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Comprehensive Medical Assisting : Administrative and Clinical Competencies

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780766824188

ISBN10:
0766824187
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/18/2001
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

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Summary

This updated edition features expanded chapters examining geriatrics and pediatrics, diagnostic imaging, medical and surgical specialties, and clinical laboratory safety and regulations. All facets of the medical assistant profession, from pharmacology, clinical laboratory, OSHA and CLIA guidelines, law and ethics, and nutrition, are thoroughly covered within the AAMA role delineation statement. Comprehensive Medical Assisting 2E has a distinct supplements package that includes a study guide disk, student workbook, video series and CD-ROM that can be purchased separately ? Increased number of case studies and simulations place material in real world context ? More critical thinking questions ? Procedures located at chapter end so as not to distract from content ? Color photographs illustrate concepts

Table of Contents

Managing Authors xiii
Acknowledgments xiv
Reviewers xv
Contributors xvi
List of Procedures
xvii
Preface xix
How to Use This Book xxii
How to Use the Medical Assisting Skills CD-ROMs xiv
SECTION I: GENERAL PROCEDURES 1(1)
Unit 1: Introduction to Medical Assisting and Health Professions 2(34)
Medical Assisting as a Profession
3(12)
Personal Attributes of the Professional
4(1)
Empathy
5(1)
Attitude
5(1)
Dependability
5(1)
Initiative
5(1)
Flexibility
5(1)
Desire to Learn
6(1)
Physical Attributes
6(1)
Ability to Communicate
7(1)
Ethical Behavior
7(1)
Historical Perspective of Medical Assisting
7(1)
American Association of Medical Assistants
8(1)
Accreditation
8(1)
Certification
8(1)
Continuing Education
9(1)
Registered Medical Assistant
9(1)
Education of the Professional Medical Assistant
9(1)
Preparation for Externship
10(1)
Career Opportunities
11(1)
Regulation of Health Care Providers
11(1)
Scope of Practice
11(4)
Health Care Settings and the Health Care Team
15(14)
Ambulatory Health Care Settings
16(1)
Individual and Group Medical Practices
16(1)
Urgent Care Centers
17(1)
Managed Care Operations
17(1)
The Impact of Managed Care in the Health Care Setting
18(1)
The Health Care Team
18(1)
The Role of the Medical Assistant
18(1)
Health Care Professionals and Their Roles
19(2)
Allied and Other Health Professionals and Their Roles
21(3)
The Role of Integrative or Alternative Health Care Therapies
24(1)
The Value of the Medical Assistant to the Health Care Team
25(4)
History of Medicine
29(7)
Cultural Heritage in Medicine
30(1)
Medical Specialists
30(1)
Medical Education
31(1)
Attitudes Toward Illness
31(1)
Medical Treatments
32(1)
Significant Contributions to Medicine
33(1)
New Frontiers in Medicine
34(2)
Unit 2: The Therapeutic Approach 36(30)
Therapeutic Communication Skills
37(14)
Importance of Communication
39(1)
Cultural Influence on Therapeutic Communication
39(1)
Biases and Prejudices
40(1)
The Communication Cycle
40(1)
The Sender
40(1)
The Message
40(1)
The Receiver
41(1)
Feedback
41(1)
Listening Skills
41(1)
Verbal Communication
41(1)
The Five Cs of Communication
41(1)
Nonverbal Communication
42(1)
Facial Expression
43(1)
Territoriality
43(1)
Posture
43(1)
Position
44(1)
Gestures and Mannerisms
44(1)
Touch
44(1)
Congruency In Communication
44(1)
Perception
45(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
45(1)
Technology and Communication
45(1)
Roadblocks to Therapeutic Communication
45(1)
Defense Mechanisms
46(1)
Introjection
46(1)
Denial
46(1)
Compensation
46(1)
Regression
46(1)
Repression
46(1)
Sublimation
46(1)
Projection
46(1)
Displacement
46(1)
Rationalization
47(1)
Interview Techniques
47(1)
Telephone Techniques
47(4)
Coping Skills for the Medical Assistant
51(8)
What Is Stress?
52(1)
Adaptation to Stress
52(1)
Coping with Stress
53(1)
What Is Burnout?
54(1)
Burnout in the Workplace
54(1)
What to Do If You Are Burned Out
55(1)
Preventing Burnout
55(1)
Goal Setting as a Stress Reliever
55(4)
The Therapeutic Approach to the Patient with Life-Threatening Illness
59(7)
Life-Threatening Illness
60(1)
Cultural Perspective on Life-Threatening Illness
60(1)
Choices in Life-Threatening Illness
61(1)
The Range of Psychological Suffering
62(1)
The Therapeutic Response to the Patient with Aids
62(1)
The Challenge for the Medical Assistant
63(3)
Unit 3: Responsible Medical Practice 66(63)
Legal Considerations
Legal Concepts
67(2)
Civil and Criminal Law
69(1)
Medical Practice Acts and the Medical Assistant's Role
69(1)
Patient Rights
69(1)
The Physician, the Medical Assistant, and the Law
69(1)
Contracts
69(2)
Termination of Contracts
71(1)
Standard of Care and the 4 Ds of Negligence
72(1)
Torts
72(1)
Battery
73(1)
Defamation of Character
74(1)
Invasion of Privacy
74(1)
Medical Records
74(1)
Informed Consent
74(1)
Implied Consent
75(1)
Consent and Legal Incompetence
75(1)
Subpoenas
75(1)
Confidentiality
76(1)
Statute of Limitations
76(1)
Public Duties
76(1)
Drug Screening
76(1)
AIDS
77(1)
Abuse
77(1)
Good Samaritan Law
77(1)
Physician's Directives
78(1)
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
