Math for Information Technology, this textbook is designed for students who take one math course to prepare for an IT career. Innovative approachintegrates problem solving (the single most important IT skill) with traditional math topics and computer programming concepts to give students all the essential skills they need to prepare for a first course in computer programming. Step-by-step guidelinesmake learning accessible to students with pre-algebra math skills. Topics matchthose needed for future IT courses and on the job: Problem Solving tools: A methodology appropriate to IT is introduced in the first chapter and reinforced throughout the text. Computational tools: Exponents, Numbers Systems, Unit Analysis, A Little Algebra, Graphing Algorithm tools: Computer Programming Concepts, Computer Logic, Structured Program Design Appendices: Arithmetic Review, More Algebra, Geometry Introductory problemopens each chapter, familiarizing students with some of the important topics before they encounter all the conceptual details of the chapter. How to Use This Chaptersection places each chapter within the context of the course. Application to Information Technologysidebars point out connections between various math topics and the field of IT. Examples and practice problemsat several levels of difficulty are amply presented. Wherever applicable, practice problems are related to IT. Full step-by-step solutionsto those even-numbered problems answered at the back of each chapter are available to students in the supplemental students' solutions manual. Written by an Information Technology professionalfor students aspiring to be IT professionals, this book has all the essential tools needed to begin the journey.

