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Computer Networks And Internets

by ;
ISBN13:

9780130836175

ISBN10:
0130836176
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

Questions About This Book?

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This is the edition with a publication date of 1/1/1999.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

Written by a leading computer networking authority, this widely used text provides a thorough, state-of-the-art overview of networking and Internet technology and is ideal for those with little or no background in the subject. Broad in coverage and highly accessible it provides a comprehensive, self-contained tour through all of networking from the lowest levels of data transmission and wiring to the highest levels of application software. An accompanying multimedia CD-ROM and Web site provide opportunities for a variety of hands-on experiences.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Introduction
1(6)
Growth Of Computer Networking
1(1)
Complexity in Network Systems
2(1)
Mastering The Complexity
2(1)
Concepts And Terminology
3(1)
Organization Of The Text
3(1)
Summary
4(3)
Motivation And Tools
7(12)
Introduction
7(1)
Resource Sharing
7(1)
Growth Of the Internet
8(3)
Probing the Internet
11(1)
Interpreting A Ping Response
12(1)
Tracing A Route
13(1)
Summary
14(5)
PART I Data Transmission
Transmission Media
19(10)
Introduction
19(1)
Copper Wires
19(2)
Glass Fibers
21(1)
Radio
22(1)
Satellities
22(1)
Geosynchronous Satellites
23(1)
Low Earth Orbit Satellites
24(1)
Low Earth Orbit Satellite Arrays
24(1)
Microwave
25(1)
Infrared
25(1)
Light From A Laser
26(1)
Summary
26(3)
Local Asynchronous Communication (RS-232)
29(12)
Introduction
29(1)
The Need For Asynchronous Communication
30(1)
Using Electric Current To Send Bits
30(1)
Standards For Communication
31(2)
Baud Rate, Framing, And Errors
33(1)
Full Duplex Asynchronous Communication
34(1)
Limitations Of Real Hardware
35(1)
Hardware Bandwidth And The Transmission Of Bits
36(1)
The Effect Of Noise On Communication
36(1)
Significance For Data Networking
37(1)
Summary
38(3)
Long-Distance Communication (Carriers, Modulation, And Modems)
41(14)
Introduction
41(1)
Sending Signals Across Long Distances
41(3)
Modem Hardware Used For Modulation And Demodulation
44(1)
Leased Analog Data Circuits
45(1)
Optical, Radio Frequency, And Dialup Modems
46(1)
Carrier Frequencies and Multiplexing
47(2)
Baseband And Broadband Technologies
49(1)
Wave Division Multiplexing
49(1)
Spread Spectrum
50(1)
Time Division Multiplexing
50(1)
Summary
50(5)
PART II Packet Transmission
Packets, Frames, And Error Detection
55(18)
Introduction
55(1)
The Concept Of Packets
55(2)
Packets and Time-Division Multiplexing
57(1)
Packets And Hardware Frames
58(1)
Byte Stuffing
59(2)
Transmission Errors
61(1)
Parity Bits And Parity Checking
61(1)
Probability, Mathematics, And Error Detection
62(1)
Detecting Errors With Checksums
63(1)
Detecting Errors With Cyclic Redundancy Checks
64(2)
Combining Building Blocks
66(1)
Burst Errors
67(1)
Frame Format And Error Detection Mechanisms
67(1)
Summary
68(5)
LAN Technologies And Network Topology
73(20)
Introduction
73(1)
Direct Point-to-Point Communication
74(2)
Shared Communication Channels
76(1)
Significance Of LANs And Locality Of Reference
76(1)
LAN Topologies
77(2)
Example Bus Network: Ethernet
79(2)
Carrier Sense On Multi-Access Networks (CSMA)
81(1)
Collision Detection And Backoff With CSMA/CD
81(1)
Wireless LANs And CSMA/CA
82(2)
Another Exaple Bus Network: LocalTalk
84(1)
Example Ring Network: IBM Token Ring
84(2)
Another Example Ring Network: FDDI
86(2)
Example Star Network: ATM
88(1)
Summary
89(4)
Hardware Addressing And Frame Type Identification
93(18)
Introduction
93(1)
Specifying A Recipient