78(5)
Ethical Considerations
83(10)
Ethics Defined
84(1)
Bioethics Defined
85(1)
Keys to the AAMA Code of Ethics
86(1)
AMA Ethical Guidelines
87(1)
Advertising
87(1)
Media Relations
87(1)
Confidentiality
87(1)
Medical Records
88(1)
Professional Fees and Charges
88(1)
Professional Rights and Responsibilities
88(1)
Abuse
88(1)
Bioethical Dilemmas
89(1)
Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources
89(1)
Abortion and Fetal Tissue Research
89(1)
Genetic Engineering/Manipulation
90(1)
Artificial Insemination/Surrogacy
90(1)
Dying and Death
90(1)
HIV and AIDS
90(3)
Emergency Procedures and First Aid
93(36)
CPR
Heimlich
Accidental Poisoning
Recognizing an Emergency
95(1)
Responding to an Emergency
95(1)
Primary Survey
96(1)
Using the 911 or Emergency Medical Services System
97(1)
Good Samaritan Laws
97(1)
Blood, Body Fluids, and Disease Transmission
97(1)
Preparing for an Emergency
97(1)
The Medical Crash Tray or Cart
98(1)
Common Emergencies
99(1)
Shock
99(1)
Wounds
100(1)
Burns
101(4)
Musculoskeletal Injuries
105(2)
Heat-and Cold-Related Illnesses
107(1)
Poisoning
107(1)
Sudden Illness
108(2)
Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA)
110(1)
Heart Attack
110(1)
Procedures for Breathing Emergencies and Cardiac Arrest
111(1)
Heimlich Maneuver (Abdominal Thrust)
111(1)
Rescue Breathing
112(1)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
112(17)
SECTION II: ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES 129(1)
Unit 4: Integrated Administrative Procedures 130(126)
Creating the Facility Environment
131(6)
Patient Reception
The Reception Area
132(1)
Office Design and Environment
133(1)
Americans with Disabilities Act
133(1)
The Receptionist's Role
134(1)
Opening the Facility
134(1)
Closing the Facility
135(2)
Computers in the Ambulatory Care Setting
137(18)
Types of Computers
139(1)
Components of a Computer System
139(1)
Hardware
139(2)
Power Outage, Electrical Surge, and Static Discharge Protection Devices
141(1)
Software
141(1)
Documentation
141(1)
Common Software Applications in the Medical Office
141(1)
Word Processing
142(2)
Graphics
144(1)
Spreadsheets
144(1)
Databases
144(2)
Virus Protection
146(1)
Patient Confidentiality in the Computerized Medical Office
146(1)
Computerizing the Medical Office
147(2)
The Safe Use of Computers
149(6)
Telephone Techniques
155(60)
Telephone Skills
Telephone Messages
Basic Telephone Techniques
157(1)
Telephone Personality
157(1)
Telephone Etiquette
158(1)
Answering Incoming Calls
159(1)
Preparing to Take Calls
159(1)
Answering Calls
159(1)
Screening Calls
159(1)
Transferring a Call
160(1)
Taking a Message
160(1)
Ending the Call
161(1)
Types of Calls the Medical Assistant Can Take
161(1)
Types of Calls Referred to the Physician
162(1)
Special Consideration Calls
162(1)
Referring Calls
162(1)
Emergency Calls
163(1)
Angry Callers
164(1)
Elderly Callers
164(1)
English as a Second Language Callers
164(1)
Placing Outgoing Calls
165(1)
Placing Long Distance Calls
165(1)
Placing Calls
165(1)
Time Zones
165(1)
Long-Distance Carriers
166(1)
Telephone Documentation
166(1)
Using Telephone Directories
166(1)
Legal and Ethical Considerations
167(1)
Telephone Technology
167(1)
Automated Routing Units
168(1)
Answering Services and Machines
168(1)
Facsimile (Fax) Machines
168(1)
Electronic Mail
168(1)
Cellular Service
168(1)
Paging Systems
169(8)
Patient Scheduling
Scheduling
175(2)
Tailoring the Scheduling System
177(1)
Types of Scheduling Systems
177(1)
Open Hours
177(1)
Double Booking
177(1)
Clustering
177(1)
Wave
177(1)
Modified Wave
177(1)
Stream
177(1)
Practice-Based
178(1)
Analyzing Patient Flow
178(1)
Waiting Time
179(1)
Flexibility
179(1)
Legal Issues
179(1)
Interpersonal Skills
180(1)
Guidelines for Scheduling Appointments
180(1)
Triage Calls
180(1)
Referral Appointments
180(1)
Recording Information
180(1)
Computer Scheduling
181(1)
Patient Check-In
181(1)
Patient Cancellation and Appointment Changes
182(1)
Computer Cancellations
182(1)
Reminder Systems
183(1)
Scheduling Representatives
183(1)
Scheduling Materials
183(1)
Appointment Books
183(1)
Appointment Sheets
183(1)
Daily Worksheets
184(1)
Computer Equipment
184(1)
Appointment Cards
184(1)
Establishing an Appointment Book
184(2)
Informational Brochure
186(7)
Medical Records Management
Records Management
191(2)
The Importance of Accurate Medical Records
193(1)
Equipment and Supplies
193(1)
Vertical Files
193(1)
Open-Shelf Lateral Files
193(1)
Movable File Units
193(1)
File Folders
194(1)
Identification Labels
194(1)
Guides and Positions
194(1)
Out Guides
195(1)
Basic Rules for Filing
195(1)
Indexing Units
195(1)
Filing Patient Charts
195(1)
Filing Identical Names
196(1)
Filing Business and Organizational Records
196(2)
Steps for Filing Medical Documentation in Patient Files
198(1)
Inspect
198(1)
Index
198(1)
Code
198(1)
Sort
198(1)
File
198(1)
Filing Techniques and Common Filing Systems
198(1)
Color Coding
198(3)
Alphabetic Filing
201(1)
Numeric Filing
201(1)
Subject Filing
201(1)
Choosing a Filing System
202(1)
Filing Procedures
203(1)
Cross-Referencing
203(1)
Tickler Files
204(1)
Release Marks
204(1)
Check-Out System
204(1)
Locating Missing Files or Data
205(1)
Filing Chart Data
205(1)
Retention and Purging
206(1)
Correspondence
207(1)
