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Concepts and Theories of Human Development

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780805827989

ISBN10:
0805827986
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Lawrence Erlbau
List Price: $115.00

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What version or edition is this?
This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 8/1/2001.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

Summary

A classic in the field, this third edition will continue to be the book of choice for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level courses in theories of human development in departments of psychology and human development. This volume has been substantially revised with an eye toward supporting applied developmental science and the developmental systems perspectives. Since the publication of the second edition, developmental systems theories have taken center stage in contemporary developmental science and have provided compelling alternatives to reductionist theoretical accounts having either a nature or nurture emphasis. As a consequence, a developmental systems orientation frames the presentation in this edition. This new edition has been expanded substantially in comparison to the second edition. Special features include: * A separate chapter focuses on the historical roots of concepts and theories of human development, on philosophical models of development, and on developmental contextualism. * Two new chapters surrounding the discussion of developmental contextualism--one on developmental systems theories wherein several exemplars of such models are discussed and a corresponding chapter wherein key instances of such theories--life span, life course, bioecological, and action theoretical ones--are presented. * A new chapter on cognition and development is included, contrasting systems' approaches to cognitive development with neo-nativist perspectives. * A more differentiated treatment of nature-oriented theories of development is provided. There are separate chapters on behavior genetics, the controversy surrounding the study of the heritability of intelligence, work on the instinctual theory of Konrad Lorenz, and a new chapter on sociobiology. * A new chapter concentrates on applied developmental science.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition xvii
Preface to the Second Edition xxi
Preface to the First Edition xxiii
Human Development: Facts or Theory?
1(17)
Students and Basic Courses in Science: Facts Versus Theory
1(6)
Examples of the Impermanence of Psychological ``Facts''
1(5)
Conclusions: From Facts to Theory
6(1)
Philosophy, Theory, and Research
7(3)
Some Reasons for Doing Research
8(2)
Textbooks in Human Development
10(4)
This Text's Approach
11(1)
Cattell's Inductive-Hypothetico-Deductive Model
12(2)
Developmental Contextualism as an Instance of Developmental Systems Theory
14(2)
Defining the Concept of Development
16(2)
Historical Roots of Human Development: Concepts and Theories
18(30)
The Historical Role of the Nature-Nurture Issue
18(2)
Philosophical Roots
20(4)
Plato (427-347 B.C.)
20(1)
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
21(1)
The Medieval Christian Era
22(1)
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
23(1)
John Locke (1632-1704)
23(1)
Scientific Roots of Development
24(22)
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
25(1)
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
26(4)
Behaviorism and Learning Theory
30(1)
World War II
31(2)
The 1950s and 1960s
33(2)
The 1970s and 1980s
35(11)
The 1990s Through Today: The Emergence of Developmental Systems
46(2)
Conclusions
47(1)
Philosophical Models of Development
48(38)
The Mechanistic-Philosophical Model
50(8)
Translating the Mechanistic Philosophy Into a Theory of Development
53(1)
A Nurture, Mechanistic Theory of Development
54(3)
Problems of the Mechanistic Model
57(1)
The Organismic Model
58(4)
Translating the Organismic Model Into a Theory of Development
61(1)
Mechanistic and Organismic Models and Issues of Development
62(9)
Elementarism Versus Holism
63(1)
Antecedent-Consequent Versus Structure-Function Relations
63(2)
Behavioral Versus Structural Change
65(1)
Continuity Versus Discontinuity
65(1)
Stages of Development
66(1)
Source of Development
66(3)
Conclusions
69(2)
The Contextual Model
71(3)
Contextualism and Probabilistic Epigenesis
73(1)
Developmental Contextualism and the Issue of Dispersion
74(1)
The Concept of Development in Developmental Contextualism
74(6)
Developmental Contextualism as a ``Compromise'' Conception
77(3)
Limits and Problems of a Developmental-Contextual Perspective
80(3)
Methodology and Issues for Intervention
82(1)
Conclusions
83(1)
Implications of Philosophical Models of Development for Scientific Activity
83(3)
The Nature-Nurture Controversy: Implications of the Question How?
