Preface? | |

Informal Logic | |

Basic Concepts | |

Arguments,Premises, and Conclusions | |

Note on the History of Logic | |

Recognizing Arguments | |

Eminent Logicians: Aristotle | |

Simple Noninferential Passages | |

Expository Passages | |

Illustrations | |

Explanations | |

Conditional Statements | |

Summary | |

Deduction and Induction | |

Ruth Barcan Marcus | |

Deductive Argument Forms | |

Inductive Argument Forms | |

Further Considerations | |

Summary | |

Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency | |

Deductive Arguments | |

Inductive Arguments | |

Summary | |

Eminent Logicians: Chrysippus | |

Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity | |

Counterexample Method | |

Extended Arguments | |

Summary | |

Language: Meaning and Definition | |

Varieties of Meaning | |

The Intension and Extension of Terms | |

Definitions and Their Purposes | |

Stipulative Definitions | |

Lexical Definitions | |

Precising Definitions | |

Eminent Logicians: Peter Abelard | |

Theoretical Definitions | |

Persuasive Definitions | |

Definitional Techniques | |

Extensional (Denotative) Definitions | |

Intensional (Connotative) Definitions | |

Criteria for Lexical Definitions | |

A Lexical Definition Should Conform to the Standards of Proper Grammar | |

A Lexical Definition Should Convey the Essential Meaning of the Word Being Defined | |

A Lexical Definition Should Be Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow | |

A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Circularity | |

A Lexical Definition Should Not Be Negative When It Can Be Affirmative | |

A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Figurative, Obscure,Vague, or Ambiguous Language | |

A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Affective Terminology | |

A Lexical Definition Should Indicate the Context to Which the Definiens Pertains | |

Summary | |

Informal Fallacies | |

Fallacies in General | |

Fallacies of Relevance | |

Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum: Appeal to the"Stick") | |

Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam) | |

Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum) | |

Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem) | |

Accident | |

Straw Man | |

Missing the Point (Ignoratio Elenchi ) | |

Red Herring | |

Fallacies of Weak Induction | |

Appeal to Unqualified Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam) | |

Appeal to Ignorance. (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam) | |

Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident) | |

False Cause | |

Slippery Slope | |

Weak Analogy | |

Eminent Logicians: William of Ockham | |

Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy | |

Begging the Question (Petitio Principii) | |

Complex Question | |

False Dichotomy | |

Suppressed Evidence | |

Equivocation | |

Amphiboly | |

Composition | |

Division | |

Fallacies in Ordinary Language | |

Detecting Fallacies | |

Avoiding Fallacies | |

Summary | |

Formal Logic | |

Categorical Propositions | |

The Components of Categorical Propositions | |

Alice Ambrose | |

Quality, Quantity, and Distribution | |

Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition | |

Aristotle and Boole | |

Eminent Logicians: George Boole | |

Venn Diagrams | |

The Modern Square of Opposition | |

Testing Immediate Inferences | |

Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition | |

Conversion | |

Obversion | |

Contraposition | |

The Traditional Square of Opposition | |

Testing Immediate Inferences | |

Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint | |

Proving the Traditional Square of Opposition | |

Testing Immediate Inferences | |

Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form | |

Terms Without Nouns | |

Nonstandard Verbs | |

Singular Propositions | |

Adverbs and Pronouns | |

Unexpressed Quantifiers | |

Nonstandard Quantifiers | |

Conditional Statements | |

Exclusive Propositions | |

"The Only" | |

Exceptive Propositions | |

Summary | |

Categorical Syllogisms | |

Standard Form, Mood, and Figure | |

Venn Diagrams | |

Eminent Logicians: John Venn | |

Boolean Standpoint | |

Aristotelian Standpoint | |

Rules and Fallacies | |

Boolean Standpoint | |

Aristotelian Standpoint | |

Proving the Rules | |

Reducing the Number of Terms | |

Saul Kripke | |

Ordinary Language Arguments | |

Enthymemes | |

Sorites | |

Summary | |

Propositional Logic | |

Symbols and Translation | |

Eminent Logicians: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz | |

Truth Functions | |

Definitions of the Logical Operators | |

Computing the Truth Value of Longer Propositions | |

Further Comparison with Ordinary Language | |

Truth Tables for Propositions | |

Classifying Statements | |

Comparing Statements | |

Truth Tables for Arguments | |

Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace | |

Indirect Truth Tables | |

Preliminary Skills | |

Testing Arguments for Validity | |

Testing Statements for Consistency | |

Eminent Logicians: Augustus De Morgan | |

Argument Forms and Fallacies | |

Common Argument Forms | |

Refuting Constructive and Destructive Dilemmas | |

Note on Invalid Forms | |

Summary and Application | |

Summary | |

Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic | |

Rules of Implication I | |

Rules of Implication II | |

Rules of Replacement I. Willard Van Orman Quine | |

Rules of Replacement Ii | |

Conditional Proof | |

Eminent Logicians: Gottlob Frege | |

Indirect Proof | |

Proving Logical Truths | |

Summary | |

Predicate Logic | |

Symbols and Translation | |

Using the Rules of Inference | |

Change of Quantifier Rule | |

Eminent Logicians: Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell | |

Conditional and Indirect Proof | |

Proving Invalidity | |

Counterexample Method | |

Finite Universe Method | |

Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers | |

Translating Relational Statements | |

Using the Rules of Inference | |

Identity | |

Simple Identity Statements | |

Eminent Logicians: Kurt G?del | |

"Only," "The Only," and "No . . . Except" | |

"All Except" | |

Superlatives | |

Numerical Statements | |

Definite Descriptions | |

Using the Rules of Inference | |

Summary | |

Inductive Logic | |

Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning | |

Analogical Reasoning | |

Legal Reasoning | |

Moral Reasoning | |

Summary | |

Causality and Mill's Methods | |

"Cause"and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions | |

Mill's Five Methods | |

Method of Agreement | |

Method of Difference | |

Eminent Logicians: John Stuart Mill | |

Joint Method of Agreement and Difference | |

Method of Residues | |

Method of Concomitant Variation | |

Mill's Methods and Science | |

Summary | |

Probability | |

Theories of Probability | |

The Probability Calculus | |

Restricted Conjunction Rule | |

General Conjunction Rule | |

Restricted Disjunction Rule | |

General Disjunction Rule | |

Negation Rule | |

Bayes's Theorem | |

Additional Applications | |

Summary | |

Statistical Reasoning | |

Evaluating Statistics | |

Samples | |

The Meaning of "Average" | |

Dispersion | |

Graphs and Pictograms | |

Percentages | |

Summary | |

Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning | |

The Hypothetical Method | |

Hypothetical Reasoning: Four Examples from Science Radium | |

Neptune | |

Atmospheric Pressure | |

Spontaneous Generation | |

The Proof of Hypotheses | |

Eminent Logicians: Charles Sanders Peirce | |

The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses | |

Summary | |

Science and Superstition | |

Distinguishing Between Science and Superstition | |

Evidentiary Support | |

Objectivity | |

Integrity | |

Concluding Remarks | |

Summary | |

Appendix: Logic and Graduate-Level Admissions Tests | |

Answers to Selected Exercises | |

Glossary/Index | |

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