Incoming Correspondence
207(1)
Outgoing Correspondence
207(1)
Filing Procedures for Correspondence
207(1)
Computer Applications
208(1)
Databases
208(1)
Archival Storage
209(1)
Transfer of Data
210(1)
Confidentiality
210(5)
Written Communications
215(26)
Parts of a Letter
Parts of the Envelope
Telephone Messages
Prescriptions
Medical Record
Composing Correspondence
217(1)
Writing Tips
217(1)
Spelling
217(1)
Proofreading
218(1)
Components of a Business Letter
219(1)
Date Line
219(1)
Inside Address
219(1)
Salutation
219(1)
Subject Line
219(1)
Body of Letter
220(1)
Complimentary Closing
220(1)
Keyed Signature
220(1)
Reference Initials
220(1)
Enclosure Notation
220(1)
Carbon Copy Notation
220(1)
Postscripts
220(1)
Continuation Page Heading
220(1)
Letter Styles
221(1)
Full Block
221(1)
Modified Block
222(1)
Simplified
222(2)
Supplies for Written Communication
224(1)
Letterhead
224(1)
Second Sheets
225(1)
Envelopes
225(1)
Other Types of Correspondence
226(1)
Memoranda
226(1)
Meeting Agendas
226(1)
Meeting Minutes
227(1)
Processing Incoming and Outgoing Mail
228(1)
Incoming Mail and Shipments
228(1)
Outgoing Mail and Shipments
228(1)
Postal Classes
228(1)
Formats for Efficient Processing
229(1)
International Mail
229(1)
Technologies
229(1)
Facsimile (Fax)
229(1)
Electronic Mail (E-Mail)
230(1)
Legal and Ethical Issues
231(10)
Transcription
241(15)
History of the American Association for Medical Transcription
243(1)
AAMT Membership
243(1)
The Medical Transcriptionist's Career
243(1)
Attributes of the Medical Transcriptionist
243(1)
Job Description
244(1)
Employment Opportunities
244(1)
Certification for Medical Transcriptionists
245(1)
Transcription Tools
246(1)
Equipment
246(1)
Ergonomics
246(1)
Facsimile Machines
247(1)
Photocopy Machines
247(1)
Transcription Guidelines
247(1)
Proofreading and Making Corrections
247(1)
Proofreading Skills
247(1)
Where Errors Occur
247(1)
Editing
248(1)
Making Corrections
248(1)
Medical Reports
248(1)
Chart Notes and Progress Notes
249(1)
History and Physical Examination Reports
249(1)
Consultation Reports
249(1)
Correspondence
249(1)
Turnaround Time
249(3)
Ethical and Legal Issues
252(1)
Confidentiality
252(1)
Risk Management
252(1)
New Technology
252(1)
Continuous Speech Recognition (CSR)
252(1)
Integrating Digital Photographs into Medical Transcription
253(3)
Unit 5: Managing Facility Finances 256(75)
Daily Financial Practices
257(24)
Patient Receipts
Purchase Orders
Payroll Procedures
Banking
Determining Patient Fees
258(1)
Usual, Customary, and Reasonable Fees
259(1)
Discussion of Fees
259(1)
Adjustment of Fees
259(1)
Credit Arrangements
260(1)
Payment Planning
260(1)
The Bookkeeping Function
260(1)
Managing Patient Accounts
260(1)
The Importance of Good Working Habits
261(1)
The Pegboard System
261(4)
Computerized Systems
265(1)
Banking Procedures
266(1)
Types of Accounts
266(1)
Types of Checks
267(1)
Deposits
267(1)
Accepting Checks
268(1)
Lost or Stolen Checks
268(1)
Writing and Recording Checks
268(1)
Reconciling a Bank Statement
269(1)
Purchasing Supplies and Equipment
269(1)
Preparing a Purchase Order
270(1)
Verifying Goods Received
271(1)
Preparing the Invoice for Payment
271(1)
Petty Cash
272(1)
Establishing a Petty Cash Fund
272(1)
Tracking, Balancing, and Replenishing Petty Cash
272(9)
Medical Insurance
281(28)
The Evolution of Medical Insurance Coverage
283(1)
Changes in Health Insurance Today
283(1)
Screening for Insurance
283(1)
Medical Insurance Terminology
284(1)
Terminology Specific to Insurance Policies
284(1)
Terminology Specific to Billing Insurance Carriers
285(2)
Types of Medical Insurance Coverage
287(1)
Traditional Insurance
287(1)
Managed Care
287(2)
Medicare
289(1)
Other Types of Coverage
290(1)
Prospective Payment Systems and Diagnosis-Related Groups
291(1)
Legal and Ethical Issues
291(5)
Medical Insurance Coding
Insurance Coding
295(1)
Insurance Coding Systems
296(1)
Procedure Coding
296(3)
Diagnosis Coding
299(2)
Coding the Claim Form
301(1)
Completing the HCFA-1500 (12--90)
301(3)
Overseeing the Claims Process
304(1)
Point-of-Service Device
304(1)
Maintaining Claim Register or Diary
304(1)
The Insurance Carrier's Role
305(1)
Explanation of Benefits
305(1)
Following Up on Claims
305(1)
The Computerized Claims Process
305(1)
Legal and Ethical Issues
305(1)
Healthcare Compliance
306(1)
Seven Basic Elements of a Voluntary Compliance Program
306(3)
Billing and Collections
309(12)
Pegboard Accounting
Superbill, Ledger Card, Daily Log/Day Sheet
Billing Procedures
310(1)
Credit and Collection Policies
311(1)
Payment at Time of Service
311(1)
Truth-in-Lending Act
311(1)
Components of a Complete Statement
311(1)
Computerized Statements
312(1)
Monthly and Cycle Billing
312(1)
Monthly Billing
312(1)
Cycle Billing
312(1)
Past-Due Accounts
313(1)
Collection Process
313(1)
Aging Accounts
313(1)
Computerized Aging
313(1)
Collection Techniques
314(1)
Correspondence to Insurance Carriers
314(1)
Telephone Collections
314(1)
Collection Letters
315(1)
Use of an Outside Collection Agency
315(2)
Use of Small Claims Court
317(1)
Special Collection Situations
317(1)
Bankruptcy
317(1)
Estates
317(1)
Tracing ``Skips''
317(1)
Statute of Limitations
317(4)
Accounting Practices
321(10)
Bookkeeping and Accounting Systems
322(1)
Single-Entry
322(1)
Pegboard
322(1)
Double-Entry