86(20)
Toward a Resolution of the Nature-Nurture Controversy
87(3)
The Position of Anne Anastasi
87(3)
Heredity-Environment Dynamic Interactions
90(12)
Nature Effects Are Indirect
90(2)
Levels of the Environment
92(2)
The Continuum of Indirectness
94(5)
Nurture: The Continuum of Breadth
99(3)
Conclusions
102(1)
The Norm of Reaction
102(4)
Limitations of the Norm-of-Reaction Concept
103(3)
The Continuity-Discontinuity Issue
106(32)
Defining the Issue
106(4)
Description of Intraindividual Change
106(1)
Explanation of Intraindividual Change
106(1)
Descriptive and Explanatory Combinations
107(2)
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Changes
109(1)
Continuity-Discontinuity as a Theoretical Issue
110(4)
The Role of Theory
110(4)
The Contributions of Heinz Werner
114(3)
Quantitative Change
115(1)
Qualitative Change
115(2)
The Orthogenetic Principle
117(2)
The Orthogenetic Principle and the Continuity-Discontinuity Issue
117(2)
The Phylogeny of Learning: Continuity or Discontinuity?
119(4)
Ontogenetic Implications of the Continuity-Discontinuity Issue
123(6)
The Presupposition of Limits and the Presupposition of Plasticity
124(2)
Plasticity and Probabilistic Epigenesis
126(1)
Plasticity as a Ubiquitous but Declining Phenomenon
127(1)
Plasticity and Constancy in Development
128(1)
Conclusions
129(1)
The Stability-Instability Issue
129(5)
Relation of Continuity and Discontinuity to Stability and Instability
131(3)
Changes Characteristic of Development
134(1)
Continuity and Discontinuity in Development: Metatheoretical and Theoretical Proscriptions and Prescriptions
134(3)
Conclusions
137(1)
Resolving the Nature-Nurture Controversy: T. C. Schneirla and the Concept of Levels of Integration
138(25)
The Concept of Interaction
139(3)
Weak Interactions
139(1)
Moderate Interactions
140(1)
Strong Interactions
140(2)
The Contributions of T. C. Schneirla
142(9)
Structure-Function Relations
142(2)
Behavior Stereotypy Versus Behavioral Plasticity
144(2)
Hebb's A/S Ratio
146(1)
Ontogenetic Implications of Stereotypy-Plasticity and of the A/S Ratio
147(1)
Intersensory Integration: An Illustration
148(2)
Conclusions
150(1)
Concepts Representing Development
151(4)
A Definition of Development
151(3)
Conclusions
154(1)
The Critical-Periods Hypothesis
155(3)
Weak and Strong Versions of the Hypothesis
156(2)
Conclusions
158(1)
Instinct: Innate Behavior
158(2)
Conclusions
159(1)
Circular Functions and Self-Stimulation in Development
160(3)
A ``Third Source'' of Development
160(2)
Conclusions
162(1)
Developmental Systems Theories
163(132)
Gilbert Gottlieb's View of Epigenesis
163(6)
Modes of Experiential Contribution
166(1)
What Maintains the Split in the Study of Human Development?
167(1)
Conclusions
168(1)
Thelen and Smith's Dynamic Systems Theory
169(5)
The Development of Novel Forms Across Life
170(1)
The Dynamics of the Developmental System
171(2)
Stability and Change in Dynamic Systems
173(1)
Conclusions
174(1)
Magnusson's Holistic Person-Context Interaction Theory
174(5)
Causality in Holistic Interactionism
175(1)
Features of the Person-Environment System
176(2)
Conclusions
178(1)
Wapner's Holistic, Developmental, Systems-Oriented Perspective
179(116)
Person-in-Environment Functioning Within the Holistic, Developmental System
180(1)
Conclusions
181(114)
Nature Approaches to Development: Konrad Lorenz and the Concept of ``Instinct''
295(21)
Lorenz's Conception of ``Instinct''
295(9)
Criticisms of Lorenz's Conception of ``Instinct''
297(1)
Lorenz's Responses to His Critics
297(1)
Lorenz's Application to Humans of His Concept of ``Instinct''
298(6)
The Nazi-Era Work of Lorenz
304(1)
Conclusions
304(1)
The Science and Politics of Lorenz's Work: Evaluating the Evidence
304(4)
Lorenz's Work After World War II
308(4)
The Example of Human Aggression
309(2)
Is There a ``Militant Enthusiasm'' Instinct?
