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Concepts of Genetics and Student Companion Website Access Card Package

by ; ; ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780131699441

ISBN10:
013169944X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
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Summary

For one or two term courses in genetics in the departments of Biology, Zoology, Agriculture or Health Science.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiv
Part One Genes, Chromosomes, and Heredity
Introduction to Genetics
1(16)
From Mendel to DNA in Less Than a Century
2(3)
Mendel's Work on Transmission of Traits
2(1)
The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Uniting Mendel and Meiosis
3(1)
Genetic Variation
4(1)
The Search for the Chemical Nature of Genes: DNA or Protein?
4(1)
Discovery of the Double Helix Launched the Recombinant DNA Era
5(2)
The Structure of DNA and RNA
5(1)
Gene Expression: From DNA to Phenotype
5(1)
Proteins and Biological Function
6(1)
Linking Genotype to Phenotype: Sickle-Cell Anemia
6(1)
Genomics Grew Out of Recombinant DNA Technology
7(2)
Making Recombinant DNA Molecules and Cloning DNA
7(1)
Sequencing Genomes: The Human Genome Project
8(1)
The Impact of Biotechnology Is Growing
9(2)
Plants, Animals, and the Food Supply
9(1)
Who Owns Transgenic Organisms?
10(1)
Biotechnology in Genetics and Medicine
10(1)
Genetic Studies Rely On the Use of Model Organisms
11(3)
The Modern Set of Genetic Model Organisms
12(1)
Model Organisms and Human Diseases
13(1)
We Live in the ``Age of Genetics''
14(3)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
14(1)
Chapter Summary
15(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
15(1)
Selected Readings
16(1)
Mitosis and Meiosis
17(22)
Cell Structure Is Closely Tied to Genetic Function
18(2)
Cell Boundaries
18(1)
The Nucleus
18(1)
The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
19(1)
In Diploid Organisms, Chromosomes Exist in Homologous Pairs
20(3)
Mitosis Partitions Chromosomes into Dividing Cells
23(4)
Interphase and the Cell Cycle
23(2)
Prophase
25(1)
Prometaphase and Metaphase
26(1)
Anaphase
26(1)
Telophase
26(1)
Meiosis Reduces the Chromosome Number from Diploid to Haploid in Germ Cells and Spores
27(4)
An Overview of Meiosis
28(1)
The First Meiotic Division: Prophase I
28(1)
Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase I
29(1)
The Second Meiotic Division
29(2)
The Development of Gametes Varies during Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
31(1)
Meiosis Is Critical to the Successful Sexual Reproduction of All Diploid Organisms
32(1)
Electron Microscopy Has Revealed the Cytological Nature of Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosomes
33(6)
Chromatin and Chromosomes
33(1)
The Synaptonemal Complex
34(1)
Chapter Summary
35(1)
Insights and Solutions
36(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
37(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
38(1)
Selected Readings
38(1)
Mendelian Genetics
39(27)
Mendel Used a Model Experimental Approach to Study Patterns of Inheritance
40(1)
The Monohybrid Cross Reveals How One Trait Is Transmitted from Generation to Generation
40(4)
Mendel's First Three Postulates
41(1)
Modern Genetic Terminology
42(1)
Mendel's Analytical Approach
42(1)
Punnett Squares
43(1)
The Testcross: One Character
43(1)
Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Revealed His Fourth Postulate: Independent Assortment
44(3)
Independent Assortment
44(3)
The Testcross: Two Characters
47(1)
The Trihybrid Cross Demonstrates That Mendel's Principles Apply to Inheritance of Multiple Traits
47(2)
The Forked-Line Method, or Branch Diagram
47(2)
Mendel's Work Was Rediscovered in the Early 20th Century
49(1)
The Correlation of Mendel's Postulates with the Behavior of Chromosomes Formed the Foundation of Modern Transmission Genetics
49(2)
Unit Factors, Genes, and Homologous Chromosomes
49(2)
Independent Assortment Leads to Extensive Genetic Variation
51(1)
Laws of Probability Help to Explain Genetic Events
51(3)
The Product Law and the Sum Law
51(1)
Conditional Probability
52(1)
The Binomial Theorem
52(2)
Chi-Square Analysis Evaluates the Influence of Chance on Genetic Data
54(2)
Interpreting Χ2 Calculations
56(1)
Pedigrees Reveal Patterns of Inheritance in Humans
56(10)
Pedigree Conventions
56(1)
Pedigree Analysis
57(2)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
59(1)
Tay--Sachs Disease: A Recessive Molecular Disorder in Humans
59(1)
Chapter Summary
59(1)
Insights and Solutions
60(2)
Problems and Discussion Questions
62(2)
Extra-Spicy Problems
64(1)
Selected Readings
65(1)
Extensions of Mendelian Genetics
66(34)
Alleles Alter Phenotypes in Different Ways
67(1)
Geneticists Use a Variety of Symbols for Alleles
68(1)
In Incomplete Dominance, Neither Allele Is Dominant
68(1)
In Codominance, the Influence of Both Alleles in a Heterozygote Is Clearly Evident
69(1)
Multiple Alleles of a Gene May Exist in a Population
70(2)
The ABO Blood Groups
70(1)
The A and B Antigens
71(1)
The Bombay Phenotype
71(1)
The white Locus in Drosophila
72(1)
Lethal Alleles Represent Essential Genes
72(2)
Dominant Lethal Mutations
73(1)
Combinations of Two Gene Pairs Involving Two Modes of Inheritance Modify the 9:3:3:1 Ratio
74(1)
Phenotypes Are Often Affected by More Than One Gene
75(5)
Epistasis
75(1)
Unique Inheritance Patterns
75(3)
Novel Phenotypes
78(1)
Other Modified Dihybrid Ratios
79(1)
Expression of a Single Gene May Have Multiple Effects
80(1)
X-Linkage Describes Genes on the X Chromosome
81(3)
X-Linkage in Drosophila
81(1)
X-Linkage in Humans
82(2)
Lesch--Nyhan Syndrome: The Molecular Basis of a Rare X-Linked Recessive Disorder
84(1)
In Sex-Limited and Sex-Influenced Inheritance, an Individual's Sex Influences the Phenotype
84(1)