94(1)
How LAN Hardware Uses Addresses To Filter Packets
94(2)
Format Of A Physical Address
96(1)
Broadcasting
97(1)
Multicasting
98(1)
Multicast Addressing
99(1)
Identifying Packet Contents
100(1)
Frame Headers And Frame Format
100(1)
An Example Frame Format
101(2)
Using Networks That Do Not Have Self-Identifying Frames
103(2)
Network Analyzers, Physical Addresses, Frame Types
105(1)
Summary
106(2)
Ethernet Address Assignment
108(3)
LAN Wiring, Physical Topology, And Interface Hardware
111(16)
Introduction
111(1)
Speeds Of LANs And Computers
111(1)
Network Interface Hardware
112(2)
The Connection Between A NIC and A Network
114(1)
Original Thick Ethernet Wiring
114(2)
Connection Multiplexing
116(1)
Thin Ethernet Wiring
117(1)
Twisted Pair Ethernet
118(2)
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Wiring Schemes
120(2)
The Topology Paradox
122(1)
Network Interface Cards And Wiring Schemes
122(2)
Wiring Schemes And Other Network Technologies
124(1)
Summary
125(2)
Extending LANs: Fiber Modems, Repeaters, Bridges, and Switches
127(18)
Introduction
127(1)
Distance Limitation And LAN Design
127(1)
Fiber Optic Extensions
128(1)
Repeaters
129(3)
Bridges
132(1)
Frame Filtering
133(1)
Startup And Steady State Behavior Of Bridged Networks
134(1)
Planning A Bridged Network
134(1)
Bridging Between Buildings
135(1)
Bridging Across Longer Distances
136(2)
A Cycle Of Bridges
138(1)
Distributed Spanning Tree
139(1)
Switching
140(1)
Combining switches and Hubs
141(1)
Bridging And Switching With Other Technologies
141(1)
Summary
142(3)
Long-Distance Digital Connection Technologies
145(22)
Introduction
145(1)
Digital Telephony
145(2)
Synchronous Communication
147(1)
Digital Circuits And DSU/CSUs
148(1)
Telephone Standards
149(1)
DS Terminology And Data Rates
150(1)
Lower Capacity Circuits
151(1)
Intermediate Capacity Digital Circuits
151(1)
Highest Capacity Circuits
152(1)
Optical Carrier Standards
153(1)
The C Suffix
153(1)
Synchronous Optical NET work (SONET)
153(2)
The Local Subscriber Loop
155(1)
ISDN
155(1)
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Technology
156(3)
Other DSL Technologies
159(1)
Cable Modem Technology
160(1)
Upstream Communication
161(1)
Hybrid Fiber Coax
162(1)
Fiber To The Curb
163(1)
Alternatives For Special Cases
163(1)
Summary
164(3)
WAN Technologies And Routing
167(22)
Introduction
167(1)
Large Networks And Wide Areas
167(1)
Packet Switches
168(1)
Forming A WAN
169(1)
Store And Forward
170(1)
Physical Addressing In a WAN
171(1)
Next-Hop Forwarding
171(2)
Source Independence
173(1)
Relationship Of Hierarchical Addresses To Routing
173(1)
Routing In A WAN
174(2)
Use Of Default Routes
176(1)
Routing Table Computation
177(1)
Shortest Path Computation In a Graph
177(3)
Distributed Route Computation
180(1)
Distance Vector Routing
180(2)
Link-State Routing (SPF)
182(1)
Example WAN Technologies
182(2)
Summary
184(5)
Network Ownership, Service Paradigm, And Performance
189(14)
Introduction
189(1)
Network Ownership
190(1)
Virtual Private Networks
191(1)
Service Paradigm
192(1)
Connection Duration And Persistence
193(2)
Examples Of Service Paradigms
195(1)
Addresses And Connection Identifiers
196(1)
Network Performance Characteristics
197(3)
Summary
200(3)
Protocols And Layering
203(20)
Introduction
203(1)
The Need For Protocols
203(1)
Protocol Suites
204(1)
A Plan For Protocol Design
205(1)
The Seven Layers
205(2)
Stacks: Layered Software
207(1)
How Layered Software Works
208(1)
Multiple, Nested Headers
209(1)
The Scientific Basis For Layering
209(1)
Techniques Protocols Use
210(8)
The Art Of Protocol Design
218(1)
Summary
218(5)
PART III Internetworking
Internetworking: Concepts, Architecture, and Protocols
223(12)
Introduction
223(1)
The Motivation For Internetworking
223(1)
The Concept Of Universal Service
