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Preface? | |
Informal Logic | |
Basic Concepts | |
Arguments,Premises, and Conclusions | |
Note on the History of Logic | |
Recognizing Arguments | |
Eminent Logicians: Aristotle | |
Simple Noninferential Passages | |
Expository Passages | |
Illustrations | |
Explanations | |
Conditional Statements | |
Summary | |
Deduction and Induction | |
Ruth Barcan Marcus | |
Deductive Argument Forms | |
Inductive Argument Forms | |
Further Considerations | |
Summary | |
Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency | |
Deductive Arguments | |
Inductive Arguments | |
Summary | |
Eminent Logicians: Chrysippus | |
Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity | |
Counterexample Method | |
Extended Arguments | |
Summary | |
Language: Meaning and Definition | |
Varieties of Meaning | |
The Intension and Extension of Terms | |
Definitions and Their Purposes | |
Stipulative Definitions | |
Lexical Definitions | |
Precising Definitions | |
Eminent Logicians: Peter Abelard | |
Theoretical Definitions | |
Persuasive Definitions | |
Definitional Techniques | |
Extensional (Denotative) Definitions | |
Intensional (Connotative) Definitions | |
Criteria for Lexical Definitions | |
A Lexical Definition Should Conform to the Standards of Proper Grammar | |
A Lexical Definition Should Convey the Essential Meaning of the Word Being Defined | |
A Lexical Definition Should Be Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow | |
A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Circularity | |
A Lexical Definition Should Not Be Negative When It Can Be Affirmative | |
A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Figurative, Obscure,Vague, or Ambiguous Language | |
A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Affective Terminology | |
A Lexical Definition Should Indicate the Context to Which the Definiens Pertains | |
Summary | |
Informal Fallacies | |
Fallacies in General | |
Fallacies of Relevance | |
Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum: Appeal to the"Stick") | |
Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam) | |
Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum) | |
Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem) | |
Accident | |
Straw Man | |
Missing the Point (Ignoratio Elenchi ) | |
Red Herring | |
Fallacies of Weak Induction | |
Appeal to Unqualified Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam) | |
Appeal to Ignorance. (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam) | |
Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident) | |
False Cause | |
Slippery Slope | |
Weak Analogy | |
Eminent Logicians: William of Ockham | |
Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy | |
Begging the Question (Petitio Principii) | |
Complex Question | |
False Dichotomy | |
Suppressed Evidence | |
Equivocation | |
Amphiboly | |
Composition | |
Division | |
Fallacies in Ordinary Language | |
Detecting Fallacies | |
Avoiding Fallacies | |
Summary | |
Formal Logic | |
Categorical Propositions | |
The Components of Categorical Propositions | |
Alice Ambrose | |
Quality, Quantity, and Distribution | |
Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition | |
Aristotle and Boole | |
Eminent Logicians: George Boole | |
Venn Diagrams | |
The Modern Square of Opposition | |
Testing Immediate Inferences | |
Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition | |
Conversion | |
Obversion | |
Contraposition | |
The Traditional Square of Opposition | |
Testing Immediate Inferences | |
Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint | |
Proving the Traditional Square of Opposition | |
Testing Immediate Inferences | |
Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form | |
Terms Without Nouns | |
Nonstandard Verbs | |
Singular Propositions | |
Adverbs and Pronouns | |
Unexpressed Quantifiers | |
Nonstandard Quantifiers | |
Conditional Statements | |
Exclusive Propositions | |
"The Only" | |
Exceptive Propositions | |
Summary | |
Categorical Syllogisms | |
Standard Form, Mood, and Figure | |
Venn Diagrams | |
Eminent Logicians: John Venn | |
Boolean Standpoint | |
Aristotelian Standpoint | |
Rules and Fallacies | |
Boolean Standpoint | |
Aristotelian Standpoint | |
Proving the Rules | |
Reducing the Number of Terms | |
Saul Kripke | |
Ordinary Language Arguments | |
Enthymemes | |
Sorites | |
Summary | |
Propositional Logic | |
Symbols and Translation | |
Eminent Logicians: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz | |
Truth Functions | |
Definitions of the Logical Operators | |
Computing the Truth Value of Longer Propositions | |
Further Comparison with Ordinary Language | |
Truth Tables for Propositions | |
Classifying Statements | |
Comparing Statements | |
Truth Tables for Arguments | |
Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace | |
Indirect Truth Tables | |
Preliminary Skills | |
Testing Arguments for Validity | |
Testing Statements for Consistency | |
Eminent Logicians: Augustus De Morgan | |
Argument Forms and Fallacies | |
Common Argument Forms | |
Refuting Constructive and Destructive Dilemmas | |
Note on Invalid Forms | |
Summary and Application | |
Summary | |
Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic | |
Rules of Implication I | |
Rules of Implication II | |
Rules of Replacement I. Willard Van Orman Quine | |
Rules of Replacement Ii | |
Conditional Proof | |
Eminent Logicians: Gottlob Frege | |
Indirect Proof | |
Proving Logical Truths | |
Summary | |
Predicate Logic | |
Symbols and Translation | |
Using the Rules of Inference | |
Change of Quantifier Rule | |
Eminent Logicians: Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell | |
Conditional and Indirect Proof | |
Proving Invalidity | |
Counterexample Method | |
Finite Universe Method | |
Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers | |
Translating Relational Statements | |
Using the Rules of Inference | |
Identity | |
Simple Identity Statements | |
Eminent Logicians: Kurt G?del | |
"Only," "The Only," and "No . . . Except" | |
"All Except" | |
Superlatives | |
Numerical Statements | |
Definite Descriptions | |
Using the Rules of Inference | |
Summary | |
Inductive Logic | |
Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning | |
Analogical Reasoning | |
Legal Reasoning | |
Moral Reasoning | |
Summary | |
Causality and Mill's Methods | |
"Cause"and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions | |
Mill's Five Methods | |
Method of Agreement | |
Method of Difference | |
Eminent Logicians: John Stuart Mill | |
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference | |
Method of Residues | |
Method of Concomitant Variation | |
Mill's Methods and Science | |
Summary | |
Probability | |
Theories of Probability | |
The Probability Calculus | |
Restricted Conjunction Rule | |
General Conjunction Rule | |
Restricted Disjunction Rule | |
General Disjunction Rule | |
Negation Rule | |
Bayes's Theorem | |
Additional Applications | |
Summary | |
Statistical Reasoning | |
Evaluating Statistics | |
Samples | |
The Meaning of "Average" | |
Dispersion | |
Graphs and Pictograms | |
Percentages | |
Summary | |
Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning | |
The Hypothetical Method | |
Hypothetical Reasoning: Four Examples from Science Radium | |
Neptune | |
Atmospheric Pressure | |
Spontaneous Generation | |
The Proof of Hypotheses | |
Eminent Logicians: Charles Sanders Peirce | |
The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses | |
Summary | |
Science and Superstition | |
Distinguishing Between Science and Superstition | |
Evidentiary Support | |
Objectivity | |
Integrity | |
Concluding Remarks | |
Summary | |
Appendix: Logic and Graduate-Level Admissions Tests | |
Answers to Selected Exercises | |
Glossary/Index | |
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