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Computer Organization and Architecture,9780132936330
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Computer Organization and Architecture

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Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780132936330

ISBN10:
013293633X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/1/2012
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $175.80

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Summary

For undergraduates and professionals in computer science, computer engineering, and electrical engineering courses.

Learn the fundamentals of processor and computer design from the newest edition of this award-winning text.

Four-time winner of the best Computer Science and Engineering textbook of the year award from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association, Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance provides a thorough discussion of the fundamentals of computer organization and architecture, covering not just processor design, but memory, I/O, and parallel systems.Coverage is supported by a wealth of concrete examples emphasizing modern systems.

Author Biography

Dr. William Stallings has authored 17 titles, and counting revised editions, over 40 books on computer security, computer networking, and computer architecture. In over 20 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. Currently he is an independent consultant whose clients include computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions. He has nine times received the award for the best Computer Science textbook of the year from the Text and Academic Authors Association.

He created and maintains the Computer Science Student Resource Site at ComputerScienceStudent.com. This site provides documents and links on a variety of subjects of general interest to computer science students (and professionals). He is a member of the editorial board of Cryptologia , a scholarly journal devoted to all aspects of cryptology.

Table of Contents

Online Resources xi
Preface xiii
About the Author xxi
Chapter 0 Reader’s and Instructor’s Guide 1
0.1 Outline of the Book 2
0.2 A Roadmap for Readers and Instructors 2
0.3 Why Study Computer Organization and Architecture? 3
0.4 Internet and Web Resources 5
Part One Overview 6
Chapter 1 Introduction 6
1.1 Organization and Architecture 7
1.2 Structure and Function 8
1.3 Key Terms and Review Questions 14
Chapter 2 Computer Evolution and Performance 15
2.1 A Brief History of Computers 16
2.2 Designing for Performance 37
2.3 Multicore, MICs, and GPGPUs 43
2.4 The Evolution of the Intel x86 Architecture 44
2.5 Embedded Systems and the Arm 45
2.6 Performance Assessment 49
2.7 Recommended Reading 59
2.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 60
Part Two The Computer System 65
Chapter 3 A Top-Level View of Computer Function and Interconnection 65
3.1 Computer Components 66
3.2 Computer Function 68
3.3 Interconnection Structures 84
3.4 Bus Interconnection 85
3.5 Point-To-Point Interconnect 93
3.6 PCI Express 98
3.7 Recommended Reading 108
3.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 108
Chapter 4 Cache Memory 112
4.1 Computer Memory System Overview 113
4.2 Cache Memory Principles 120
4.3 Elements of Cache Design 123
4.4 Pentium 4 Cache Organization 141
4.5 Arm Cache Organization 144
4.6 Recommended Reading 146
4.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 147
Appendix 4A Performance Characteristics of Two-Level Memories 152
Chapter 5 Internal Memory 159
5.1 Semiconductor Main Memory 160
5.2 Error Correction 170
5.3 Advanced Dram Organization 174
5.4 Recommended Reading 180
5.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 181
Chapter 6 External Memory 185
6.1 Magnetic Disk 186
6.2 Raid 195
6.3 Solid State Drives 205
6.4 Optical Memory 210
6.5 Magnetic Tape 215
6.6 Recommended Reading 217
6.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 218
Chapter 7 Input/Output 221
7.1 External Devices 223
7.2 I/O Modules 226
7.3 Programmed I/O 228
7.4 Interrupt-Driven I/O 232
7.5 Direct Memory Access 240
7.6 I/O Channels and Processors 246
7.7 The External Interface: Thunderbolt and Infiniband 248
7.8 IBM zEnterprise 196 I/O Structure 256
7.9 Recommended Reading 260
7.10 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 260
Chapter 8 Operating System Support 265
8.1 Operating System Overview 266
8.2 Scheduling 277
8.3 Memory Management 283
8.4 Pentium Memory Management 294
8.5 ARM Memory Management 299
8.6 Recommended Reading 304
8.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 304
Part three Arithmetic and Logic 309
Chapter 9 Number Systems 309
9.1 The Decimal System 310
9.2 Positional Number Systems 311
9.3 The Binary System 312
9.4 Converting Between Binary and Decimal 312
9.5 Hexadecimal Notation 315
9.6 Recommended Reading 317
9.7 Key Terms and Problems 317
Chapter 10 Computer Arithmetic 319
10.1 The Arithmetic and Logic Unit 320
10.2 Integer Representation 321
10.3 Integer Arithmetic 326
10.4 Floating-Point Representation 341
10.5 Floating-Point Arithmetic 349
10.6 Recommended Reading 358
10.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 359
Chapter 11 Digital Logic 364
11.1 Boolean Algebra 365
11.2 Gates 368
11.3 Combinational Circuits 370
11.4 Sequential Circuits 388
11.5 Programmable Logic Devices 397
11.6 Recommended Reading 401
11.7 Key Terms and Problems 401
Part Four The Central Processing Unit 405
Chapter 12 Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions 405
12.1 Machine Instruction Characteristics 406
12.2 Types of Operands 413
12.3 Intel x86 and Arm Data Types 415
12.4 Types of Operations 418
12.5 Intel x86 and ARM Operation Types 431
12.6 Recommended Reading 441
12.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 441
Appendix 12A Little-, Big-, and Bi-Endian 447
Chapter 13 Instruction Sets: Addressing Modes and Formats 451
13.1 Addressing Modes 452
13.2 x86 and ARM Addressing Modes 459
13.3 Instruction Formats 464
13.4 x86 and ARM Instruction Formats 473
13.5 Assembly Language 477
13.6 Recommended Reading 479
13.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 479
Chapter 14 Processor Structure and Function 483
14.1 Processor Organization 484
14.2 Register Organization 486
14.3 Instruction Cycle 491
14.4 Instruction Pipelining 495
14.5 The x86 Processor Family 512
14.6 The Arm Processor 520
14.7 Recommended Reading 526
14.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 527
Chapter 15 Reduced Instruction Set Computers 531
15.1 Instruction Execution Characteristics 533
15.2 The Use of a Large Register File 538
15.3 Compiler-Based Register Optimization 543
15.4 Reduced Instruction Set Architecture 545
15.5 RISC Pipelining 551
15.6 MIPS R4000 556
15.7 Sparc 562
15.8 RISC Versus CISC Controversy 568
15.9 Recommended Reading 569
15.10 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 569
Chapter 16 Instruction-Level Parallelism and Superscalar Processors 573
16.1 Overview 574
16.2 Design Issues 579
16.3 Pentium 4 589
16.4 Arm Cortex-A8 595
16.5 Recommended Reading 603
16.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 605
Part Five Parallel Organization 611
Chapter 17 Parallel Processing 611
17.1 Multiple Processor Organizations 613
17.2 Symmetric Multiprocessors 615
17.3 Cache Coherence and the MESI Protocol 619
17.4 Multithreading and Chip Multiprocessors 626
17.5 Clusters 633
17.6 Nonuniform Memory Access 640
17.7 Vector Computation 644
17.8 Recommended Reading 656
17.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 657
Chapter 18 Multicore Computers 664
18.1 Hardware Performance Issues 665
18.2 Software Performance Issues 669
18.3 Multicore Organization 674
18.4 Intel x86 Multicore Organization 676
18.5 ARM11 MPCore 679
18.6 Ibm zEnterprise 196 Mainframe 684
18.7 Recommended Reading 687
18.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 687
Appendix A Projects for Teaching Computer Organization
and Architecture 691
A.1 Interactive Simulations 692
A.2 Research Projects 694
A.3 Simulation Projects 694
A.4 Assembly Language Projects 695
A.5 Reading/Report Assignments 696
A.6 Writing Assignments 696
A.7 Test Bank 696
Appendix B Assembly Language and Related Topics 697
B.1 Assembly Language 698
B.2 Assemblers 706
B.3 Loading and Linking 710
B.4 Recommended Reading 718
B.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 719
Online Chapters1
Part Six The Control Unit 19-1
Chapter 19 Control Unit Operation 19-1
19.1 Micro-operations 19-3
19.2 Control of the Processor 19-13
19.3 Hardwired Implementation 19-30
19.4 Recommended Reading 19-35
19.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 19-35
Chapter 20 Microprogrammed Control 20-1
20.1 Basic Concepts 20-3
20.2 Microinstruction Sequencing 20-16
20.3 Microinstruction Execution 20-26
20.4 TI 8800 20-45
20.5 Recommended Reading 20-59
20.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 20-60