Phenotypic Expression Is Not Always a Direct Reflection of the Genotype
85(15)
Penetrance and Expressivity
85(1)
Genetic Background: Suppression and Position Effects
86(1)
Temperature Effects
87(1)
Nutritional Effects
87(1)
Onset of Genetic Expression
88(1)
Genetic Anticipation
88(1)
Genomic (Parental) Imprinting
88(2)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
90(1)
Improving the Genetic Fate of Purebred Dogs
90(1)
Chapter Summary
91(1)
Insights and Solutions
91(2)
Problems and Discussion Questions
93(3)
Extra-Spicy Problems
96(3)
Selected Readings
99(1)
Chromosome Mapping in Eukaryotes
100(37)
Genes Linked on the Same Chromosome Segregate Together
101(3)
The Linkage Ratio
102(2)
Crossing Over Serves as the Basis of Determining the Distance between Genes during Chromosome Mapping
104(3)
Morgan and Crossing Over
104(1)
Sturtevant and Mapping
104(2)
Single Crossovers
106(1)
Determining the Gene Sequence during Mapping Relies on the Analysis of Multiple Crossovers
107(7)
Multiple Exchanges
107(1)
Three-Point Mapping in Drosophila
108(2)
Determining the Gene Sequence
110(1)
A Mapping Problem in Maize
111(3)
Interference Affects the Recovery of Multiple Exchanges
114(1)
As the Distance between Two Genes Increases, Mapping Experiments Become More Inaccurate
115(1)
Drosophila Genes Have Been Extensively Mapped
116(1)
Crossing Over Involves a Physical Exchange between Chromatids
117(1)
Recombination Occurs between Mitotic Chromosomes
118(2)
Exchanges Also Occur between Sister Chromatids
120(1)
Linkage Analysis and Mapping Can Be Performed in Haploid Organisms
120(6)
Gene-to-Centromere Mapping
121(2)
Ordered versus Unordered Tetrad Analysis
123(1)
Linkage and Mapping
124(2)
Lod Score Analysis and Somatic Cell Hybridization Were Historically Important in Creating Human Chromosome Maps
126(2)
Gene Mapping Is Now Possible Using Molecular Analysis of DNA
128(1)
Gene Mapping Using Annotated Computer Databases
128(1)
Did Mendel Encounter Linkage?
128(9)
Why Didn't Gregor Mendel Find Linkage?
129(1)
Chapter Summary
129(1)
Insights and Solutions
130(2)
Problems and Discussion Questions
132(3)
Extra-Spicy Problems
135(1)
Selected Readings
136(1)
Genetic Analysis and Mapping in Bacteria and Bacteriophages
137(28)
Bacteria Mutate Spontaneously and Grow at an Exponential Rate
138(1)
Conjugation Is One Means of Genetic Recombination in Bacteria
139(7)
F+ and F- Bacteria
140(1)
Hfr Bacteria and Chromosome Mapping
141(3)
Recombination in F+ x F- Matings: A Reexamination
144(1)
The F' State and Merozygotes
145(1)
Mutational Analysis Led to the Discovery of the Rec Proteins Essential to Bacterial Recombination
146(1)
F Factors Are Plasmids
146(1)
Transformation Is Another Process Leading to Genetic Recombination in Bacteria
147(1)
The Transformation Process
147(1)
Transformation and Linked Genes
147(1)
Bacteriophages Are Bacterial Viruses
148(3)
Phage T4: Structure and Life Cycle
148(1)
The Plaque Assay
149(1)
Lysogeny
150(1)
Transduction Is Virus-Mediated Bacterial DNA Transfer
151(2)
The Lederberg--Zinder Experiment
151(1)
The Nature of Transduction
152(1)
Transduction and Mapping
153(1)
Bacteriophages Undergo Intergenic Recombination
153(1)
Mapping in Bacteriophages
154(1)
Intragenic Recombination Occurs in Phage T4
154(11)
The rII Locus of Phage T4
154(1)
Complementation by rII Mutations
155(1)
Recombinational Analysis
156(1)
Deletion Testing of the rII Locus
156(1)
The rII Gene Map
157(2)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
159(1)
Bacterial Genes and Disease: From Gene Expression to Edible Vaccines
159(1)
Chapter Summary
160(1)
Insights and Solutions
160(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
161(2)
Extra-Spicy Problems
163(1)
Selected Readings
164(1)
Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes
165(22)
Sexual Differentiation and Life Cycles
166(3)
Chlamydomonas
166(1)
Zea mays
167(1)
Caenorhabditis elegans
168(1)
X and Y Chromosomes Were First Linked to Sex Determination Early in the 20th Century
169(1)
The Y Chromosome Determines Maleness in Humans
170(5)
Klinefelter and Turner Syndromes
171(1)
47, XXX Syndrome
172(1)
47, XYY Condition
172(1)
Sexual Differentiation in Humans
173(1)
The Y Chromosome and Male Development
173(2)
The Ratio of Males to Females in Humans Is Not 1.0
175(1)
Dosage Compensation Prevents Excessive Expression of X-Linked Genes in Humans and Other Mammals
175(3)
Barr Bodies
176(1)
The Lyon Hypothesis
176(2)
The Mechanism of Inactivation
178(1)
The Ratio of X Chromosomes to Sets of Autosomes Determines Sex in Drosophila
178(3)
Dosage Compensation in Drosophila
180(1)
Drosophila Mosaics
180(1)
Temperature Variation Controls Sex Determination in Reptiles
181(6)
Chapter Summary
182(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
183(1)
A Question of Gender: Sex Selection in Humans
183(1)
Insights and Solutions
184(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
184(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
185(1)
Selected Readings
186(1)
Chromosome Mutations: Variation in Chromosome Number and Arrangement
187(27)
Specific Terminology Describes Variations in Chromosome Number
188(1)
Variation in the Number of Chromosomes Results from Nondisjunction
188(1)
Monosomy, the Loss of a Single Chromosome, May Have Severe Phenotypic Effects
189(1)
Partial Monosomy in Humans: The Cri-du-Chat Syndrome
189(1)
Trisomy Involves the Addition of a Chromosome to a Diploid Genome
190(4)
Down Syndrome
191(2)
Patau Syndrome
193(1)
Edwards Syndrome
193(1)
Viability in Human Aneuploidy
193(1)
Polyploidy, in Which More Than Two Haploid Sets of Chromosomes Are Present, Is Prevalent in Plants
194(4)
Autopolyploidy
195(1)
Allopolyploidy
196(2)
Endopolyploidy
198(1)
Variation Occurs in the Structure and Arrangement of Chromosomes
198(1)
A Deletion Is a Missing Region of a Chromosome
199(1)
A Duplication Is a Repeated Segment of the Genetic Material