323(1)
Computerized Systems
323(1)
Computer Service Bureaus
323(1)
The Accounting Function
323(1)
Cost Analysis
324(1)
Fixed Costs
324(1)
Variable Costs
324(1)
Financial Records
324(1)
Income Statement
324(1)
Balance Sheet
324(2)
Useful Financial Ratios
326(1)
Accounts Receivable Ratio
327(1)
Collection Ratio
327(1)
Cost Ratio
327(1)
Expenses of the Ambulatory Care Setting
327(1)
Accounts Payable
327(1)
Payroll
327(4)
SECTION III: CLINICAL PROCEDURES 331(1)
Unit 6: Integrated Clinical Procedures 332(126)
Infection Control, Medical Asepsis, and Sterilization
333(52)
Handwashing
Gloves and Gowns
Removing Items
Sterile Gloves
Impact of Infectious Diseases
335(1)
The Process of Infection
336(1)
Chain of Infection
336(1)
Infectious Agents
336(3)
Reservoir
339(1)
Portal of Exit
339(1)
Means of Transmission
339(1)
Portal of Entry
339(1)
Susceptible Host
339(1)
The Body's Defense Mechanisms for Fighting Infection and Disease
340(1)
Inflammatory Response
340(1)
The Immune System and Immunity
340(2)
Stages of Infectious Diseases
342(1)
Incubation Stage
342(1)
Prodromal Stage
342(1)
Acute Stage
342(1)
Declining Stage
342(1)
Convalescent Stage
342(1)
Disease Transmission
342(1)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Hepatitis B
342(2)
AIDS
344(1)
Acute Viral Hepatitis Diseases
344(1)
Transmission of HIV and HBV
344(1)
Principles of Infection Control
344(1)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Its Role in Infection Control
344(3)
Universal Precautions
347(1)
Standard Precautions
348(1)
Transmission-Based Precautions
348(1)
Blood and Body Fluids
348(4)
Personal Protective Equipment
352(1)
Needlestick
352(1)
Disposal of Infectious Waste
352(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations
352(1)
The Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
353(8)
OSHA Regulations and Students
361(3)
Avoiding Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens
364(1)
Medical Asepsis
365(1)
Handwashing
365(1)
Sanitization
365(1)
Disinfection
366(1)
Surgical Asepsis and Sterilization
367(1)
Gas Sterilization
367(1)
Dry Heat Sterilization
367(1)
Chemical Sterilization
367(1)
Steam Sterilization (Autoclave)
368(17)
Taking a Medical History, the Patient's Chart, and Methods of Documentation
385(22)
Medical Record
The Function of the Medical History
387(1)
The Cross-Cultural Model
387(1)
Patient Information Forms
387(1)
Administrative or Demographic Data Forms
387(1)
Medical Forms
388(3)
Computerized Health History
391(1)
The First Office Contact
391(1)
Telephone Contact
391(1)
Personal Visit
391(1)
Emergency Visit
391(1)
Completing the Medical History Forms
391(1)
Interacting with the Patient
391(1)
Displaying Cultural Awareness
392(1)
Handling a Difficult Patient
393(1)
Dealing with Sensitive Topics
393(1)
Parts of the Medical History
394(1)
Chief Complaint
394(1)
Present Illness
394(1)
Past Medical History
394(1)
Family History
395(1)
Social History
395(1)
Review of Systems
396(1)
The Patient's Record and its Importance
397(1)
Contents of Medical Records
397(1)
Methods of Charting/Documentation
397(1)
Source-Oriented Medical Records
397(1)
Problem-Oriented Medical Records
398(1)
Computer-Modified Records
398(2)
SOAP Method of Charting
400(1)
Abbreviations Used in Charting
400(1)
Correcting an Error
400(1)
Chart Organization
401(6)
Vital Signs and Measurements
407(30)
Taking a Temperature
Taking a Pulse
Counting Respirations
Taking a Blood Pressure
Weighing
The Importance of Accuracy
409(1)
Temperature
409(1)
Terms Used to Describe Body Temperature
410(1)
Types of Thermometers
410(2)
Recording Temperature
412(1)
Measuring Temperature
412(1)
Cleaning and Storage of Thermometers
413(1)
Pulse
414(1)
Pulse Sites
414(1)
Measuring a Pulse
415(1)
Normal Pulse Rates
415(1)
Pulse Abnormalities
415(1)
Recording Pulse Rates
415(1)
Respiration
415(1)
Respiration Rate
416(1)
Abnormalities
416(1)
Blood Pressure
417(1)
Equipment for Measuring Blood Pressure
417(1)
Measuring Blood Pressure
418(1)
Recording Blood Pressure Measurement
419(1)
Normal Blood Pressure Readings
419(1)
Blood Pressure Abnormalities
419(1)
Height and Weight
420(1)
Height
420(1)
Weight
421(1)
Significance of Weight
421(1)
Measuring Chest Circumference
421(16)
The Physical Examination
437(21)
Methods of Examination
438(1)
Observation or Inspection
438(1)
Palpation
439(1)
Percussion
439(1)
Auscultation
440(1)
Mensuration
440(1)
Manipulation
440(1)
Positioning and Draping
441(1)
Examination Positions
441(2)
Equipment and Supplies for the Physical Examination
443(1)
Basic Components of a Routine Physical Examination
444(1)
Patient Appearance
444(1)
Gait
444(1)
Stature
444(1)
Posture
444(1)
Body Movements
444(1)
Speech
445(1)
Breath Odors
445(1)
Nutrition
445(1)
Skin and Appendages
445(1)
The Physical Examination Sequence
445(13)
Unit 7: Assisting with Speciality Examinations and Procedures 458(126)
Obstetrics and Gynecology
459(24)
Obstetrics
461(1)
Initial Prenatal Visit
461(3)
Subsequent or Return Prenatal Visits
464(1)
Complications of Pregnancy
464(2)
Parturition
466(1)
Postpartum Period
466(1)
Gynecology
467(1)
The Gynecological Examination
467(4)
Gynecological Diseases and Conditions
471(1)
Other Diagnostic Tests Used to Detect Female Reproductive System Diseases
472(11)
Pediatrics
483(22)
What Is Pediatrics?
