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Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780781745949

ISBN10:
0781745942
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/2/2007
Publisher(s):
LWW

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This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 3/2/2007.
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Summary

Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance represents a new approach that takes you from student to professional. The clearly written text is filled with special features that engage you in multiple decision-making and hands-on training activities. You learn not only by reading, but also by watching, listening, and doing. Everything you need to train athletes for maximum performance and prepare yourself for certification is included. You'll start with a strong foundation in the basic science underlying strength and conditioning training. Next, you'll see how science is put into practice with detailed instructions on testing, assessment, exercise technique, and program development. You'll also learn injury prevention and rehabilitation.

Table of Contents

Basic Science
Bioenergeticsp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Enzymesp. 4
The "Creation" of Chemical Energyp. 6
Energy Systemsp. 7
The Phosphocreatine Systemp. 8
Regulation of Energy Productionp. 9
The Glycolytic Systemp. 10
The Oxidative Systemp. 11
Lactatep. 11
Summary of Catabolic Processes in the Production of Cellular Energyp. 15
Efficiency of the Energy-Producing Pathwaysp. 16
Limiting Factors of Performancep. 16
Oxygen Consumptionp. 17
Metabolic Specificityp. 18
Summaryp. 18
The Cardiorespiratory Systemp. 20
Introductionp. 20
Cardiovascular Systemp. 21
Morphology of the Heartp. 21
Cardiac Cyclep. 21
Heart Rate and Conductionp. 22
Cardiac Outputp. 24
Vasculaturep. 24
Blood Pressurep. 25
Respiratory Systemp. 25
Pressure Differentials in Gasesp. 27
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transportp. 27
Bloodp. 28
Cardiovascular Response to Acute Exercisep. 28
Cardiac Outputp. 28
Heart Ratep. 29
Stroke Volumep. 29
Cardiac Driftp. 30
a-Vo[subscript 2] Differencep. 30
Distribution of Cardiac Outputp. 30
Blood Pressurep. 30
Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercisep. 31
Cardiovascular Adaptations to Trainingp. 31
Cardiac Output and Stroke Volumep. 31
Heart Ratep. 32
Blood Pressurep. 32
Cardiac Morphologyp. 33
Respiratory Adaptations to Trainingp. 34
Ventilatory Equivalent and Minute Ventilationp. 35
Blood Volume Adaptations to Trainingp. 35
Environmental Factors Affecting Cardiorespiratory Functionp. 36
Cardiorespiratory Response to Exercise in the Heatp. 36
Effect of Altitude on the Cardiorespiratory Responsep. 36
Summaryp. 38
The Neuromuscular System: Anatomical and Physiological Bases and Adaptations to Trainingp. 40
Introductionp. 40
The Neuronp. 41
Reflexes and Involuntary Movementsp. 41
Proprioception and Kinesthesisp. 42
Higher Nerve Centers and Voluntary Muscular Controlp. 43
The Pyramidal Systemp. 44
The Extrapyramidal Systemp. 44
The Proprioceptive-Cerebellar Systemp. 44
Gross Structure of Skeletal Musclep. 45
Microscopic Structure of Skeletal Musclep. 45
Structure of the Muscle Fiberp. 45
Muscle Fiber Typesp. 46
Structure of the Myofibril and the Contractile Mechanismp. 47
The Sliding-Filament Theory of Muscle Contractionp. 47
Gradation of Forcep. 48
Types of Muscle Actionsp. 49
Isometric Muscle Actionsp. 49
Dynamic Constant External Resistance Muscle Actionsp. 50
Isokinetic Muscle Actionsp. 50
Concentric and Eccentric Muscle Actionsp. 50
Neuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Trainingp. 50
Muscular Strength Adaptationsp. 50
Muscle Fiber Adaptationsp. 52
Nervous System Adaptationsp. 53
Metabolic Adaptationsp. 55
Endocrine Adaptationsp. 55
Summaryp. 56
The Skeletal Systemp. 60
Introductionp. 60
Structure of the Skeletal Systemp. 61
Bone Tissuep. 61
Ligamentous Tissuep. 64
Cartilagep. 64
Articulationsp. 65
