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As more importance is being placed on the whole-life performance of structures, demand is growing for long service lives with minimal maintenance requirements. Indeed it is increasingly common for infrastructure to be kept in operation beyond its originally intended service life. And over the past decade the introduction across Europe of new standards has drawn more attention to the issue of durability of concrete structures. Thus, the durability of construction materials is of more concern to civil engineers than ever before.Concrete is highly durable and also provides protection to steel reinforcement. However, concrete structures are frequently required to function in a wide range of multi-aggressive environments for long periods of service. And measures to optimize their durability performance often conflict with structural and aesthetic design requirements.This book examines each of the major physical and chemical mechanisms which threaten the durability of concrete and addresses the options available for achieving appropriate durability, with emphasis on the approaches addressed by standards. It also covers procedures for durability assessment and testing of structures, and repair and rehabilitation methods. It is has been written with an audience of graduate students and young professionals in mind.