484(2)
Preparation of Vaccines for Administration
486(1)
Recommended Vaccination Schedule
486(1)
Growth Patterns
487(1)
Developmental Patterns
487(1)
Measuring the Infant or Child
487(1)
Height and Weight Measurements
487(4)
Height and Weight Measuring Devices
491(1)
Measuring Head Circumference
491(1)
Measuring Chest Circumference
492(1)
Pediatric Vital Signs
492(1)
Temperature
492(1)
Pulse
493(1)
Respirations
493(1)
Blood Pressure
494(1)
Collecting a Urine Specimen from an Infant
494(1)
Screening Infants for Hearing Impairment
494(1)
Screening Infant and Child Visual Acuity
494(1)
Common Disorders and Diseases
495(1)
Otitis Media
495(1)
The Common Cold
496(1)
Tonsillitis
496(1)
Pediculosis
496(1)
Asthma
496(1)
Child Abuse
496(9)
Male Reproductive System
505(8)
Testicular Examination
506(2)
Disorders of the Male Reproductive System
508(1)
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
508(1)
Prostatitis
508(1)
Prostate Cancer
508(1)
Testicular Cancer
509(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
509(1)
Assisting with the Male Reproductive Examination
510(1)
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
510(1)
Vasectomy
510(1)
Semen Analysis
510(3)
Gerontology
513(10)
Societal Bias
514(1)
Facts about Aging
515(1)
Physiological Changes
515(1)
Senses
515(1)
Integumentary System
516(1)
Nervous System
516(1)
Musculoskeletal System
516(1)
Respiratory System
516(1)
Cardiovascular System
516(1)
Gastrointestinal System
517(1)
Urinary System
517(1)
Reproductive System
517(1)
Prevention of Complications
517(1)
Psychological Changes
518(1)
The Medical Assistant and the Geriatric Patient
518(1)
Memory-Impaired Older Adults
518(1)
Visually Impaired Older Adults
519(1)
Elder Abuse
520(3)
Examinations and Procedures of Body Systems
523(61)
Clean Catch Urine
Testing Urine
Collecting Nose, Throat, Sputum Specimens
Testing for Occult Blood
Skin Puncture
Blood Glucose
Oxygen Therapy
Peak Expiratory Flow
523(2)
Urinary System
525(1)
Signs and Symptoms of Urinary Conditions and Disorders
525(1)
Diagnostic Tests
525(3)
Urinary Catheterization
528(2)
Digestive System
530(2)
Signs and Symptoms of Digestive Conditions and Disorders
532(1)
Diagnostic Tests
533(3)
Fecal Occult Blood Test
536(1)
Sensory System
537(1)
The Eye
537(5)
The Ear
542(3)
Respiratory System
545(1)
Spirometry
545(1)
Musculoskeletal System
546(2)
Fractures, Casting, and Cast Removal
548(1)
Cast Care Guidelines
549(1)
Neurological System
549(2)
Components of a Neurological Screening
551(1)
Circulatory System
552(1)
Blood and Lymph System
553(1)
Integumentary System
554(2)
Allergy Skin Testing
556(28)
Unit 8: Advanced Techniques and Procedures 584(213)
Assisting with Minor Surgery
585(48)
Sterile Gloves
Handwashing
Gloves and Gowns
Removing Items
Wound Specimen
Bandaging
Dry Dressing
Sutures/Staples
Surgical Asepsis
587(1)
Handwashing for Surgical Asepsis
587(1)
Sterile Principles
587(1)
Common Surgical Procedures Performed in Physicians' Offices and Clinics
588(1)
Alternative Surgical Methods
589(1)
Electrosurgery
589(1)
Cautery
589(1)
Cryosurgery
590(1)
Laser Surgery
590(1)
Suture Materials and Supplies
590(1)
Suture Needles
591(1)
Instruments
591(1)
Structural Features
591(1)
Categories and Uses
591(9)
Care of Instruments
600(1)
Chemical ``Cold'' Sterilization
601(1)
Supplies and Equipment
601(1)
Sponges and Wicks
601(1)
Solutions/Creams/Ointments
602(1)
Dressings and Bandages
602(3)
Anesthetics
605(1)
Patient Care and Preparation
606(1)
Patient Preparation and Education
606(1)
Informed Consent
606(1)
Medical Assisting Considerations
606(1)
Postoperative Instructions
606(1)
Wounds, Wound Care, and the Healing Process
606(2)
Basic Surgery Setup
608(1)
Basic Rules and Concepts for Setup of Surgical Trays
608(1)
Minor Surgery Process
608(1)
Preparation for Minor Surgery
608(2)
Using Dry Sterile Transfer Forceps
610(23)
Diagnostic Imaging
633(12)
X-ray Machine
634(1)
Radiation Safety
634(1)
Contrast Media
635(1)
Patient Preparation
635(2)
Positioning the Patient
637(1)
Fluoroscopy
638(1)
Diagnostic Imaging
638(1)
Ultrasonography
638(1)
Position Emission Tomography (PET)
639(1)
Computerized Tomography (CT)
639(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
640(1)
Flat Plates
640(1)
Filing Films and Reports
641(1)
Radiation Therapy
641(1)
Nuclear Medicine
642(3)
Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Modalities
645(32)
Safe Lifting
Safe Falling
Moist Heat
Dry Heat
Cold Treatment
ROM Exercises
Assisting with Crutches
Elastic Bandaging
Splint
Arm Sling
Casting
Cast Care
The Role of the Medical Assistant in Rehabilitation
647(1)
Principles of Body Mechanics
647(1)
Posture
647(1)
Using the Body Safely and Effectively
648(2)
Lifting Techniques
650(1)
Transferring Patients
650(1)
Assisting Patients to Ambulate
651(1)
Assistive Devices
651(1)
Walkers
651(1)
Crutches
652(3)
Canes
655(1)
Wheelchairs
656(1)
Therapeutic Exercises
657(1)
Range of Motion
657(1)
Muscle Testing
657(1)
Types of Therapeutic Exercise
658(1)
Electromyography
658(1)
Electrostimulation of Muscle
658(1)
Range of Motion Exercises
658(1)
Therapeutic Modalities