224(1)
Universal Service In A Heterogeneous World
224(1)
Internetworking
225(1)
Physical Network Connection With Routers
225(1)
Internet Architecture
226(1)
Achieving Universal Service
227(1)
A Virtual Network
227(2)
Protocols For Internetworking
229(1)
Significance Of Internetworking And TCP/IP
229(1)
Layering And TCP/IP Protocols
230(1)
Host Computers, Routers, And Protocol Layers
231(1)
Summary
232(3)
IP: Internet Protocol Addresses
235(16)
Introduction
235(1)
Addresses For The Virtual Internet
235(1)
The IP Addressing Scheme
236(1)
The IP Address Hierarchy
237(1)
Classes Of IP Addresses
237(2)
Computing The Class of An Address
239(1)
Dotted Decimal Notation
240(1)
Classes And Dotted Decimal Notation
240(1)
Division Of The Address Space
241(1)
Authority For Addresses
242(1)
An Addressing Example
242(1)
Special IP Addresses
243(2)
Summary Of Special IP Addresses
245(1)
The Berkeley Broadcast Address From
246(1)
Routers And The IP Addressing Principle
246(1)
Multi-Homed Hosts
247(1)
Summary
248(3)
Binding Protocol Addresses (ARP)
251(16)
Introduction
251(1)
Protocol Addresses And Packet Delivery
252(1)
Address Resolution
252(1)
Address Resolution Techniques
253(1)
Address Resolution With Table Lookup
254(1)
Address Resolution With Closed-Form Computation
255(1)
Address Resolution With Message Exchange
256(1)
Address Resolution Protocol
257(1)
ARP Message Delivery
258(1)
ARP Message Format
259(1)
Sending An ARP Message
260(1)
Identifying ARP Frames
261(1)
Caching ARP Responses
261(1)
Processing An Incoming ARP Message
262(1)
Layering, Address Resolution, Protocol Addresses
263(1)
Summary
264(3)
IP Datagrams And Datagram Forwarding
267(10)
Introduction
267(1)
Connectionless Service
267(1)
Virtual Packets
268(1)
The IP Datagram
269(1)
Forwarding An IP Datagram
270(1)
IP Addresses And Routing Table Entries
271(1)
The Mask Field And Datagram Forwarding
272(1)
Destination And Next-Hop Addresses
272(1)
Best-Effort Delivery
273(1)
The IP Datagram Header Format
274(1)
Summary
275(2)
IP Encapsulation, Fragmentation, And Reassembly
277(10)
Introduction
277(1)
Datagram Transmission And Frames
277(1)
Encapsulation
278(1)
Transmission Across An Internet
279(1)
MTU, Datagram Size, And Encapsulation
280(2)
Reassembly
282(1)
Identifying A Datagram
282(1)
Fragment Loss
283(1)
Fragmenting A Fragment
283(1)
Summary
284(3)
The Future IP (IPv6)
287(12)
Introduction
287(1)
The Success Of IP
287(1)
The Motivation For Change
288(1)
A Name And A Version Number
289(1)
Characterization Of Features In IPv6
289(1)
IPv6 Datagram Format
290(1)
IPv6 Base Header Format
290(2)
How IPv6 Handles Multiple Headers
292(1)
Fragmentation, Reassembly, And Path MTU
293(1)
The Purpose Of Multiple Headers
294(1)
IPv6 Addressing
295(1)
IPv6 Colon Hexadecimal Notation
296(1)
Summary
296(3)
An Error Reporting Mechanism (ICMP)
299(10)
Introduction
299(1)
Best-Effort Semantics And Error Detection
299(1)
Internet Control Message Protocol
300(3)
ICMP Message Transport
303(1)
Using ICMP Messages To Test Reachability
304(1)
Using ICMP To Trace A Route
304(1)
Using ICMP For Path MTU Discovery
305(1)
Summary
306(3)
TCP: Reliable Transport Service
309(14)
Introduction
309(1)
The Need For Reliable Transport
309(1)
The Transmission Control Protocol
310(1)
The Service TCP Provides To Applications
310(1)
End-To-End Service And Datagrams
311(1)
Achieving Reliability
312(1)
Packet Loss And Retransmission
313(1)
Adaptive Retransmission
314(1)
Comparison Of Retransmission Times
315(1)
Buffers, Flow Control, And Windows
315(2)
Three-Way Handshake
317(1)
Congestion Control
318(1)
TCP Segment Format
318(1)
Summary
319(4)
PART IV Network Applications
Client-Server Interaction
323(14)
Introduction
323(1)
The Functionality Application Software Provides
324(1)