200(3)
Gene Redundancy and Amplification: Ribosomal RNA Genes
200(1)
The Bar-Eye Mutation in Drosophila
201(1)
The Role of Gene Duplication in Evolution
201(2)
Inversions Rearrange the Linear Gene Sequence
203(3)
Consequences of Inversions during Gamete Formation
203(1)
Position Effects of Inversions
204(1)
Evolutionary Advantages of Inversions
205(1)
Translocations Alter the Location of Chromosomal Segments in the Genome
206(2)
Translocations in Humans: Familial Down Syndrome
206(2)
Fragile Sites in Humans Are Susceptible to Chromosome Breakage
208(6)
Fragile X Syndrome (Martin--Bell Syndrome)
208(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
209(1)
The Link between Fragile Sites and Cancer
209(1)
Chapter Summary
210(1)
Insights and Solutions
210(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
211(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
212(1)
Selected Readings
213(1)
Extranuclear Inheritance
214(17)
Organelle Heredity Involves DNA in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
215(3)
Chloroplasts: Variegation in Four O'Clock Plants
215(1)
Chloroplast Mutations in Chlamydomonas
216(1)
Mitochondrial Mutations: The Case of poky in Neurospora
216(1)
Petites in Saccharomyces
217(1)
Knowledge of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast DNA Helps Explain Organelle Heredity
218(3)
Organelle DNA and the Endosymbiotic Theory
218(1)
Molecular Organization and Gene Products of Chloroplast DNA
219(1)
Molecular Organization and Gene Products of Mitochondrial DNA
220(1)
Mutations in Mitochondrial DNA Cause Human Disorders
221(1)
Infectious Heredity Is Based on a Symbiotic Relationship between Host Organism and Invader
222(2)
Kappa in Paramecium
222(2)
Infective Particles in Drosophila
224(1)
In Maternal Effect, the Maternal Genotype Has a Strong Influence during Early Development
224(7)
Ephestia Pigmentation
224(1)
Limnaea Coiling
224(1)
Embryonic Development in Drosophila
225(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
226(1)
Mitochondrial DNA and the Mystery of the Romanovs
226(1)
Chapter Summary
227(1)
Insights and Solutions
228(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
228(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
229(1)
Selected Readings
230(1)
Part Two DNA: Structure, Replication, and Variation
DNA Structure and Analysis
231(32)
The Genetic Material Must Exhibit Four Characteristics
232(1)
Until 1944, Observations Favored Protein as the Genetic Material
233(1)
Evidence Favoring DNA as the Genetic Material Was First Obtained during the Study of Bacteria and Bacteriophages
233(6)
Transformation: Early Studies
233(2)
Transformation: The Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty Experiment
235(1)
The Hershey--Chase Experiment
236(3)
Transfection Experiments
239(1)
Indirect and Direct Evidence Supports the Concept that DNA Is the Genetic Material in Eukaryotes
239(1)
Indirect Evidence: Distribution of DNA
239(1)
Indirect Evidence: Mutagenesis
239(1)
Direct Evidence: Recombinant DNA Studies
240(1)
RNA Serves as the Genetic Material in Some Viruses
240(1)
Knowledge of Nucleic Acid Chemistry Is Essential to the Understanding of DNA Structure
241(2)
Nucleotides: Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids
241(2)
Nucleoside Diphosphates and Triphosphates
243(1)
Polynucleotides
243(1)
The Structure of DNA Holds the Key to Understanding Its Function
243(5)
Base Composition Studies
244(1)
X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
245(1)
The Watson--Crick Model
245(3)
Alternative Forms of DNA Exist
248(1)
The Structure of RNA Is Chemically Similar to DNA, but Single Stranded
249(2)
Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
250(1)
Many Analytical Techniques Have Been Useful during the Investigation of DNA and RNA
251(12)
Absorption of Ultraviolet Light (UV)
251(1)
Sedimentation Behavior
251(2)
Denaturation and Renaturation of Nucleic Acids
253(1)
Molecular Hybridization
254(1)
Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH)
255(1)
Reassociation Kinetics and Repetitive DNA
255(2)
Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids
257(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
258(1)
The Twists and Turns of the Helical Revolution
258(1)
Chapter Summary
259(1)
Insights and Solutions
259(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
260(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
261(1)
Selected Readings
262(1)
DNA Replication and Recombination
263(23)
DNA Is Reproduced by Semiconservative Replication
264(4)
The Meselson--Stahl Experiment
265(1)
Semiconservative Replication in Eukaryotes
266(1)
Origins, Forks, and Units of Replication
266(2)
DNA Synthesis in Bacteria Involves Five Polymerases, as well as Other Enzymes
268(3)
DNA Polymerase I
268(1)
Synthesis of Biologically Active DNA
269(1)
DNA Polymerase II, III, IV, and V
270(1)
Many Complex Issues Must Be Resolved during DNA Replication
271(1)
The DNA Helix Must Be Unwound
271(1)
Initiation of DNA Synthesis Requires an RNA Primer
272(1)
Antiparallel Strands Require Continuous and Discontinuous DNA Synthesis
272(1)
Concurrent Synthesis Occurs on the Leading and Lagging Strands
273(1)
Proofreading and Error Correction Are an Integral Part of DNA Replication
273(1)
A Coherent Model Summarizes DNA Replication
273(1)
Replication Is Controlled by a Variety of Genes
274(1)
Eukaryotic DNA Synthesis Is Similar to Synthesis in Prokaryotes, but More Complex
275(1)
Multiple Replication Origins
275(1)
Eukaryotic DNA Polymerases
275(1)
The Ends of Linear Chromosomes Are Problematic during Replication
276(2)
DNA Recombination, Like DNA Replication, Is Directed by Specific Enzymes
278(1)
Gene Conversion Is a Consequence of DNA Recombination
279(7)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
281(1)
Telomerase: The Key to Immortality?