659(1)
Heat and Cold
659(1)
Moist and Dry Heat Modalities
660(2)
Moist and Dry Cold Modalities
662(1)
Deep Tissue Modalities
662(15)
Nutrition in Health and Disease
677(22)
Nutrition and Digestion
678(1)
Types of Nutrients
678(1)
Energy Nutrients
679(3)
Other Nutrients
682(5)
Reading Food Labels
687(1)
Items on the Nutrition Label
688(1)
Comparing Labels
688(1)
Nutrition at Various Stages of Life
688(1)
Pregnancy and Lactation
688(2)
Infancy
690(1)
Adolescence
690(1)
Elderly
690(1)
Therapeutic Diets
690(1)
Weight Control
690(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
691(1)
Cardiovascular Disease
691(1)
Cancer
692(1)
Diet and Culture
693(6)
Basic Pharmacology
699(18)
Medical Uses of Drugs
701(1)
Drug Names
701(1)
History and Sources of Drugs
701(1)
Plant Sources
701(1)
Animal Sources
701(1)
Mineral Sources
701(1)
Synthetic Drugs
702(1)
Genetically Engineered Pharmaceuticals
702(1)
Drug Regulations and Legal Classifications of Drugs
702(1)
Controlled Substance Act of 1970
702(2)
Prescription Drugs
704(1)
Nonprescription Drugs
705(1)
Proper Disposal of Drugs
705(1)
Administer, Prescribe, Dispense
706(1)
Drug References and Standards
707(1)
How To Use the PDR
707(1)
Other Reference Sources
708(1)
Classification of Drugs
708(1)
Principle Actions of Drugs
708(1)
Factors that Affect Drug Action
708(2)
Undesirable Actions of Drugs
710(1)
Drug Routes
710(1)
Forms of Drugs
711(1)
Liquid Preparations
711(1)
Solid and Semisolid Preparations
711(1)
Other Drug Delivery Systems
711(1)
Storage and Handling of Medications
712(1)
Emergency Drugs and Supplies
712(1)
Drug Abuse
713(1)
Effects of Drug Abuse
713(4)
Calculation of Medication Dosage and Medication Administration
717(50)
Oral Meds
Ear Meds
Eye Meds
Skin/Topical Meds
Nasal Meds
Rectal Meds
Nebulized Meds
Intradermal Injection
Subcutaneous Injection
Intramuscular Injection
Z-Track Injection
Vial
Ampule
Mixing Meds
Legal and Ethical Implications of Medication Administration
719(1)
Ethical Considerations
719(1)
The Medication Order
719(1)
The Prescription
719(1)
Drug Dosage
720(1)
Age
720(1)
Weight
720(1)
Gender
721(1)
Other Factors
721(1)
The Medication Label
721(1)
Calculation of Drug Dosages
722(1)
Understanding Ratio
722(1)
Understanding Proportion
723(1)
Weights and Measures
723(3)
Medications Measured in Units
726(1)
How to Calculate Unit Dosages
726(1)
Insulin
727(1)
Diabetes
727(1)
Calculating Adult Dosages
728(1)
Calculating Children's Dosages
729(1)
Body Surface Area
730(1)
Kilogram of Body Weight
731(1)
Administration of Medications
731(1)
The ``Six Rights'' of Proper Drug Administration
732(2)
Medication Error
734(1)
Patient Assessment
734(1)
Administration of Oral Medications
735(1)
Equipment and Supplies for Oral Medications
735(1)
Administration of Parenteral Medications
735(1)
Hazards Associated with Parenteral Medications
736(1)
Reasons for Parenteral Route Selection
736(1)
Parenteral Equipment and Supplies
736(5)
Site Selection and Injection Angle
741(1)
Marking the Correct Site for Intramuscular Injection
741(3)
Basic Guidelines for Administration of Injections
744(2)
Z-Track Method of Intramuscular Injection
746(1)
Administration of Allergenic Extracts
746(1)
Inhalation Methods of Medication Administration
747(1)
Implications for Patient Care
747(1)
Administration of Oxygen
747(20)
Electrocardiography
767(30)
EKG
Anatomy of the Heart
769(1)
Electrical Conduction System of the Heart
770(1)
The Cardiac Cycle and the ECG Cycle
771(1)
Calculation of Heart Rate on ECG Graph Paper
771(1)
Types of Electrocardiographs
772(1)
Single-Channel ECG
772(1)
Multichannel ECG
773(1)
Automatic ECG Machines
774(1)
ECG Telephone Transmissions
774(1)
Facsimile Electrocardiograph
774(1)
Interpretive Electrocardiograph
774(1)
ECG Equipment
774(1)
Electrocardiograph Paper
774(1)
Electrolyte
774(1)
Sensors or Electrodes
775(1)
Care of Equipment
776(1)
Lead Coding
776(1)
The Electrocardiograph and Lead Placement
776(1)
Standard Limb or Bipolar Leads
777(1)
Augmented Leads
778(1)
Chest Leads or Precordial Leads
778(1)
Standardization of the Electrocardiograph
778(1)
Standard Resting Electrocardiography
778(1)
Mounting the ECG Tracing
779(1)
Interference or Artifacts
779(1)
Somatic Tremor Artifacts
780(1)
Alternating Current (AC) Interference
780(1)
Wandering Baseline Artifacts
781(1)
Interrupted Baseline Artifacts
781(1)
Cardiac Conditions and Diseases
781(1)
Myocardial Infarctions (Heart Attacks)
781(1)
Cardiac Arrhythmias
781(1)
Atrial Arrhythmias
782(1)
Ventricular Arrhythmias
782(2)
Defibrillation
784(1)
Other Cardiac Diagnostic Tests
784(1)
Holt Monitor (Portable Ambulatory Electrocardiograph)
784(2)
Treadmill Stress Test or Exercise Tolerance ECG
786(1)
Echocardiography
787(10)
Unit 9: Laboratory Procedures 797(192)
Safety and Regulatory Guidelines in the Medical Laboratory
799(18)
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88)
800(1)
The Intention of CLIA '88
801(1)
General Program Description
802(1)
Categories of Testing
802(1)
Contents of the Law
803(4)
CLIA '88 Regulation for Quality Control in Automated Hematology
807(1)
