Major Applications
197(1)
Basic Raw Materials
197(1)
Tooling
198(1)
Making of the Part
198(2)
Manufacturing Processes for Thermoplastic Composites
200(35)
Thermoplastic Tape Winding
201(1)
Major Applications
202(1)
Basic Raw Materials
202(1)
Tooling
202(1)
Making of the Part
203(3)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
206(1)
Advantages of the Thermoplastic Tape Winding Process
207(1)
Limitations of the Thermoplastic Tape Winding Process
207(1)
Thermoplastic Pultrusion Process
208(1)
Major Applications
208(1)
Basic Raw Materials
208(1)
Tooling
208(1)
Making of the Part
209(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
209(1)
Advantages of the Thermoplastic Pultrusion Process
210(1)
Limitations of the Thermoplastic Pultrusion Process
210(1)
Compression Molding of GMT
210(1)
Major Applications
210(1)
Basic Raw Materials
211(2)
Tooling
213(1)
Part Fabrication
213(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
214(1)
Advantages of Compression Molding of GMT
214(1)
Limitations of Compression Molding of GMT
215(1)
Hot Press Technique
215(1)
Major Applications
215(1)
Basic Raw Materials
215(1)
Tooling
215(1)
Making of the Part
216(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
217(1)
Basic Processing Steps
217(1)
Advantages of the Hot Press Technique
218(1)
Limitations of the Hot Press Technique
218(1)
Autoclave Processing
218(1)
Major Applications
219(1)
Basic Raw Materials
219(1)
Tooling
219(1)
Making the Part
219(2)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
221(1)
Basic Processing Steps
221(1)
Advantages of Autoclave Processing
221(1)
Limitations of Autoclave Processing
222(1)
Diaphragm Forming Process
222(1)
Major Applications
222(1)
Basic Raw Materials
223(1)
Tooling
223(1)
Making of the Part
223(2)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
225(1)
Advantages of the Diaphragm Forming Process
225(1)
Limitations of the Diaphragm Foming Process
225(1)
Injection Molding
226(1)
Major Applications
226(1)
Basic Raw Materials
226(1)
Tooling
226(1)
Making of the Part
227(1)
Basic Processing Steps
228(1)
Methods of Applying Heat and Pressure
229(1)
Advantages of the Injection Molding Process
229(1)
Limitations of the Injection Molding Process
229(1)
References
230(3)
Bibliography
233(1)
Questions
233(2)
Process Models
235(54)
Introduction
235(1)
The Importance of Models in Composites Manufacturing
235(1)
Composites Processing
236(1)
Process Models for Selected Thermosets and Thermoplastics Processing
237(47)
Thermochemical Sub-Model
239(2)
Autoclave or Hot Press Process for Thermoset Composites
241(1)
Filament Winding of Thermoset Composites
242(1)
Tape Winding of Thermoplastic Composites
243(9)
Flow Sub-Model
252(1)
Compaction and Resin Flow during Autoclave Cure
253(1)
Resin Flow Normal to the Tool Plate
254(3)
Resin Flow Parallel to the Tool Plate
257(3)
Total Resin Flow
260(3)
Compaction and Resin Flow during Filament Winding
263(7)
Consolidation of Thermoplastic Composites during Autoclave or Hot Press Processing
270(5)
Consolidation and Bonding Models for Thermoplastic Tape Laying and Tape Winding
275(5)
Void Sub-Model
280(3)
Stress Sub-Model
283(1)
Process Model for RTM
284(5)
References
285(2)
Questions
287(2)
Production Planning and Manufacturing Instructions
289(20)
Introduction
289(1)
Objectives of Production Planning
290(1)
Bill of Materials
290(4)
Manufacturing Instructions
294(10)
Manufacturing Instructions for Making Tooling Panels
296(1)
Manufacturing Instructions for making Flaps
296(8)
Capacity Planning
304(5)
Problem Definition
305(1)
Assumptions
306(1)
Capacity Analysis
306(1)
Autoclave Capacity Analysis
306(2)
Freezer Storage Requirement
308(1)
Questions
308(1)
Joining of Composite Materials
309(22)
Introduction
309(1)
Adhesive Bonding
310(13)
Failure Modes in Adhesive Bonding
313(1)
Basic Science of Adhesive Bonding
313(1)
Adsorption Theory
314(1)
Mechanical Theory
314(1)
Electrostatic and Diffusion Theories
315(1)
Types of Adhesives
315(1)
Two-Component Mix Adhesives
315(1)
Epoxy Adhesives
315(1)
Polyurethane Adhesives
316(1)
Two-Component, No-Mix Adhesives
316(1)
Acrylic Adhesives
316(1)
Urethane Methacrylate Ester (Anaerobic) Adhesives
317(1)
One-Component, No-Mix Adhesives
317(1)
Epoxies
317(1)
Polyurethanes
317(1)
Cyanoacrylates
317(1)
Hot-Melt Adhesives
317(1)
Solvent- or Water-Based Adhesives
318(1)
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding over Mechanical Joints
318(1)
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding
319(1)
Adhesive Selection Guidelines
319(1)
Surface Preparation Guidelines
320(1)
Degreasing
321(1)
Mechanical Abrasion
321(1)
Chemical Treatment
322(1)
Design Guidelines for Adhesive Bonding
322(1)
Theoretical Stress Analysis for Bonded Joints
323(1)
Mechanical Joints
323(8)
Advantages of Mechanical Joints
325(1)
Disadvantages of Mechanical Joints
325(1)
Failure Modes in a Bolted Joint
325(1)
Design Parameters for Bolted Joints
326(1)
Preparation for the Bolted Joint
327(1)
References
328(1)
Questions
329(2)
Machining and Cutting of Composites
331(14)
Introduction
331(1)
Objectives/Purposes of Machining
331(1)
Challenges during Machining of Composites
332(1)
Failure Mode during Machining of Composites
333(1)
Cutting Tools
334(2)
Types of Machining Operations
336(9)
Cutting Operation
336(1)
Waterjet Cutting
337(2)
Laser Cutting
339(2)
Drilling Operation
341(2)
References
343(1)
Questions
344(1)
Cost Estimation
345(30)
Introduction
345(1)
The Need for Cost Estimating
346(2)
Cost Estimating Requirements
348(1)
Types of Cost
348(2)
Nonrecurring (Fixed) Costs
348(1)
Recurring (Variable) Costs
349(1)
Cost Estimating Techniques
350(11)
Industrial Engineering Approach (Methods Engineering)
351(1)
ACCEM Cost Model
351(1)
First-Order Model
352(9)
Cost Estimating by Analogy
361(1)
Cost Analysis for Composite Manufacturing Processes
361(9)
Hand Lay-up Technique for Aerospace Parts
362(4)
Filament Winding for Consumer Goods
366(1)
Compression Molded SMC Parts for Automotive Applications
366(4)
Learning Curve
370(2)
Guidelines for Minimization of Production Cost
372(3)
References
373(1)
Bibliography
374(1)
Questions
374(1)
Recycling of Composites
375(10)
Introduction
375(2)
Categories of Dealing with Wastes
377(1)
Landfilling or Burying
377(1)
Incineration or Burning
377(1)
Recycling
377(1)
Recycling Methods
378(1)
Regrinding
379(1)
Pyrolysis
379(1)
Existing Infrastructure for Recycling
379(6)
Automotive Recycling Infrastructure
380(1)
Aerospace Recycling Infrastructure
381(1)
References
382(1)
Questions
383(2)
Index 385

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