281(1)
Chapter Summary
282(1)
Insights and Solutions
282(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
283(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
284(1)
Selected Readings
285(1)
DNA Organization in Chromosomes
286(20)
Viral and Bacterial Chromosomes Are Relatively Simple DNA Molecules
287(2)
Supercoiling Is Common in the DNA of Viral and Bacterial Chromosomes
289(1)
Specialized Chromosomes Reveal Variations in Structure
290(2)
Polytene Chromosomes
290(1)
Lampbrush Chromosomes
291(1)
DNA Is Organized into Chromatin in Eukaryotes
292(4)
Chromatin Structure and Nucleosomes
292(2)
High Resolution Studies of the Nucleosome Core
294(1)
Heterochromatin
295(1)
Chromosome Banding Differentiates Regions along the Mitotic Chromosome
296(1)
Eukaryotic Chromosomes Demonstrate Complex Organization Characterized by Repetitive DNA
297(4)
Repetitive DNA and Satellite DNA
297(1)
Centromeric DNA Sequences
298(1)
Telomeric DNA Sequences
299(1)
Middle Repetitive Sequences: VNTRs and Dinucleotide Repeats
300(1)
Repetitive Transposed Sequences: SINES and LINES
300(1)
Middle Repetitive Multiple-Copy Genes
301(1)
The Vast Majority of a Eukaryotic Genome Does Not Encode Functional Genes
301(5)
Chapter Summary
301(1)
Insights and Solutions
302(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
302(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
303(2)
Selected Readings
305(1)
Part Three Expression and Regulation of Genetic Information
The Genetic Code and Transcription
306(28)
The Genetic Code Exhibits a Number of Characteristics
307(1)
Early Studies Established the Basic Operational Patterns of the Code
307(2)
The Triplet Nature of the Code
308(1)
The Nonoverlapping Nature of the Code
308(1)
The Commaless and Degenerate Nature of the Code
309(1)
Studies by Nirenberg, Matthaei, and Others Led to Deciphering of the Code
309(4)
Synthesizing Polypeptides in a Cell-Free System
309(1)
Homopolymer Codes
310(1)
Mixed Copolymers
310(1)
The Triplet Binding Assay
311(1)
Repeating Copolymers
312(1)
The Coding Dictionary Reveals Several Interesting Patterns among the 64 Codons
313(2)
Degeneracy and the Wobble Hypothesis
313(1)
The Ordered Nature of the Code
314(1)
Initiation, Termination, and Suppression
314(1)
The Genetic Code Has Been Confirmed in Studies of Phage MS2
315(1)
The Genetic Code Is Nearly Universal
315(1)
Different Initiation Points Create Overlapping Genes
316(1)
Transcription Synthesizes RNA on a DNA Template
317(1)
Studies with Bacteria and Phages Provided Evidence for the Existence of mRNA
317(1)
RNA Polymerase Directs RNA Synthesis
318(2)
Promoters, Template Binding, and the Sigma Subunit
318(1)
Initiation, Elongation, and Termination of RNA Synthesis
319(1)
Transcription in Eukaryotes Differs from Prokaryotic Transcription in Several Ways
320(3)
Initiation of Transcription in Eukaryotes
320(1)
Recent Discoveries Concerning RNA Polymerase Function
321(1)
Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA and Its Processing: Caps and Tails
322(1)
The Coding Regions of Eukaryotic Genes Are Interrupted by Intervening Sequences
323(3)
Splicing Mechanisms: Autocatalytic RNAs
324(1)
Splicing Mechanisms: The Spliceosome
325(1)
RNA Editing
326(1)
Transcription Has Been Visualized by Electron Microscopy
326(8)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
328(1)
Antisense Oligonucleotides: Attacking the Messenger
328(1)
Chapter Summary
329(1)
Insights and Solutions
329(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
330(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
331(2)
Selected Readings
333(1)
Translation and Proteins
334(27)
Translation of mRNA Depends on Ribosomes and Transfer RNAs
335(3)
Ribosomal Structure
335(1)
tRNA Structure
336(1)
Charging tRNA
337(1)
Translation of mRNA Can Be Divided into Three Steps
338(4)
Initiation
338(1)
Elongation
339(1)
Termination
340(1)
Polyribosomes
341(1)
Crystallographic Analysis Has Revealed Many Details about the Functional Prokaryotic Ribosome
342(1)
Translation Is More Complex in Eukaryotes
342(1)
The Initial Insight That Proteins Are Important in Heredity Was Provided by the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism
343(1)
Phenylketonuria
344(1)
Studies of Neurospora Led to the One-Gene: One-Enzyme Hypothesis
344(2)
Analysis of Neurospora Mutants by Beadle and Tatum
344(2)
Genes and Enzymes: Analysis of Biochemical Pathways
346(1)
Studies of Human Hemoglobin Established That One Gene Encodes One Polypeptide
346(3)
Sickle-Cell Anemia
347(1)
Human Hemoglobins
348(1)
The Nucleotide Sequence of a Gene and the Amino Acid Sequence of the Corresponding Protein Exhibit Colinearity
349(1)
Protein Structure Is the Basis of Biological Diversity
349(4)
Posttranslational Modification
352(1)
Protein Function Is Directly Related to the Structure of the Molecule
353(1)
Proteins Are Made Up of One or More Functional Domains
354(7)
Exon Shuffling and the Origin of Protein Domains
354(2)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
356(1)
Mad Cow Disease: The Prion Story
356(1)
Chapter Summary
357(1)
Insights and Solutions
357(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
357(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
358(2)
Selected Readings
360(1)
Gene Mutation, DNA Repair, and Transposition
361(31)
Mutations Are Classified in Various Ways
362(3)
Spontaneous, Induced, and Adaptive Mutations
362(1)
Classification Based on Location of Mutation