Aftermath of CLIA '88
807(1)
Impact of CLIA on Medical Assistants
807(1)
Where to Find More Information Regarding CLIA '88
808(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations
808(1)
The Standard for Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory
808(1)
Chemical Hygiene Plan
808(6)
OSHA Regulations and Students
814(1)
Avoiding Exposure to Chemicals
814(1)
Cumulative Trauma Disorders
815(2)
Introduction to the Medical Laboratory
817(20)
The Laboratory
818(1)
Purposes of Laboratory Testing
819(1)
Types of Laboratories
820(1)
Laboratory Personnel
820(1)
Laboratory Departments
821(4)
Quality Controls/Assurances in the Laboratory
825(1)
Control Tests
825(1)
Proficiency Testing
825(1)
Preventative Maintenance
825(1)
Instrument Validations
826(1)
The Medical Assistant's Role
826(1)
Laboratory Requisitions and Reports
826(2)
Specimen Collection
828(1)
Proper Procurement, Storage, and Handling
828(1)
Processing and Sending Specimens to a Laboratory
829(1)
Microscopes
830(1)
Types of Microscopes
831(1)
How to Use a Microscope
831(1)
How to Care for a Microscope
832(5)
Phlebotomy: Venipuncture and Capillary Puncture
837(30)
Venipuncture
Why Collect Blood?
838(1)
The Medical Assistant's Role in Phlebotomy
839(1)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Circulatory System
839(1)
Collection of Blood Samples
840(2)
Venipuncture Equipment
842(1)
Syringes and Needles
842(1)
Safety Needle
842(1)
Evacuated Tube System
843(1)
Anticoagulants
844(1)
Tourniquets
844(2)
Specimen Collection Trays
846(1)
Venipuncture Technique
846(1)
Approaching the Patient
847(1)
Preparing Supplies and Greeting the Patient
847(1)
Patient and Specimen Identification
847(1)
Positioning the Patient
848(1)
Selecting the Appropriate Venipuncture Site
848(1)
Performing a Safe Venipuncture
849(1)
Syringe Specimen Collection
850(1)
Evacuated Tube Specimen Collection
851(1)
Butterfly Collection System
852(1)
Patient Reactions
852(1)
The Unsuccessful Venipuncture
852(1)
Criteria for Rejection of a Specimen
853(1)
Factors Affecting Laboratory Values
853(1)
Capillary Puncture
854(1)
Composition of Capillary Blood
854(1)
Capillary Puncture Sites
854(1)
Preparing the Capillary Puncture Site
855(1)
Performing the Puncture
855(1)
Collecting the Blood Sample
855(1)
Order of Draw
856(11)
Hematology
867(32)
Hematological Tests
869(1)
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Determinations
870(3)
White and Red Blood Cell Counts
873(4)
White Blood Cell Differential
877(2)
Examination of a Blood Smear
879(2)
Erythrocyte Indices
881(1)
Using Erythrocyte Indices to Diagnose
881(1)
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rates (ESR)
881(1)
Wintrobe Method
882(1)
Westergren Method
882(1)
Using the ESR to Diagnose
883(1)
Automated Hematology Instrumentation and Quality Control
883(1)
Hematology Instruments That Require Sample Dilutions
884(1)
Hematology Instruments That Do Not Require Sample Dilutions
884(15)
Urinalysis
899(24)
Clean Catch Urine
Testing Urine
Urine Formation
900(1)
Filtration
900(1)
Reabsorption
901(1)
Secretion
901(1)
Urine Composition
901(1)
Safety
902(1)
Quality Control
902(1)
CLIA '88
902(1)
Urine Containers
903(1)
Urine Collection
903(1)
Urine Specimen Types
903(1)
Collection Methods
904(1)
Examination of Urine
905(1)
Physical Examination of Urine
905(2)
Chemical Examination of Urine
907(3)
Microscopic Examination of Urine Sediment
910(13)
Basic Microbiology
923(38)
Wound Specimen
The Medical Assistant's Role in the Microbiology Laboratory
925(1)
Microbiology
925(1)
Classification
925(1)
Nomenclature
926(1)
Cell Structure
926(1)
Equipment
927(1)
Autoclave
927(1)
Microscope
927(1)
Safety Hood
927(1)
Incubator
928(1)
Anaerobic Equipment
928(1)
Inoculating Equipment
928(1)
Incinerator
929(1)
Media
929(1)
Refrigerator
929(1)
Safety When Handling Microbiology Specimens
929(1)
Personal Protective Equipment
929(1)
Work Area
930(1)
Specimen Handling
930(1)
Disposal of Waste and Spills
930(1)
Quality Control
930(1)
Collection Procedures
931(3)
Specific Collection Requirements
934(2)
Microscopic Examination of Bacteria
936(1)
Bacterial Shapes
936(1)
Dyes (Stains)
937(1)
Simple Stain
937(1)
Differential Stain
937(1)
Acid-Fast Stain
938(1)
Special Techniques
939(1)
Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) Preparation
939(1)
Culture Media
940(1)
Media Classification
941(1)
Microbiology Culture
942(1)
Inoculating the Media
942(1)
Other Types of Streaking
942(1)
Primary Culture
943(1)
Subculture
943(1)
Biochemical Tests
944(1)
Direct Tests
944(1)
Biochemical Tube Testing
945(1)
Identification Systems
946(1)
Streptococcus Screening (Rapid Strep Testing)
946(1)
Packaged Systems
947(1)
Semiautomated and Automated Instruments
948(1)
Sensitivity Testing
948(1)
Parasitology
949(1)
Examination Methods
949(1)
Specimen Collection
949(1)
Common Parasites
950(1)
Mycology
951(10)
Specialty Laboratory Tests
961(28)
Collecting Nose, Throat, Sputum Specimen
Occult Blood
Skin Puncture
Blood Glucose
Wound Specimen
Pregnancy Tests
963(1)
Commercial/Home Pregnancy Tests
963(1)
Testing Methods
963(1)