Functions of the Skeletal Systemp. 65
Structure and Protectionp. 65
Movementp. 65
Blood Cell Productionp. 66
Growth of the Skeletal Systemp. 66
Primary Bone Growth in the Epiphysisp. 67
Adaptations of the Skeletal System to Loadingp. 68
Wolff's Lawp. 68
Minimal Essential Strainp. 69
Training Adaptations to the Skeletal Systemp. 70
The Skeletal System and Healthp. 70
Bone Density and Healthp. 70
Spinal Alignment Maladiesp. 71
Female Athletic Triadp. 72
Exercise Prescription to Promote Bone Densityp. 72
Loading Speedp. 73
Rate and Frequency of Loadingp. 73
Direction of Loading and Responsep. 73
Intensity of Exercisep. 73
Frequency of Trainingp. 74
Vibrationp. 74
Summaryp. 75
Biomechanics of Conditioning Exercisesp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Biomechanical Concepts for Strength and Conditioningp. 78
Force-Velocity-Power Relationshipp. 80
Musculoskeletal Machinesp. 81
Lever Systemsp. 81
Wheel-Axle Systemsp. 83
Biomechanics of Muscle Functionp. 83
Length-Tension Effectp. 83
Muscle Angle of Pullp. 83
Strength Curvep. 84
Line and Magnitude of Resistancep. 84
Sticking Regionp. 85
Muscle Architecture, Strength, and Powerp. 85
Multiarticulate Muscles, Active and Passive Insufficiencyp. 86
Body Size and Shape and Power-to-Weight Ratiop. 87
Balance and Stabilityp. 87
Factors Contributing to Stabilityp. 87
Initiating Movement or Change of Motionp. 88
Stretch-Shortening Cyclep. 88
Biomechanics of Resistance Machinesp. 89
Free Weightsp. 89
Gravity-Based Machinesp. 89
Hydraulic Resistancep. 91
Pneumatic Resistancep. 91
Elastic Resistancep. 91
Machines Versus Free Weightsp. 91
Summaryp. 92
Training Responses and Adaptations of the Endocrine Systemp. 94
Introductionp. 94
The Endocrine Systemp. 95
What Are Hormones?p. 95
Endocrine Tissuesp. 95
Hormone Transportation Routesp. 95
Types of Hormonesp. 96
Hormone Productionp. 98
Hormonal Transport and Binding Proteinsp. 100
Factors Affecting Circulating Concentrationsp. 101
Trophic Hormones and Pulsatilityp. 102
Hormonal Rhythmsp. 103
Anticipatory Responsesp. 103
Biocompartmentsp. 103
Receptors and Cell Signalingp. 104
Regulating Hormonal Levelsp. 106
Hormones Vital to Exercisep. 106
Testosteronep. 106
Cortisolp. 107
Testosterone/Cortisol Ratiop. 107
Growth Hormonep. 107
Insulin and Glucagonsp. 107
Epinephrinep. 108
Norepinephrinep. 108
Aldosteronep. 108
Antidiuretic Hormonep. 108
Thyroid Hormonesp. 109
Calcium-Regulating Hormonesp. 109
Effects of Exercise on the Endocrine Systemp. 109
Acute and Chronic Training Adaptationsp. 109
Responses and Adaptations of Hormones to Endurance Exercisep. 110
Acute Responses to Resistance Exercisep. 114
Long-Term Adaptations to Resistance Exercisep. 117
Overtraining and the Endocrine Systemp. 118
Using the Endocrine System to Monitor Trainingp. 119
Optimizing the Training Programp. 120
Goal: Muscle Hypertrophyp. 120
Goal: No Muscle Hypertrophyp. 120
Goal: High-Power Performancep. 120
Goal: Peak Performancep. 120
Goal: Avoiding Overtrainingp. 120
Summaryp. 121
Nutritionp. 123
Introductionp. 123
Energy Needsp. 124
Carbohydrate Intakep. 126
Protein Intakep. 127
Fat Intakep. 128
Training Nutritionp. 129
Nutrient Timingp. 129
Carbohydrate-Protein Ratiop. 131
Vitamin and Mineral Intakep. 131
Vitamin Ep. 131
Vitamin Cp. 132
Mineralsp. 132
Dietsp. 134
Very High Carbohydrate, Very Low Fat Dietsp. 134
High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Dietsp. 137
Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein Dietsp. 138
Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat, High Protein (Ketogenic) Dietsp. 138
Summaryp. 139
Organization and Administration
Test Administration and Interpretationp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Purpose of Testingp. 148
Test Selectionp. 149
Validityp. 149
Reliabilityp. 150
Assessmentp. 152
Medical History and PAR-Qp. 152
Physician Releasep. 152
Nutritionp. 152
Needs Analysisp. 153
Test Interpretationp. 159
Order Scalesp. 159
Mathematical Measuresp. 161
Distribution of Scoresp. 161
Variabilityp. 162