363(1)
Classification Based on Type of Molecular Change
364(1)
Classification Based on Phenotypic Effects
364(1)
The Spontaneous Mutation Rate Varies Greatly among Organisms
365(1)
Deleterious Mutations in Humans
365(1)
Spontaneous Mutations Arise from Replication Errors and Base Modifications
366(3)
DNA Replication Errors
366(1)
Replication Slippage
366(1)
The Odds of Losing at Genetic Roulette
367(1)
Tautomeric Shifts
368(1)
Depurination and Deamination
368(1)
Oxidative Damage
369(1)
Transposons
369(1)
Induced Mutations Arise from DNA Damage Caused by Chemicals and Radiation
369(3)
Base Analogs
370(1)
Alkylating Agents
370(1)
Acridine Dyes and Frameshift Mutations
370(1)
Ultraviolet Light and Thymine Dimers
371(1)
Ionizing Radiation
372(1)
Genomics and Gene Sequencing Have Enhanced Our Understanding of Mutations in Humans
372(3)
ABO Blood Types
373(1)
Muscular Dystrophy
373(1)
Trinucleotide Repeats in Fragile X Syndrome, Myotonic Dystrophy, and Huntington Disease
373(2)
Genetic Techniques, Cell Cultures, and Pedigree Analysis Are All Used to Detect Mutations
375(2)
Detection in Bacteria and Fungi
375(1)
Detection in Plants
375(1)
Detection in Humans
375(2)
The Ames Test Is Used to Assess the Mutagenicity of Compounds
377(1)
Organisms Use DNA Repair Systems to Counteract Mutations
377(5)
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
377(1)
Postreplication Repair and the SOS Repair System
378(1)
Photoreactivation Repair: Reversal of UV Damage in Prokaryotes
379(1)
Base and Nucleotide Excision Repair
379(1)
Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Nucleotide Excision Repair in Humans
380(1)
Double-Strand Break Repair in Eukaryotes
381(1)
Transposable Elements Move within the Genome and May Disrupt Genetic Function
382(10)
Insertion Sequences
382(1)
Bacterial Transposons
382(1)
The Ac--Ds System in Maize
383(1)
Mobile Genetic Elements and Wrinkled Peas: Mendel Revisited
384(1)
Copia Elements in Drosophila
385(1)
P Element Transposons in Drosophila
385(1)
Transposable Elements in Humans
386(1)
Chapter Summary
386(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
387(1)
Chernobyl's Legacy
387(1)
Insights and Solutions
388(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
389(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
390(1)
Selected Readings
391(1)
Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes
392(19)
Prokaryotes Exhibit Efficient Genetic Mechanisms to Respond to Environmental Conditions
393(1)
Lactose Metabolism in E. coli Is Regulated by an Inducible System
393(5)
Structural Genes
394(1)
The Discovery of Regulatory Mutations
394(1)
The Operon Model: Negative Control
395(1)
Genetic Proof of the Operon Model
395(2)
Isolation of the Repressor
397(1)
The Catabolite-Activating Protein (CAP) Exerts Positive Control over the lac Operon
398(1)
Crystal Structure Analysis of Repressor Complexes Has Confirmed the Operon Model
399(2)
The tryptophan (trp) Operon in E. coli Is a Repressible Gene System
401(1)
Evidence for the trp Operon
401(1)
Attenuation Is a Critical Process during the Regulation of the trp Operon in E. coli
402(1)
TRAP and AT Proteins Govern Attenuation in B. subtilis
403(1)
The ara Operon Is Controlled by a Regulator Protein That Exerts Both Positive and Negative Control
404(7)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
406(1)
Quorum Sensing: How Bacteria Talk to One Another
406(1)
Chapter Summary
407(1)
Insights and Solutions
407(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
408(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
409(1)
Selected Readings
410(1)
Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
411(23)
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Differs from Regulation in Prokaryotes
412(1)
Chromosome Organization in the Nucleus Influences Gene Expression
412(1)
Transcription Initiation Is a Major Form of Gene Regulation
413(2)
Promoters Have a Modular Organization
413(1)
Enhancers Control the Rate of Transcription
414(1)
Transcription in Eukaryotes Requires Several Steps
415(2)
Transcription Requires Chromatin Remodeling
415(1)
Histone Modification Is Part of Chromatin Remodeling
416(1)
Assembly of the Basal Transcription Complex Occurs at the Promoter
417(3)
RNA Polymerases and Transcription
417(1)
Formation of the Transcription Initiation Complex
417(1)
Activators Bind to Enhancers and Change the Rate of Transcription Initiation
418(2)
Gene Regulation in a Model Organism: Positive Induction and Catabolite Repression in the gal Genes of Yeast
420(2)
DNA Methylation and Regulation of Gene Expression
422(1)
Posttranscriptional Regulation of Gene Expression
423(3)
Alternative Splicing Pathways for mRNA
423(1)
Alternative Splicing and Cell Function
423(2)
Alternative Splicing Amplifies the Number of Proteins Produced by a Genome
425(1)
RNA Silencing of Gene Expression
425(1)
Alternative Splicing and mRNA Stability Also Regulate Gene Expression
426(8)
Sex Determination in Drosophila: A Model for Regulation of Alternative Splicing
426(1)
Controlling mRNA Stability
427(1)
Chapter Summary
428(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
429(1)
Human Genetic Diseases and Loss of Gene Regulation
429(1)
Insights and Solutions
430(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
430(2)
Extra-Spicy Problems
432(1)
Selected Readings
433(1)
Cell Cycle Regulation and Cancer
434(23)
Cancer Is a Genetic Disease
435(2)
What Is Cancer?