Slide Test or Agglutination Inhibition Test
963(1)
Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) Test
964(1)
Infectious Mononucleosis
964(1)
Transmission of EBV
965(1)
Symptoms of Mononucleosis
965(1)
Treatment of Mononucleosis
965(1)
Diagnosis of Infectious Mononucleosis
965(1)
Slide Test for Infectious Mononucleosis
966(1)
Blood Typing: ABO Blood Groups and Rh Factor
967(1)
ABO Blood Typing
967(1)
Rh Blood Typing
968(1)
Semen Analysis
968(1)
Semen Composition
969(1)
Altering Factors in Semen Analysis
969(1)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Test
969(1)
Blood Testing for PKU
970(1)
Urine Testing for PKU
970(1)
Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium and TB Testing
970(1)
Cause of Tuberculosis
971(1)
Resistance in Mycobacteria
971(1)
Transmission of Infectious Tuberculosis
971(1)
Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
971(1)
Screening for Tuberculosis: Skin Testing
971(1)
The Mantoux Test
971(1)
Blood Glucose
972(1)
Fasting Blood Glucose
972(1)
Two-Hour Postprandial Blood Glucose
973(1)
Glucose Tolerance Test
973(1)
Automated Methods of Glucose Analysis
973(1)
Testing Profiles
974(1)
Glycosylated Hemoglobin
975(1)
Cholesterol
975(1)
The Chemistry of Cholesterol
975(1)
Functions of Cholesterol
976(1)
Lipoproteins and Cholesterol Transport
976(1)
Triglycerides
976(1)
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Test
977(12)
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL PROCEDURES 989(1)
Unit 10: Office and Human Resource Management 990(44)
The Medical Assistant as Office Manager
991(24)
The Medical Assistant as Manager
993(1)
Qualities of a Manager
993(1)
Management Styles
994(1)
People-oriented Personality
994(1)
Things-oriented Personality
994(1)
Idea-oriented Personality
994(1)
Other Management Styles
994(1)
Changing Styles for the Twenty-first Century
995(1)
The Importance of Teamwork
995(1)
Getting the Team Started
996(1)
Using a Team to Solve a Problem
996(1)
Planning and Implementing a Solution
996(1)
Recognition
996(1)
Supervising Personnel
996(1)
Staff Meetings
997(1)
Supporting Staff Members
998(1)
Travel Arrangements
998(1)
Itinerary
998(1)
Supervising Student Practicums
999(1)
Time Management
1000(1)
Procedures Manual
1000(1)
Organization of the Procedures Manual
1000(1)
Updating and Reviewing the Procedures Manual
1001(1)
Marketing Functions
1001(1)
Seminars
1001(1)
Brochures
1002(1)
Newsletters
1003(1)
Press Releases
1003(1)
Special Events
1003(1)
Record and Financial Management
1003(2)
Payroll Processing
1005(1)
Facility and Equipment Management
1006(1)
Inventories
1006(1)
Equipment and Supplies Maintenance
1007(1)
Risk Management
1007(1)
Liability Coverage and Bonding
1007(8)
The Medical Assistant as Human Resources Manager
1015(19)
Tasks Performed by the Human Resources Manager
1016(1)
The Office Policy Manual
1017(1)
Recruiting and Hiring Office Personnel
1017(1)
Job Descriptions
1017(1)
Recruiting
1018(1)
Preparing to Interview Applicants
1018(1)
The Interview
1019(1)
Selecting the Finalists
1020(1)
Orienting and Training New Personnel
1021(1)
Evaluating Employees and Planning Salary Review
1021(1)
Performance Evaluation
1021(3)
Salary Review
1024(1)
Dismissing Employees
1024(1)
Involuntary Dismissal
1025(1)
Voluntary Dismissal
1025(1)
Exit Interview
1025(1)
Maintaining Personnel Records
1026(1)
Complying with Personnel Laws
1026(1)
Special Policy Considerations
1026(1)
Temporary Employees
1026(2)
Smoking Policy
1028(1)
Discrimination
1028(1)
Employees with Chemical Dependencies or Emotional Problems
1028(1)
Providing/Planning Employee Training and Education
1028(1)
Conflict Resolution
1029(5)
Unit 11: Entry into the Profession 1034
Preparing for Medical Assisting Credentials
1035
Purpose of Certification
1036
Preparing for the Examination
1036
Registered Medical Assistant (RMA)
1037
Examination Format and Content
1037
Application Process
1038
Application Completion and Test Administration Scheduling
1038
Certified Medical Assistant (CMA)
1038
Examination Format and Content
1038
Application Process
1039
Eligibility Categories and Requirements
1039
Grounds for Denial of Eligibility
1039
How to Recertify
1040
Employment Strategies
1045
Resume Writing
Developing a Strategy
1046
Self-Assessment
1046
Job Analysis and Research
1046
Budgetary Needs Analysis
1048
Resume Preparation
1049
Resume Specifications
1049
Clear and Concise Resumes
1049
Accomplishments
1049
References
1050
Accuracy
1050
Resume Styles
1050
Vital Resume Information Application/Cover
1054
Letters
1054
Completing the Application Form
1054
The Look of Success
1056
Personal and Professional Poise
1056
The Interview Process
1057
Preparing for the Interview
1057
The Actual Interview
1057
Closing the Interview
1058
Interview Follow-Up
1058
Follow-Up Letter
1058
Follow Up by Telephone
1059
Appendix A Common Medical Abbreviations and Symbols A-1
Appendix B Top 200 Drugs by Retail Sales in 2000 B-1
Appendix C Medical Assistant Role Delineation Chart C-1
Appendix D Answers to Case Study Reviews D-1
Glossary G-1
Index I-1


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