Basic Concepts | p. 1 |

Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions | p. 1 |

Recognizing Arguments | p. 13 |

Deduction and Induction | p. 31 |

Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency | p. 41 |

Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity | p. 52 |

Extended Arguments | p. 59 |

Language: Meaning and Definition | p. 72 |

Varieties of Meaning | p. 72 |

The Intension and Extension of Terms | p. 82 |

Definitions and Their Purposes | p. 87 |

Definitional Techniques | p. 94 |

Criteria for Lexical Definitions | p. 104 |

Informal Fallacies | p. 111 |

Fallacies in General | p. 111 |

Fallacies of Relevance | p. 114 |

Fallacies of Weak Induction | p. 130 |

Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy | p. 147 |

Fallacies in Ordinary Language | p. 170 |

Categorical Propositions | p. 188 |

The Components of Categorical Propositions | p. 188 |

Quality, Quantity, and Distribution | p. 190 |

Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition | p. 195 |

Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition | p. 204 |

The Traditional Square of Opposition | p. 214 |

Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint | p. 224 |

Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form | p. 230 |

Categorical Syllogisms | p. 242 |

Standard Form, Mood, and Figure | p. 242 |

Venn Diagrams | p. 249 |

Rules and Fallacies | p. 261 |

Reducing the Number of Terms | p. 269 |

Ordinary Language Arguments | p. 272 |

Enthymemes | p. 275 |

Sorites | p. 280 |

Propositional Logic | p. 287 |

Symbols and Translation | p. 287 |

Truth Functions | p. 298 |

Truth Tables for Propositions | p. 310 |

Truth Tables for Arguments | p. 319 |

Indirect Truth Tables | p. 324 |

Argument Forms and Fallacies | p. 330 |

Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic | p. 348 |

Rules of Implication I | p. 348 |

Rules of Implication II | p. 359 |

Rules of Replacement I | p. 369 |

Rules of Replacement II | p. 380 |

Conditional Proof | p. 390 |

Indirect Proof | p. 395 |

Proving Logical Truths | p. 401 |

Predicate Logic | p. 405 |

Symbols and Translation | p. 405 |

Using the Rules of Inference | p. 414 |

Change of Quantifier Rule | p. 425 |

Conditional and Indirect Proof | p. 429 |

Proving Invalidity | p. 435 |

Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers | p. 441 |

Identity | p. 453 |

Induction | p. 468 |

Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning | p. 468 |

Causality and Mill's Methods | p. 487 |

Probability | p. 508 |

Statistical Reasoning | p. 525 |

Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning | p. 544 |

Science and Superstition | p. 564 |

Answers to Selected Exercises | p. 592 |

Glossary/Index | p. 654 |

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