The Functionality An Internet Provides
324(1)
Making Contact
325(1)
The Client-Server Paradigm
325(1)
Characteristics Of Clients And Servers
325(1)
Server Programs And Server-Class Computers
326(1)
Requests, Responses, And Direction Of Data Flow
326(1)
Transport Protocols and Client-Server Interaction
327(1)
Multiple Services On One Computer
328(1)
Identifying A Particular Service
329(1)
Multiple Copies Of A Server For A Single Service
329(1)
Dynamic Server Creation
330(1)
Transport Protocols And Unambiguous Communication
330(1)
Connection-Oriented And Connectionless Transport
331(1)
A Service Reachable Through Multiple Protocols
331(1)
Complex Client-Server Interactions
332(1)
Interactions And Circular Dependencies
333(1)
Summary
333(4)
The Socket Interface
337(14)
Introduction
337(1)
Application Program Interface
337(1)
The Socket API
338(1)
Sockets And Socket Libraries
338(1)
Socket Communication And UNIX I/O
339(1)
Sockets, Descriptors, And Network I/O
340(1)
Parameters And The Socket API
340(1)
Procedures That Implement The Socket API
341(6)
Read And Write With Sockets
347(1)
Other Socket Procedures
347(1)
Sockets, Threads, And Inheritance
348(1)
Summary
348(3)
Example Of A Client And A Server
351(14)
Introduction
351(1)
Connection-Oriented Communication
351(1)
An Example Service
352(1)
Command-Line Arguments For The Example Programs
352(1)
Sequence Of Socket Procedure Calls
352(2)
Code For Example Client
354(3)
Code For Example Server
357(2)
Stream Service And Multiple Recv Calls
359(1)
Socket Procedures And Blocking
360(1)
Size Of The Code And Error Reporting
360(1)
Using The Example Client With Another Service
361(1)
Using Another Client To Test The Server
361(1)
Summary
362(3)
Naming With The Domain Name System
365(16)
Introduction
365(1)
Structure Of Computer Names
366(2)
Geographic Structure
368(1)
Domain Names Within An Organization
368(2)
The DNS Client-Server Model
370(1)
The DNS Server Hierarchy
370(1)
Server Architectures
371(2)
Locality Of Reference And Multiple Servers
373(1)
Links Among Servers
373(1)
Resolving A Name
373(2)
Optimization Of DNS Performance
375(1)
Types Of DNS Entries
376(1)
Aliases Using The CNAME Type
376(1)
An Important Consequence Of Multiple Types
377(1)
Abbreviations And The DNS
377(1)
Summary
378(3)
Electronic Mail Representation And Transfer
381(16)
Introduction
381(1)
The Electronic Mail Paradigm
381(1)
Electronic Mailboxes And Addresses
382(1)
Electronic Mail Message Format
383(2)
Carbon Copies
385(1)
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
385(2)
E-mail And Application Programs
387(1)
Mail Transfer
387(1)
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
388(1)
Optimizing For Multiple Recipients On A Computer
388(1)
Mail Exploders, Lists, And Forwarders
388(1)
Mail Gateways
389(1)
Automated Mailing Lists
390(1)
Mail Relays And E-mail Addresses
391(1)
Mailbox Access
392(1)
Dialup Connections And POP
393(1)
Summary
394(3)
File Transfer And Remote File Access
397(20)
Introduction
397(1)
Data Transfer And Distributed Computation
397(1)
Saving Intermediate Results
398(1)
Generalized File Transfer
398(1)
Interactive And Batch Transfer Paradigms
399(1)
The File Transfer Protocol
400(1)
FTP General Model And User Interface
400(1)
FTP Commands
401(1)
Connections, Authorization, And File Permissions
402(1)
Anonymous File Access
403(1)
File Transfer In Either Direction
403(1)
Wildcard Expansion In File Names
404(1)
File Name Translation
404(1)
Changing Directories And Listing Contents
404(1)
File Types And Transfer Modes
405(1)
Example Of Using FTP
406(4)
Verbose Output
410(1)
Client-Server Interaction In FTP
410(1)
Control And Data Connections
410(1)
Data Connections And End Of File
411(1)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
412(1)
Network File System
412(1)
Summary
