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Highlighting the key events, ideas, and individuals that have shaped modern Europe, this fresh and lively book provides a succinct history of the continent from the Enlightenment to the present. Drawing on the enduring theme of revolution, David S. Mason explores the causes and consequences of revolution: political, economic, and scientific; the development of human rights; and issues of European identity and integration. He deliberately avoids a detailed chronology of every country and time period by emphasizing the most crucial events in shaping contemporary Europe. Fourteen focused chapters address such topical issues as the Enlightenment; the French Revolution and Napoleon; the Industrial Revolution; the theories and impact of Marx and Darwin; the revolutions of 1848, 1917, and 1989; the unifications of Germany and Italy; European imperialism; the two World Wars; the Cold War and decolonization; and the evolution and expansion of the European Union. Any reader needing a broad overview of the sweep of European history since 1789 will find this book, published in a first edition under the title Revolutionary Europe, an engaging and cohesive narrative.
David S. Mason is professor emeritus at Butler University.
Table of Contents
|List of Boxes, Illustration, and Maps||p. xi|
|Preface to the Second Edition||p. xv|
|Preface to and Acknowledgments for the First Edition||p. xvii|
|Introduction: Change and Tradition in Europe||p. 1|
|Timeline of European History||p. 7|
|The Old Regime and the Enlightenment||p. 13|
|The Old Regime in France||p. 13|
|The Enlightenment||p. 17|
|The Impact of the Enlightenment||p. 21|
|The French Revolution and Napoleon||p. 23|
|1789: The Revolution Begins||p. 25|
|The Radical Republic and the Terror||p. 28|
|Napoleon and Europe||p. 29|
|The Industrial Revolution and the Birth of Capitalism||p. 37|
|Causes of the Industrial Revolution||p. 38|
|Socioeconomic Consequences of Industrialization||p. 42|
|The Impact of the Industrial Revolution||p. 44|
|1848: The People's Spring||p. 47|
|Europe after 1815: Reaction||p. 48|
|Liberalism and Nationalism in the Early Nineteenth Century||p. 49|
|Precursors to 1848: The 1830 Revolution in France||p. 51|
|The Revolutions of 1848||p. 52|
|Revolt Spreads through Europe||p. 54|
|Repression and Reaction||p. 55|
|Consequences and Legacy of 1848||p. 56|
|Marx, Marxism, and Socialism||p. 59|
|Karl Marx||p. 60|
|The Communist Manifesto||p. 60|
|Marxist Theory||p. 64|
|The Idea of Communism||p. 67|
|The Legacy of Marxism||p. 68|
|Darwinism and Social Darwinism||p. 71|
|Charles Darwin||p. 72|
|The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection||p. 73|
|Darwinism and Religion||p. 75|
|Social Darwinism||p. 77|
|Social Darwinism and European History||p. 78|
|The Influence of Darwinism||p. 80|
|The Unifications of Italy and Germany||p. 83|
|Nationalism and the Nation-State||p. 83|
|Prelude to Unification: The Crimean War||p. 85|
|Mazzini, Cavour, and the Unification of Italy||p. 86|
|Bismarck and the Unification of Germany||p. 88|
|The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary||p. 91|
|Implications of Nationalism and Unification||p. 92|
|The Age of Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa||p. 93|
|European Expansionism before the Nineteenth Century||p. 94|
|The Motivations for Imperialism||p. 94|
|The Scramble for Africa||p. 96|
|The Colonization of Asia||p. 98|
|Patterns of Colonial Rule||p. 99|
|The Legacy and Consequences of European Imperialism||p. 100|
|World War I||p. 103|
|Europe on the Eve of War||p. 103|
|The Tinderbox: Nationalism in the Balkans||p. 105|
|The Spark: The Assassination||p. 106|
|The Escalation||p. 107|
|The War||p. 107|
|Versailles, The Peace Settlements, and the League of Nations||p. 111|
|Consequences of the War||p. 113|
|The Russian Revolution and Communism||p. 115|
|Tsarist Russia||p. 116|
|Hints of Change and Reform||p. 117|
|1905: Prelude to Revolution||p. 119|
|Marxism and Leninism||p. 120|
|World War I and the Two Revolutions||p. 122|
|Civil War, NEP, and Consolidation||p. 124|
|Stalin and Totalitarianism||p. 126|
|The Legacy and Meaning of the Russian Revolution||p. 129|
|World War II and the Holocaust||p. 131|
|Europe between the World Wars||p. 132|
|The Rise of Militarism and Fascism||p. 133|
|Hitler's Aggression||p. 136|
|The War||p. 138|
|The Holocaust||p. 139|
|The Consequences of World War II||p. 140|
|Europe Divided, the Cold War, and Decolonization||p. 145|
|The Division of Europe||p. 146|
|The Onset of the Cold War||p. 148|
|Postwar Western Europe||p. 155|
|Eastern Europe after the War||p. 157|
|Conclusions: From Cold War to Perestroika||p. 159|
|1989: The Collapse of Communism and End of the Cold War||p. 161|
|Before 1989: Soviet Hegemony and the Brezhnev Doctrine||p. 162|
|Gorbachev and Perestroika||p. 165|
|The Revolutions of 1989||p. 166|
|The Disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia||p. 171|
|Transition from Communism to Market Democracy||p. 174|
|Conclusions: The Impact of 1989||p. 175|
|The European Union: Europe United and Free?||p. 179|
|Origins of the Common Market||p. 179|
|From Common Market to EU||p. 182|
|Expansion to Eastern Europe||p. 185|
|The European Superpower?||p. 187|
|What Is Europe?||p. 189|
|Conclusion: Europe in the Twenty-first Century||p. 193|
|Suggestions for Additional Reading||p. 213|
|About the Author||p. 229|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|