436(1)
The Clonal Origin of Cancer Cells
436(1)
Cancer As a Multistep Process, Requiring Multiple Mutations
436(1)
Cancer Cells Contain Genetic Defects Affecting Genomic Stability and DNA Repair
437(2)
Cancer Cells Contain Genetic Defects Affecting Cell Cycle Regulation
439(3)
The Cell Cycle and Signal Transduction
439(1)
Cell Cycle Control and Checkpoints
440(2)
Many Cancer-Causing Genes Disrupt Control of the Cell Cycle
442(4)
The Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E Proto-oncogenes
443(1)
The ras Proto-oncogenes
443(1)
The p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene
444(1)
The RB1 Tumor Suppressor Gene
445(1)
Cancer Is a Genetic Disorder Affecting Cell--Cell Contact
446(1)
Predisposition to Some Cancers Can Be Inherited
447(2)
Viruses Contribute to Cancer in Both Humans and Animals
449(2)
Environmental Agents Contribute to Human Cancers
451(6)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
452(1)
Breast Cancer: The Double-Edged Sword of Genetic Testing
452(1)
Chapter Summary
453(1)
Insights and Solutions
453(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
454(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
455(1)
Selected Readings
456(1)
Part Four Genomic Analysis
Recombinant DNA Technology
457(27)
Recombinant DNA Technology Combines Several Experimental Techniques
458(1)
Recombinant DNA Technology Is the Foundation of Genome Analysis
458(1)
Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA at Specific Recognition Sequences
458(2)
Vectors Carry DNA Molecules to Be Cloned
460(3)
Plasmid Vectors
460(1)
Lambda (λ) Phage Vectors
461(1)
Cosmid Vectors
462(1)
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes
462(1)
Expression Vectors
463(1)
DNA Was First Cloned in Prokaryotic Host Cells
463(1)
Yeast Cells Are Used as Eukaryotic Hosts for Cloning
464(1)
Genes Can Be Transferred to Eukaryotic Cells
465(1)
Plant Cell Hosts
465(1)
Mammalian Cell Hosts
466(1)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction Makes DNA Copies Without Host Cells
466(2)
Limitations of PCR
467(1)
Other Applications of PCR
468(1)
Libraries Are Collections of Cloned Sequences
468(2)
Genomic Libraries
468(1)
Chromosome-Specific Libraries
468(1)
cDNA Libraries
469(1)
Specific Clones Can Be Recovered from a Library
470(1)
Probes Identify Specific Clones
470(1)
Screening a Library
471(1)
Cloned Sequences Can Be Characterized in Several Ways
471(3)
Restriction Mapping
471(2)
Nucleic Acid Blotting
473(1)
DNA Sequencing Is the Ultimate Way to Characterize a Clone
474(10)
DNA Sequencing and Genome Projects
477(1)
Chapter Summary
478(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
479(1)
DNA Fingerprints and Forensics: The Case of the Telltale Palo Verde
479(1)
Insights and Solutions
480(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
480(3)
Selected Readings
483(1)
Genomics and Proteomics
484(32)
Genomics: Sequencing Is the Basis for Identifying and Mapping All Genes in a Genome
486(1)
An Overview of Genomic Analysis
487(1)
Compiling the Sequence
487(1)
Annotating the Sequence
487(1)
Functional Genomics Classifies Genes and Identifies Their Functions
488(3)
Functional Genomics of a Bacterial Genome
489(1)
Strategies for Functional Assignments of Unknown Genes
489(2)
Prokaryotic Genomes Have Some Unexpected Features
491(1)
Size Range of Eubacterial Genomes
491(1)
Linear Chromosomes and Multiple Chromosomes in Bacteria
491(1)
Genomes of Eubacteria
492(1)
Genomes of Archaea
493(1)
Eukaryotic Genomes Have Several Organizational Patterns
493(3)
General Features of Eukaryotic Genomes
494(1)
Transcriptional Units in the C. elegans Genome
494(1)
Genomes of Higher Plants
495(1)
The Human Genome: The Human Genome Project (HGP)
496(3)
Origins of the Human Genome Project
496(1)
Major Features of the Human Genome
496(1)
The Unfinished Tasks in Human Genome Sequencing
497(1)
Chromosomal Organization of Human Genes
498(1)
Our Genome and the Chimpanzee Genome
498(1)
Comparative Genomics Is a Versatile Tool
499(4)
Finding New Genes Using Comparative Genomics
499(1)
Comparative Genomics and Model Organisms
500(1)
Comparative Analysis of Nuclear Receptors and Drug Development
501(1)
The Minimum Genome for Living Cells
502(1)