311(1)
Selection and Ethical Degeneration in Modern Civilization
312(2)
Lorenz and Sociobiology
314(2)
Nature Approaches to Development: Sociobiology
316(18)
The Scientific Goals of Sociobiology
316(1)
Genetic Determinism as Sociobiology's Key to Interdisciplinary Integration
316(1)
Sociobiology and Human Aggression
317(1)
Sex Differences in Gametic Potential
318(3)
Gametic Potential and Social and Sexual Development
319(1)
Conclusions: Genetic Determinism and Human Development
320(1)
Evaluating Sociobiological Claims
321(8)
Sociobiology and Heritability Analyses
323(1)
Are Adaptations Everywhere?
324(5)
Conclusions About the Presence of Evidence in Support of the Sociobiological View of Human Development
329(1)
The Work of J. Philippe Rushton
329(4)
Rushton's Tripartite Theory of Race, Evolution, and Behavior
330(1)
Rushton's Ideas About Different Reproductive Strategies Across Race Groups
331(1)
Evaluations of Rushton's Evidence
332(1)
Conclusions About the Quality of Rushton's Hereditarian Views of Race Differences
332(1)
Conclusions: Is Nativism ``Dead?''
333(1)
Cognition and Development: From Neo-Nativism to Developmental Systems
334(26)
Cognition and Development: Definitions and Domains
334(1)
Features of Neo-Nativism
335(3)
Conclusions
337(1)
Variability in Cognitive Development: Issues and Answers
338(13)
The Thesis of Unchanging Competence
342(3)
Neo-Nativism and Genetic Determination
345(1)
Neo-Nativism and the Concept of Epigenesis
346(2)
The Concept of Experience Within Neo-Nativism
348(3)
Conclusions
351(1)
Fischer's Theory of Dynamic Development of Psychological Structures in Action and Thought
351(5)
The Concept of Dynamic Skill
354(1)
Conclusions
355(1)
Rogoff's Conception of Cognition as a Collaborative Process
356(2)
Conclusions
357(1)
Conclusions
358(2)
Levels of Integration and the Explanation of Cognitive Development
358(2)
Stage Theories of Development
360(49)
The Stage Theory Approach to Development
360(12)
The Definition of a Developmental Stage
361(3)
The Issue of ``Abruptness'': What Is the Nature of Stage Transition?
364(4)
The Issue of ``Concurrence'': Is There Synchrony in the Development of the Items Within a Stage?
368(2)
Individual Differences Within Stage Theories
370(1)
Relation of Concepts of Development to Stage Theories
370(1)
Conclusions
371(1)
Piaget's Developmental Theory of Cognition
372(13)
Stage-Independent Conceptions
373(3)
Stage-Dependent Concepts: The Stages of Cognitive Development
376(8)
Conclusions
384(1)
Critiquing and Reconstructing Piaget's Stage Theory: The Contributions of David Henry Feldman
385(3)
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
386(1)
Reconceptualizing Piagetian Stages
387(1)
Conclusions
388(1)
Kohlberg's Stage Theory of the Development of Moral Reasoning
388(12)
Definitions of Moral Development
389(3)
Features of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral-Reasoning Development
392(4)
Characteristics of Moral Reasoning Stage Development
396(1)
Evaluating Kohlberg's Theory
397(2)
Conclusions
399(1)
Freud's Stage Theory of Psychosexual Development
400(8)
The Concept of Libido
401(1)
The Psychosexual Stages
402(2)
An Evaluation of Freud's Ideas
404(1)
Structures of the Personality
405(1)
Anna Freud: Adolescence as a Developmental Disturbance
406(2)
An Evaluation of Anna Freud's Ideas
408(1)
Conclusions About Stage Theories
408(1)
The Differential Approach
409(29)
Individual Differences Within the Differential Approach
411(1)
The Study of Development Within the Differential Approach
411(3)
Continuity-Discontinuity
413(1)
Stability-Instability
413(1)
Relation of Concepts of Development to the Differential Approach
414(1)
Conclusions
415(1)
Erik H. Erikson's Stage and Differential Theory of Psychosocial Development
415(2)
A Brief Biographical Sketch
416(1)
The Id and the Ego
416(1)
Implications of the Ego
416(1)
Erikson's Epigenetic Principle
417(16)
Critical Periods of Psychosocial Development
419(1)
Stages of Psychosocial Development
419(9)
Conclusions
428(1)
Research Related to Erikson's Theory: How Does Identity Develop in Adolescence?
