Informal Logic | |

Basic Concepts | |

Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions | |

Recognizing Arguments | |

Deduction and Induction | |

Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency | |

Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity | |

Extended Arguments | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Aristotle | |

Eminent Logicians: Chrysippus | |

Language: Meaning and Definition | |

Varieties of Meaning | |

The Intension and Extension of Terms | |

Definitions and Their Purposes | |

Definitional Techniques | |

Criteria for Lexical Definitions | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Abelard | |

Informal Fallacies | |

Fallacies in General | |

Fallacies of Relevance | |

Fallacies of Weak Induction | |

Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy | |

Fallacies in Ordinary Language | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Ockham | |

Formal Logic | |

Categorical Propositions | |

The Components of Categorical Propositions | |

Quality, Quantity, and Distribution | |

Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition | |

Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition | |

The Traditional Square of Opposition | |

Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint | |

Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Boole | |

Categorical Syllogisms | |

Standard Form, Mood, and Figure | |

Venn Diagrams | |

Rules and Fallacies | |

Reducing the Number of Terms | |

Ordinary Language Arguments | |

Enthymemes | |

Sorites | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Venn | |

Propositional Logic | |

Symbols and Translation | |

Truth Functions | |

Truth Tables for Propositions | |

Truth Tables for Arguments | |

Indirect Truth Tables | |

Argument Forms and Fallacies | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Leibniz | |

Eminent Logicians: De Morgan | |

Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic | |

Rules of Implication I | |

Rules of Implication II | |

Rules of Replacement I | |

Rules of Replacement II | |

Conditional Proof | |

Indirect Proof | |

Proving Logical Truths | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Frege | |

Predicate Logic | |

Symbols and Translation | |

Using the Rules of Inference | |

Change of Quantifier Rule | |

Conditional and Indirect Proof | |

Proving Invalidity | |

Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers | |

Identity | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Whitehead / Russell | |

Eminent Logicians: G÷del | |

Inductive Logic | |

Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning | |

Analogical Reasoning | |

Legal Reasoning | |

Moral Reasoning | |

Summary | |

Causality and Mill's Methods | |

"Cause" and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions | |

Mill's Five Methods | |

Mill's Methods and Science | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Mill | |

Probability | |

Theories of Probability | |

The Probability Calculus | |

Summary | |

Statistical Reasoning | |

Evaluating Statistics | |

Samples | |

The Meaning of "Average" | |

Dispersion | |

Graphs and Pictograms | |

Percentages | |

Summary | |

Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning | |

The Hypothetical Method | |

Hypothetical Reasoning: Four Examples from Science | |

The Proof of Hypotheses | |

The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Peirce | |

Science and Superstition | |

Distinguishing Between Science and Superstition | |

Evidentiary Support | |

Objectivity | |

Integrity | |

Concluding Remarks | |

Summary | |

Appendix: Logic and Graduate-Level Admissions Tests | |

Answers to Selected Exercises | |

Glossary/Index | |

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