** ****Chapter 1 ** **Problem Solving 1**

** ** 1-1 Introduction 1

How to Use This Chapter 1

Background 2

Chapter Objectives 2

Introductory Problem 2

1-2 Problem-Solving Concepts 4

Polya’s Four Phases 4

Rubinstein’s Anatomy of a Problem 5

Developing the Knack 8

Use It or Lose It 8

Choosing an Approach 9

Avoiding Conceptual Boxes 9

Problem-Solving Analogy 10

Take a Walk 11

1-3 The IPO Method 12

The IPO Worksheet 14

Applying the IPO Method 14

Problem Statement Section 17

Output Section 19

Input Section 21

Process Section 23

Solution Section 31

Check Section 33

1-4 Problem Solving with the IPO Method 35

Tips on Using the IPO Method 35

Example Problems 37

1-5 Study Materials 44

Chapter Summary 44

Review Questions 44

Problem Solutions 45

** **

**Chapter 2 ** **Exponents 47**

** ** 2-1 Introduction 47

How to Use This Chapter 47

Background 47

Chapter Objectives 47

Introductory Problem 48

2-2 Squares and Square Roots 49

Squares 49

Square Roots 50

2-3 Powers and Exponents 58

Powers 58

Rules of Exponents 60

Reciprocals and Negative Exponents 65

Roots and Fractional Exponents 69

Exponent Rules Summary 72

2-4 Problem Solving with Exponents 74

Scientific Notation 74

Exponential Curiosities 77

2-5 Study Materials 80

Chapter Summary 80

Review Questions 80

Problem Solutions 81

** **

**Chapter 3 ** **Number Systems 83**

** ** 3-1 Introduction 83

How to Use This Chapter 83

Background 83

Chapter Objectives 84

Introductory Problem 84

3-2 How Number Systems Work 85

Several Examples 85

The Decimal Number System 85

3-3 The Binary Number System 87

Binary Basics 87

Converting Binary to Decimal 88

Converting Decimal to Binary 91

3-4 The Hexadecimal Number System 93

Hexadecimal Basics 93

Converting Hexadecimal to Decimal 94

Converting Decimal to Hexadecimal 96

Converting Hexadecimal to Binary 98

Converting Binary to Hexadecimal 100

3-5 Problem Solving with Number Systems 102

Representing Numbers in Computer Memory 102

Memory Addressing in Computers 107

3-6 Study Materials 111

Chapter Summary 111

Review Questions 113

Problem Solutions 113

** **

**Chapter 4 ** **Unit Analysis 115**

** ** 4-1 Introduction 115

How to Use This Chapter 115

Background 115

Chapter Objectives 116

Introductory Problem 116

4-2 Types of Units 117

Physical Quantities 117

Simple Units 117

Composite Units 117

Rates 118

Conversion Factors 118

Units in Equations 118

Derived Units 119

Hidden Units 120

Weights vs. Mass 120

4-3 Unit Conversions 122

Equivalence Expressions and Conversion Factors 122

Conversion Examples 123

4-4 Prefixes 127

Decimal Prefixes 127

Binary Prefixes 127

Changing Prefixes 130

4-5 Problem Solving with Units 136

Problems with Several Conversion Factors 136

Unit Analysis Using the IPO Worksheet 139

4-6 Study Materials 160

Chapter Summary 160

Review Questions 161

Problem Solutions 161

** **

**Chapter 5 ** **A Little Algebra 163**

** ** 5-1 Introduction 163

How to Use This Chapter 163

Background 163

Chapter Objectives 164

Introductory Problem 164

5-2 Algebraic Equations 165

Components of an Equation 165

Solving Equations 169

Ratio Equations 170

Simple Equations with Two Variables 173

5-3 Problem Solving with Algebra 176

Translating Words into Equations 176

Percents 181

Percent Change 183

Proportions 186

5-4 Study Materials 188

Chapter Summary 188

Review Questions 189

Problem Solutions 189

** **

**Chapter 6 ** **Graphing 191**

** ** 6-1 Introduction 191

How to Use This Chapter 191

Background 191

Chapter Objectives 192

Introductory Problem 192

6-2 Spreadsheet Charts 194

Data Series 194

Pie Charts 194

Bar Charts 195

Line Charts 196

* **x-y *Charts 196

6-3 Graphing Equations 198

Rectangular Coordinate System 198

The Slope-Intercept Form of a Linear Equation 203

Solving Two Linear Equations 209

6-4 Problem Solving with Graphing 211

The Shortest Distance Between Two Points 211

Computer Graphing Coordinates 215

6-5 Study Materials 217

Chapter Summary 217

Review Questions 218

Problem Solutions 219

** **

**Chapter 7 ** **Computer Programming Concepts 223**

** ** 7-1 Introduction 223

How to Use This Chapter 223

Background 224

Chapter Objectives 224

Introductory Problem 224

7-2 Beginning Definitions 227

What Is a Computer? 227

Computer Variables 227

Arithmetic and Logic 229

7-3 A Simple Programming Language 231

INPUT Statement 231

OUTPUT Statement 232

LET Statement 233

IF-THEN-ELSE Statement 234

LOOP Statement 236

7-4 Building and Checking Simple Programs 241

Important Assignment Tasks 241

Desk Checking 247

7-5 Problem Solving with Computer Programs 250

Evolution of a Simple Program 250

7-6 Study Materials 257

Chapter Summary 257

Review Questions 257

Problem Solutions 258

** **

**Chapter 8 ** **Computer Logic 261**

** ** 8-1 Introduction 261

How to Use This Chapter 261

Background 261

Chapter Objectives 262

Introductory Problem 262

8-2 Operators and Expressions 263

Relational Operators 263

Conditional Expressions 265

Logical Operators 266

Combined Expressions 269

Removing NOTs 273

8-3 Problem Solving with Computer Logic 279

Testing Ranges 279

Boolean Variables and Flags 282

8-4 Study Materials 288

Chapter Summary 288

Review Questions 289

Problem Solutions 289

** **

**Chapter 9 ** **Structured Program Design 291**

** ** 9-1 Introduction 291

How to Use This Chapter 291

Background 291

Chapter Objectives 293

Introductory Problem 293

9-2 Algorithm Design Tools 295

Algorithms 295

IPO Charts 296

Pseudocode 299

Flowcharts 300

9-3 Program Design Concepts 310

Background 310

Top-Down Development 310

Modular Design 310

The Structure Theorem 311

Beyond Structured Programming 312

9-4 Problem Solving with Structured Design 314

Program Development 314

Modular Design 314

9-5 Study Materials 322

Chapter Summary 322

Review Questions 322

Problem Solutions 323

** **

**Appendix A ** **Arithmetic Review 327**

** ** A-1 Introduction 327

How to Use This Appendix 327

Background 327

Self-Test 328

A-2 Arithmetic Operations 329

A-3 Real Numbers 332

The Number Line 332

Other Definitions 335

Properties of Numbers 338

A-4 Manipulating Fractions 341

A-5 Decimal Numbers 346

Positional Notation 346

Significant Digits and Rounding 346

Percents, Decimals, and Fractions 352

A-6 Problem Solving with Arithmetic 356

Averages 356

A-7 Study Materials 361

Problem Solutions 361

** **

**Appendix B ** **More Algebra 363**

** ** B-1 Introduction 363

How to Use This Appendix 363

Background 363

Introductory Problem 363

B-2 Simultaneous Linear Equations 364

Solving Linear Equations Using Algebra 364

B-3 Problem Solving with Algebra 368

Time-Rate-Distance Problems 368

Linear Interpolation 374

B-4 Study Materials 380

Problem Solutions 380

** **

**Appendix C ** **Geometry 381**

** ** C-1 Introduction 381

How to Use This Appendix 381

Background 381

Introductory Problem 382

C-2 Beginning Definitions 383

C-3 Triangles 385

Right Triangles 385

Similar Triangles 388

C-4 Circles and Ellipses 390

Circles 390

The Value of Pi 390

Ellipses 390

C-5 Other Plane Figures 393

C-6 Solid Figures 396

C-7 Problem Solving with Geometry 399

C-8 Study Materials 406

Problem Solutions 406

** **

Glossary 407

Index 419