429(2)
Some Concluding Comments About Erikson's Theory
431(2)
The Kagan and Moss Study of Birth to Maturity
433(5)
The Methods of the Kagan and Moss Study
433(1)
The Status Variables of Age Period and Sex
434(1)
The Sleeper Effect
435(1)
Conclusions
436(2)
The Ipsative Approach to Development
438(42)
Individual Differences Within the Ipsative Approach
440(1)
Developmental Changes Within the Ipsative Approach
441(1)
Relation of Concepts of Development to the Ipsative Approach
441(1)
Conclusions
442(2)
The Thomas and Chess ``New York Longitudinal Study''
444(3)
Why Are Children Different?
444(1)
Implications of the Thomas and Colleagues Theoretical Position
445(1)
From Theory to Research
446(1)
The Method of the Thomas and Colleagues NYLS
447(1)
Characteristics of the NYLS Samples
447(1)
Features of the NYLS Data Set
447(1)
What is Temperament?
448(4)
How Does One Measure Temperament?
449(1)
Problems of Data Accuracy
449(1)
The Attributes of Temperament
450(2)
Results of the NYLS
452(9)
Temperamental Individuality in Infancy and Childhood
453(4)
Temperamental Types
457(3)
The Goodness-of-Fit Model
460(1)
Tests of the Goodness-of-Fit Model in the NYLS
461(4)
Theoretical Implications of the NYLS
463(1)
Practical Implications of the NYLS
464(1)
Some Concluding Comments
465(1)
Block's Study of Lives Through Time
465(5)
The Orientation of the Study
466(1)
Methods of Research
467(1)
Participants
467(1)
The Nature of the Longitudinal Archive
468(1)
The Q-Sort Procedure
468(2)
The Findings of Block's (1971) Study
470(8)
Sex Differences in Personality Attributes Studied Over Time
471(1)
Different Courses of Personality Development Among the IHD Males and Females: Block's Typological Approach
472(6)
Conclusions
478(1)
From Theory to Research and Application
478(2)
Methodological Issues in the Study of Human Development
480(34)
Implications of Developmental Systems Theory for Research Methods and Application
480(2)
Conclusions
481(1)
The Scientific Method and the Methods of Science
482(2)
Conclusions
483(1)
Characteristics of the Scientific Method
484(1)
Conclusions
484(1)
Dimensions of Research Methods in Human Development
485(11)
The Normative-Explanatory Dimension
486(1)
The Naturalistic-Manipulative Dimension
487(6)
The Atheoretical-Theoretical Dimension
493(1)
The Ahistorical-Historical Dimension
494(1)
Conclusions
495(1)
Designs of Developmental Research
496(7)
The Longitudinal Design
497(1)
The Cross-Sectional Design
498(1)
The Time-Lag Design
499(1)
Sequential Strategies of Design
500(2)
A Sequential Study of Adolescent Personality Development
502(1)
Conclusions
503(1)
Some General Methodological Problems of Developmental Research
503(9)
Contamination
503(1)
Researcher Effects on Subject Responses
504(1)
Reconstruction Through Retrospection
505(1)
Faulty Logic
505(1)
Inadequate Definition of Concepts
506(1)
Sampling
507(2)
Overgeneralization
509(3)
Conclusions
512(1)
From Research to Training
512(1)
Conclusions
513(1)
Applied Developmental Science
514(27)
A Definition of Applied Developmental Science
517(2)
Conclusions About the Concept of Applied Developmental Science
518(1)
A Sample Case of Applied Developmental Science 1. Defining and Evaluating Youth Programs
519(15)
Representative Focal Issues of Youth Programs
520(2)
Program Effectiveness
522(1)
Program Scale and Effectiveness
522(1)
Toward a New Research Model for Youth Programs
523(2)
Conclusions About Defining and Evaluating Youth Programs
525(2)
Themes of Contemporary Youth Programs
527(5)
Developing Effective Programs for Youth
532(1)
Key Features of Effective Youth Programs
533(1)
Conclusions About Effective Youth Programs
533(1)
A Sample Case of Applied Developmental Science 2. Public Policy for Youth Development Programs
534(4)
Why Do We Need a Youth Policy?
534(1)
Problems Resulting From the Absence of a National Youth Policy
535(1)
Possible Features of a National Youth Policy
536(1)
Implementing Policy: The Potential of Community Program-ADS Collaborations
536(1)
Conclusions
537(1)
Applied Developmental Science and the Future of American Civil Society
538(3)
Conclusions
540(1)
References 541(50)
Name Index 591(12)
Subject Index 603


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