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Computer Ethics,9780130836991

Computer Ethics

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130836991

ISBN10:
0130836990
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $51.80
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Summary

For one-semester courses in Computer Ethics, Applied Ethics, Computers, Ethics and Society, Ethics and Information Systems, Computers and Society, or Social Effects of Technology. Written in clear, accessible prose, this text brings together philosophy, law, and technology. Provide a rigorous, in-depth exploration and analysis of a broad range of topics regarding the ethical implications of widespread use of computer technology. The approach is normative while also exposing the student to alternative ethical stances.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Historical Overview viii
Changes in the Third Edition x
Overview xi
Terminology xv
Acknowledgments xvi
Introduction: Why Computer Ethics?
1(25)
New Possibilities and a Vacuum of Policies
5(2)
Filling the Vacuum, Clarifying Conceptual Muddles
7(4)
Computers Used in a Social Context
11(2)
Moral and Legal Issues
13(1)
Are Computer Ethical Issues Unique? First Attempts
14(2)
Are Computer Ethical Issues Unique? A Deeper Analysis
16(6)
The Role of Analogy in Computer Ethics
22(2)
Conclusion
24(2)
Philosophical Ethics
26(28)
Distinguishing Descriptive and Normative Claims
28(2)
Ethical Relativism
30(6)
Utilitarianism
36(7)
Deontological Theories
43(4)
Rights
47(4)
Virtue Ethics
51(1)
Individual and Social Policy Ethics
52(1)
Conclusion
52(2)
Professional Ethics
54(27)
Why Professional Ethics?
56(3)
Characteristics of Professions
59(2)
The System of Professions
61(2)
Is Computing a Profession? Are Computer Professionals ``Professionals''?
63(3)
Software Engineering
66(1)
Professional Relationships
67(7)
Conflicting Responsibilities
74(2)
Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
76(2)
Collective Responsibility
78(1)
Conclusion
79(2)
Ethics and the Internet I: Ethics Online
81(28)
Three Morally Significant Characteristics
87(10)
Hacking and Hacker Ethics
97(6)
New Species of Old Crime
103(1)
Nettiquette
104(2)
Policy Approaches
106(1)
Conclusion
107(2)
Privacy
109(28)
Is There Anything New Here?
112(6)
Understanding the ``Computers and Privacy'' Issues
118(7)
Reframing the Computers and Privacy Issue---Privacy as a Social Good
125(4)
Legislative Background
129(2)
Global Perspective
131(1)
Proposals for Better Privacy Protection
132(3)
Conclusion
135(2)
Property Rights in Computer Software
137(31)
Definitions
141(1)
The Problem
142(1)
Current Legal Protection
143(10)
The Philosophical Basis of Property
153(5)
Consequentialist Arguments
158(3)
Conclusions from the Philosophical Analysis of Property
161(1)
Is It Wrong to Copy Properietary Software?
162(1)
Software Copying Is Immoral Because It Is Illegal
163(3)
Conclusion
166(2)
Accountability and Computer and Information Technology
168(31)
Different Senses of Responsibility
173(3)
Buying and Selling Software
176(10)
Y2K Problem
186(2)
Diffusion of Accountability
188(4)
Internet Issues
192(1)
ISP Liability
192(2)
Virtual Action
194(4)
Conclusion
198(1)
Ethics and the Internet II: Social Implications and Social Values
199(32)
Technology and Social Change
200(4)
Embedded Values, Enhanced and Impeded Values
204(4)
Democratic Values in the Internet
208(5)
Summary of the Three Arguments
213(1)
Is the Internet a Democratic Technology?
213(5)
Access and the Digital Divide
218(7)
Free Expression
225(1)
Overarching and Future Issues
226(3)
Conclusion
229(2)
References 231(4)
Index 235

Excerpts

PREFACE With the publication of the third edition ofComputer Ethics,I am reminded of the day in 1984 when I received the page-proofs of the first edition. I had just returned home from the hospital after having given birth to my daughter. I had composed the book on an Osborne computer using a word processor--I think it was called WordStar--that has been obsolete for more than 10 years now. Today my daughter, now a teenager, is more comfortable with computers than I am. She spends a good deal of her day sitting in front of a computer screen chatting with friends, doing schoolwork, and exploring the Web. I composed this edition of the book on a laptop computer using a version of MS Word that automatically corrected my misspellings and grammar. And, of course, in writing this edition of the book, I frequently went to the Web to look for resources and check references. While I continue to be cautious in making grand pronouncements about the significance of these technological changes for the quality and character of human lives, the changes that have taken place in these 16 years are awe-inspiring. As I began writing this edition, it was strikingly clear that my primary task was to address the technological changes that have occurred since the second edition, especially the growth and penetration of the Internet into so many domains of life. What are we to make of Web sites, cookies, data mining tools, customized online services, and e-commerce? I have addressed many of these new issues while at the same time holding on to what I continue to believe are the core issues in computer ethics: professional ethics, privacy, property, accountability, and social implications and values. Indeed, you will see that in Chapter 1, 1 continue to struggle with the question at the heart of the field, what is computer ethics? Are the ethical issues surrounding computers unique? What is the connection between ethics and technology? Contemplating the connection between technology and ethics raises an interesting and important question: Does the field of computer ethics simply follow the development of computer technology? Should computer ethicists simply react to technological developments? Wouldn't it be better if the sequence were reversed so that technological development followed ethics? Historically, the field of computer ethics has been reactive to the technology. As I explain in Chapter 1, new technological developments create new possibilities and the new possibilities need to be evaluated. As in the last edition, I build on the idea in Jim Moor's seminal piece "What Is Computer Ethics?" (1985) that new technologies create policy vacuums. The task of computer ethics, he argues, is to fill these policy vacuums. In a sense, the ethical issues are the policy vacuums, and policy vacuums are created when there is a new development or use of computer technology. On the other hand, I want to suggest that it would be better if at least some of the movement were in the other direction--technology following ethics. Suppose, that is, we lived in a world where ethicists (or anyone, for that matter) identified potentially unethical situations or arrangements or ethically better possibilities, and engineers and computer scientists went to work designing technologies to change or remedy or improve the situation. I can think of a few examples when this has occurred, but only a few. Arguably, privacy-enhancing technologies and anonymous re-mailers are cases in point. Perhaps freeware and shareware are also examples. For the most part, however, the ethical issues have followed, rather than led, the technology. Here in very broad brushstrokes is my understanding of the evolution of the field of computer ethics, especially in the United States. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW In the decades immediately following World War II, ethical concerns were raised about computers, though these concerns w


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