Comparative Genomics: Multigene Families Diversify Gene Function
503(2)
Gene Duplications
503(1)
Evolution of Gene Families: The Globin Genes
504(1)
Proteomics Identifies and Analyzes the Proteins in a Cell
505(11)
Reconciling the Number of Genes and the Number of Proteins
505(1)
Proteomics Technology
506(1)
The Bacterial Proteome Changes with Alterations in the Environment
507(1)
Proteome Analysis of an Organelle: The Nucleolus
508(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
509(1)
Beyond Dolly: The Cloning of Humans
509(1)
Chapter Summary
510(1)
Insights and Solutions
511(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
511(3)
Extra-Spicy Problems
514(1)
Selected Readings
515(1)
Dissection of Gene Function: Mutational Analysis in Model Organisms
516(33)
Geneticists Use Model Organisms That Are Genetically Tractable
517(6)
Features of Genetic Model Organisms
517(1)
Yeast as a Genetic Model Organism
517(2)
Drosophila as a Genetic Model Organism
519(2)
The Mouse as a Genetic Model Organism
521(2)
Geneticists Dissect Gene Function Using Mutations and Forward Genetics
523(6)
Generating Mutants with Radiation, Chemicals, and Transposon Insertion
523(1)
Screening for Mutants
523(2)
Selecting for Mutants
525(1)
Defining the Genes
525(1)
Dissecting Genetic Networks: Epistasis and Pathways
526(1)
Extending the Analysis: Suppressors and Enhancers
527(1)
Extending the Analysis: Cloning the Genes
528(1)
Extending the Analysis: Biochemical Functions
528(1)
Geneticists Dissect Gene Function Using Genomics and Reverse Genetics
529(7)
Genetic Analysis Beginning with a Purified Protein
529(1)
Genetic Analysis Beginning with a Mutant Model Organism
530(1)
Genetic Analysis Beginning with the Cloned Gene
531(2)
Genetics Analysis Using Gene Targeting Technologies
533(3)
Geneticists Dissect Gene Function Using Functional Genomic and RNAi Technologies
536(2)
RNAi: Genetics without Mutations
536(1)
High-Throughput Functional Genomics Techniques
537(1)
Gene Expression Microarrays
537(1)
Genome-Wide Mapping of Protein--DNA Binding Sites
538(1)
Geneticists Advance Our Understanding of Molecular Processes by Undertaking Genetic Research in Model Organisms: Three Case Studies
538(11)
Yeast: Cell Cycle Genes
539(2)
Drosophila: The Heidelberg Screens
541(2)
The Mouse: A Model for ALS Gene Therapy
543(1)
Chapter Summary
544(1)
Insights and Solutions
545(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
546(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
547(1)
Selected Readings
548(1)
Applications and Ethics of Biotechnology
549(26)
Biotechnology Has Revolutionized Agriculture
550(2)
Transgenic Crops and Herbicide Resistance
550(1)
Nutritional Enhancement of Crop Plants
550(1)
Concerns about Genetically Modified Organisms
551(1)
Pharmaceutical Products Are Synthesized in Genetically Altered Organisms
552(3)
Insulin Production in Bacteria
552(1)
Transgenic Animal Hosts and Pharmaceutical Products
553(1)
Transgenic Plants and Edible Vaccines
554(1)
Biotechnology Is Used to Diagnose and Screen Genetic Disorders
555(5)
Prenatal Diagnosis of Sickle-cell Anemia
555(1)
Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genetic Screening
556(1)
DNA Microarrays
557(1)
Drug Development
558(1)
Disease Diagnosis
559(1)
Genome Scanning
559(1)
Genetic Testing and Ethical Dilemmas
560(1)
Genetic Disorders Can Be Treated by Gene Therapy
560(3)
Gene Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
561(1)
Problems and Failures in Gene Therapy
562(1)
The Future of Gene Therapy
562(1)
Gene Therapy Raises Many Ethical Concerns
563(1)
Ethical Issues Are an Outgrowth of the Human Genome Project
563(1)
The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Program
564(1)
Finding and Mapping Genes in the Human Genome with Recombinant DNA Technology
564(3)
RFLPs as Genetic Markers
564(1)
Linkage Analysis Using RFLPs
565(1)
Positional Cloning: The Gene for Neurofibromatosis
565(1)
Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) Gene Mapping
566(1)
DNA Fingerprints Can Identify Individuals
567(8)
Minisatellites (VNTRs) and Microsatellites (STRs)
567(1)
Forensic Applications
568(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
569(1)
Gene Therapy---Two Steps Forward or Two Steps Back?