Online Appendices - NOTE:
Online chapters, appendices, and other documents are Premium Content, available via the access card
at the front of new copies of the book.
Appendix C Hash Tables
Appendix D Victim Cache Strategies
D.1 Victim Cache
D.2 Selective Victim Cache
Appendix E Interleaved Memory
Appendix F The International Reference Alphabet
Appendix G Virtual Memory Page Replacement Algorithms
G.1 Optimal
G.2 Least Recently Used
G.3 First-In-First-Out
G.4 Other Page Replacement Algorithms
Appendix H Recursive Procedures
H.1 Recursion
H.2 Activation Tree Representation
H.3 Stack Processing
H.4 Recursion and Iteration
Appendix I Additional Instruction Pipeline Topics
I.1 Pipeline Reservation Tables
I.2 Reorder Buffers
I.3 Tomasulo’s Algorithm
I.4 Scoreboarding
Appendix J Linear Tape Open Technology
J.1 LTO Generations
J.2 LTO Format
J.3 LTO Operation
Appendix K DDR SRAM
Appendix L Protocols and Protocol Architectures
L.1 Introduction
L.2 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
L.3 The Role of an Internet Protocol
L.4 IPv4
L.5 IPv6
L.6 The OSI Protocol Architecture
Appendix M Scrambling
Appendix N Timing Diagrams
Appendix O Stacks
O.1 Stack Structure
O.2 Stack Implementation
O.3 Expression Evaluation
Glossary 723
References 733
Index 745



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