413(4)
World Wide Web Pages And Browsing
417(16)
Introduction
417(1)
Browser Interface
417(1)
Hypertext And Hypermedia
418(1)
Document Representation
418(1)
HTML Format And Representation
419(2)
Example HTML Formatting Tags
421(1)
Headings
421(1)
Lists
422(1)
Embedding Graphics Images In A Web Page
422(1)
Identifying A Page
423(1)
Hypertext Links From One Document To Another
424(1)
Client-Server Interaction
425(1)
Web Document Transport And HTTP
426(1)
Browser Architecture
426(1)
Optional Clients
427(1)
Caching In Web Browsers
428(1)
Summary
429(4)
CGI Technology For Dynamic Web Documents
433(16)
Introduction
433(1)
Three Basic Types of Web Documents
434(1)
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Each Document Type
434(2)
Implementation Of Dynamic Documents
436(1)
The CGI Standard
437(1)
Output From A CGI Program
437(1)
An Example CGI Program
438(2)
Parameters And Environment Variables
440(1)
State Information
441(1)
A CGI Script With Long-Term State Information
441(2)
A CGI Script With Short-Term State Information
443(3)
Forms And Interaction
446(1)
Summary
446(3)
Java Technology For Active Web Documents
449(20)
Introduction
449(1)
An Early Form Of Continuous Update
450(1)
Active Documents And Server Overhead
451(1)
Active Document Representation And Translation
451(2)
Java Technology
453(1)
The Java Programming Language
453(2)
The Java Run-Time Environment
455(1)
The Java Library
456(1)
A Graphics Toolkit
457(1)
Using Java Graphics On A Particular Computer
458(1)
Java Interpreters And Browsers
459(1)
Compiling A Java Program
459(1)
An Example Applet
460(2)
Invoking An Applet
462(1)
Example Of Interaction With A Browser
463(2)
Errors And Exception Handling
465(1)
Alternatives And Variations
465(1)
Summary
466(3)
RPC and Middleware
469(12)
Introduction
469(1)
Programming Clients And Servers
469(1)
Remote Procedure Call Paradigm
470(2)
RPC Paradigm
472(2)
Communication Stubs
474(1)
External Data Representation
475(1)
Middleware And Object-Oriented Middleware
476(2)
Summary
478(3)
Network Management (SNMP)
481(8)
Introduction
481(1)
Managing An Internet
481(1)
The Danger Of Hidden Failures
482(1)
Network Management Software
483(1)
Clients, Servers, Managers, And Agents
483(1)
Simple Network Management Protocol
484(1)
Fetch-Store Paradigm
484(1)
The MIB And Object Names
485(1)
The Variety Of MIB Variables
486(1)
MIB Variables That Correspond To Arrays
486(1)
Summary
487(2)
Network Security
489(10)
Introduction
489(1)
Secure Networks And Policies
489(1)
Aspects Of Security
490(1)
Responsibility And Control
491(1)
Integrity Mechanisms
491(1)
Access Control And Passwords
492(1)
Encryption And Privacy
492(1)
Public Key Encryption
493(1)
Authentication With Digital Signatures
493(1)
Packet Filtering
494(2)
Internet Firewall Concept
496(1)
Summary
497(2)
Initialization (Configuration)
499(14)
Introduction
499(1)
Bootstrapping
499(1)
Starting Protocol Software
500(1)
Protocol Parameters
500(1)
Protocol Configuration
501(1)
Examples Of Items That Need To Be Configured
501(1)
Example Configuration: Using A Disk File
502(1)
The Need To Automate Protocol Configuration
503(1)
Methods For Automated Protocol Configuration
503(1)
The Address Used To Find An Address
504(1)
A Sequence Of Protocols Used During Bootstrap
505(1)
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
505(2)
Automatic Address Assignment
507(1)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
508(1)
Optimizations In DHCP
509(1)
DHCP Message Format
509(1)
DHCP And Domain Names
510(1)
Summary
511(2)
Appendix 1 Glossary Of Networking Terms And Abbreviations 513(32)
Appendix 2 The ASCII Character Set 545(2)
Appendix 3 How To Use The CD-ROM Included With This Book 547(6)
Bibliography 553(10)
Index 563


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