569(1)
Chapter Summary
570(1)
Insights and Solutions
570(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
571(2)
Extra-Spicy Problems
573(1)
Selected Readings
574(1)
Part Five Genetics of Organisms and Populations
Developmental Genetics of Model Organisms
575(24)
Developmental Genetics Seeks to Explain How a Differentiated State Develops from an Organism's Genome
576(1)
Conservation of Developmental Mechanisms and the Use of Model Organisms
577(1)
Model Organisms in the Study of Development
577(1)
Analysis of Developmental Mechanisms
577(1)
Basic Concepts in Developmental Genetics
577(1)
Master Switch Genes Program Genomic Expression
578(1)
The Control of Eye Formation
578(1)
Genetics of Embryonic Development in Drosophila: Specification of the Body Axis
579(4)
Overview of Drosophila Development
579(2)
Genes That Regulate Formation of the Anterior--Posterior Body Axis
581(1)
Genetic Analysis of Embryogenesis
581(2)
Zygotic Genes Program Segment Formation in Drosophila
583(2)
Gap Genes
583(1)
Pair-Rule Genes
584(1)
Segment Polarity Genes
584(1)
Homeotic Genes Control the Developmental Fate of Segments along the Anterior--Posterior Axis
585(3)
Hox Genes in Drosophila
585(1)
Hox Genes and Human Genetic Disorders
586(1)
Control of Hox Gene Expression
587(1)
Cascades of Gene Action Control Differentiation
588(1)
Plants Have Evolved Systems That Parallel the Hox Genes of Animals
589(1)
Homeotic Genes in Arabidopsis
589(1)
Evolutionary Divergence in Homeotic Genes
590(1)
Cell--Cell Interactions in C. elegans Development
590(4)
Signaling Systems in Development
590(1)
The Notch Signaling Pathway
591(1)
Overview of C. elegans Development
591(1)
Genetic Analysis of Vulva Formation
592(2)
Programmed Cell Death Is Required for Normal Development
594(5)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
595(1)
Stem Cell Wars
595(1)
Chapter Summary
596(1)
Insights and Solutions
596(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
597(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
598(1)
Selected Readings
598(1)
Quantitative Genetics and Multifactorial Traits
599(18)
Not All Polygenic Traits Show Continuous Variation
600(1)
Quantitative Traits Can Be Explained in Mendelian Terms
600(3)
The Multiple Gene Hypothesis for Quantitative Inheritance
601(1)
Additive Alleles: The Basis of Continuous Variation
602(1)
Calculating the Number of Polygenes
602(1)
The Study of Polygenic Traits Relies on Statistical Analysis
603(2)
The Mean
603(1)
Variance
603(1)
Standard Deviation
604(1)
Standard Error of the Mean
604(1)
Covariance
604(1)
Analysis of a Quantitative Character
604(1)
Heritability Estimates the Genetic Contribution to Phenotypic Variability
605(3)
Broad-Sense Heritability
606(1)
Narrow-Sense Heritability
606(1)
Artificial Selection
607(1)
Twin Studies Allow an Estimation of Heritability in Humans
608(1)
Quantitative Trait Loci Can Be Mapped
609(8)
Chapter Summary
610(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
611(1)
The Green Revolution Revisited
611(1)
Insights and Solutions
612(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
613(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
614(2)
Selected Readings
616(1)
Population Genetics
617(23)
Allele Frequencies in Population Gene Pools Vary in Space and Time
618(1)
The Hardy--Weinberg Law Describes the Relationship between Allele Frequencies and Genotype Frequencies in an Ideal Population
618(2)
The Hardy--Weinberg Law Can Be Applied to Human Populations
620(2)
Testing for Hardy--Weinberg Equilibrium
622(1)
The Hardy--Weinberg Law Can Be Used for Multiple Alleles, X-Linked Traits, and Estimating Heterozygote Frequencies
622(2)
Calculating Frequencies for Multiple Alleles
622(1)
Calculating Frequencies for X-linked Traits
623(1)
Calculating Heterozygote Frequency
624(1)
Natural Selection Is a Major Force Driving Allele Frequency Change
624(5)
Natural Selection
624(1)
Fitness and Selection
625(2)
Selection in Natural Populations
627(1)
Natural Selection and Quantitative Traits
628(1)
Mutation Creates New Alleles in a Gene Pool
629(1)
Migration and Gene Flow Can Alter Allele Frequencies
630(2)
Genetic Drift Causes Random Changes in Allele Frequency in Small Populations
632(1)
Nonrandom Mating Changes Genotype Frequency but Not Allele Frequency
632(8)
Inbreeding
633(1)
Genetic Effects of Inbreeding
634(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
635(1)
Tracking Our Genetic Footprints out of Africa
635(1)
Chapter Summary
636(1)
Insights and Solutions
636(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
637(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
638(1)
Selected Readings
638(2)
Evolutionary Genetics
640(23)
Speciation Can Occur by Transformation or by Splitting Gene Pools
641(1)
Most Populations and Species Harbor Considerable Genetic Variation
642(2)
Artificial Selection
642(1)
Protein Polymorphisms
642(1)
Variations in Nucleotide Sequence
643(1)
Explaining the High Level of Genetic Variation in Populations
644(1)
The Genetic Structure of Populations Changes across Space and Time
644(3)
The Definition of Species Is a Great Challenge for Evolutionary Biology
647(1)
A Reduction in Gene Flow between Populations, Accompanied by Divergent Selection or Genetic Drift, Can Lead to Speciation
647(6)
Examples of Speciation
649(1)
The Minimum Genetic Divergence Required for Speciation
649(2)
In at Least Some Instances, Speciation Is Rapid
651(2)
We Can Use Genetic Differences among Populations or Species to Reconstruct Evolutionary History
653(3)
A Method for Estimating Evolutionary Trees from Genetic Data
653(2)
Molecular Clocks
655(1)
Reconstructing Evolutionary History Allows Us to Answer a Variety of Questions
656(7)
Transmission of HIV from a Dentist to His Patients
656(1)
The Relationship of Neanderthals to Modern Humans
657(1)
The Origin of Mitochondria
657(1)
Chapter Summary
658(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
659(1)
What Can We Learn from the Failure of the Eugenics Movement?
659(1)
Insights and Solutions
660(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
660(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
661(1)
Selected Readings
662(1)
Conservation Genetics
663
Genetic Diversity Is at the Heart of Conservation Genetics
664(2)
Loss of Genetic Diversity
665(1)
Identifying Genetic Diversity
666(1)
Population Size Has a Major Impact on Species Survival
666(2)
Genetic Effects Are More Pronounced in Small, Isolated Populations
668(2)
Genetic Drift
668(1)
Inbreeding
668(1)
Reduction in Gene Flow
669(1)
Genetic Erosion Diminishes Genetic Diversity
670(1)
Conservation of Genetic Diversity Is Essential to Species Survival
670
Ex Situ Conservation: Captive Breeding
671(1)
Captive Breeding: The Black-Footed Ferret
671(1)
Ex Situ Conservation and Gene Banks
672(1)
In Situ Conservation
672(1)
Population Augmentation
673(1)
Genetics, Technology, and Society
674(1)
Gene Pools and Endangered Species: The Plight of the Florida Panther
674(1)
Chapter Summary
675(1)
Insights and Solutions
675(1)
Problems and Discussion Questions
675(1)
Extra-Spicy Problems
676(1)
Selected Readings
677
Appendix A Glossary 1(16)
Appendix B Answers 17
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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