Standardized Scoresp. 163
Summaryp. 163
Warm-up and Flexibilityp. 166
Introductionp. 166
Warm-upp. 167
Flexibilityp. 167
Normal Static Flexibilityp. 170
Flexibility and Injury Riskp. 170
Assessing Flexibilityp. 171
Development of Flexibilityp. 172
Biomechanical Effects of Stretchingp. 174
Prophylactic Effects of Stretchingp. 175
Summaryp. 175
Resistance Exercise Techniques and Spottingp. 182
Introductionp. 182
Benefits of Resistance Trainingp. 183
Safetyp. 184
Spottingp. 184
Exercise Apparelp. 186
Resistance-Training Techniquep. 186
Resistance-Training Exercisesp. 188
Summaryp. 235
Facility Administration and Designp. 237
Introductionp. 237
Facilities and Equipmentp. 238
Layout and Schedulingp. 238
Maintenance and Safetyp. 239
Legal Duties and Conceptsp. 240
Types of Standardsp. 241
Applying Standards of Practice to Risk Managementp. 241
Duties and Responsibilities: Liability Exposurep. 242
Preparticipation Screening and Clearancep. 243
Personnel Qualificationsp. 244
Program Supervision and Instructionp. 244
Facility and Equipment Setup, Inspection, Maintenance, Repair, and Signagep. 245
Emergency Planning and Responsep. 246
Records and Record Keepingp. 246
Equal Opportunity and Accessp. 247
Participation in Strength and Conditioning Activities by Childrenp. 247
Supplements, Ergogenic Aids, and Drugsp. 247
Policies and Proceduresp. 248
Summaryp. 248
Exercise Prescription
Strength and Conditioning for Sportp. 257
Introductionp. 257
Basic Training Principlesp. 258
Specificity and Transfer-of-Training Effectp. 260
Explosive Strength and Powerp. 260
Program Planningp. 261
Single Sets Versus Multiple Setsp. 261
Periodizationp. 261
Training Advanced Athletesp. 263
Summated Microcyclesp. 267
Summaryp. 270
Resistance Exercise Prescriptionp. 273
Introductionp. 273
Needs Analysisp. 274
Acute Program Variablesp. 274
Exercise Selectionp. 274
Exercise Orderp. 275
Loadingp. 275
Volumep. 276
Rest Intervalsp. 276
Frequency and Workout Structurep. 276
Muscle Actionp. 277
Repetition Velocityp. 278
Resistance-Training Prescriptionp. 278
Muscular Strengthp. 279
Muscular Powerp. 280
Muscular Hypertrophyp. 282
Local Muscular Endurancep. 283
Progressionp. 284
Progressive Overloadp. 284
Variationp. 284
Specificityp. 284
Summaryp. 285
Improving Aerobic Performancep. 292
Introductionp. 292
Factors That Influence Aerobic Exercise Performancep. 293
Approaches to Aerobic Trainingp. 294
Continuous Trainingp. 294
Fartlek Trainingp. 295
Interval Trainingp. 295
Repetitionsp. 298
Organizing Aerobic Exercise Trainingp. 298
General Preparation Phasep. 301
Special Preparation Phasep. 301
Precompetition Phasep. 302
Competition Phasep. 303
Summaryp. 303
Plyometric, Speed, and Agility Exercise Prescriptionp. 306
Introductionp. 306
The Stretch-Shortening Cyclep. 307
Impacting Factorsp. 308
Plyometricsp. 310
Terminologyp. 310
Developmental Sequencep. 311
Intended Purposep. 312
Acute Training Variablesp. 313
Linear Sprintingp. 314
Developmental Sequencep. 314
Sprinting Gaitp. 314
Acute Training Variablesp. 316
Agilityp. 317
Developmental Sequencep. 318
Impacting Factorsp. 319
Effects of Movement Velocityp. 319
Effects of Anglesp. 319
Effects of Anticipationp. 320
Acute Training Variablesp. 320
Speed and Agility Exercisesp. 321
Summaryp. 341
Special Topics
Foundations of Strength Training for Special Populationsp. 349
Introductionp. 349
Geriatricsp. 351
Normal Aging and Sarcopeniap. 351
Osteoporosisp. 352
Arthritisp. 353
Pediatricsp. 355
Healthy Children and Adolescentsp. 355
Cerebral Palsyp. 356
Mental Retardation and Down's Syndromep. 357
Muscular Dystrophyp. 358
Neuromuscular Diseasep. 359
Strokep. 359
Fibromyalgiap. 360
Postpolio Syndromep. 361
Multiple Sclerosisp. 361
Spinal Cord Injuryp. 362
AIDS/HIVp. 364
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseasep. 364
Cardiovascular Diseasep. 365
Obesityp. 366
Diabetes Mellitusp. 367
Cancerp. 368
Pregnancyp. 368
Summaryp. 369
Principles of Injury Prevention and Rehabilitationp. 376
Introductionp. 376
Preparticipation Physicalsp. 378
Roles of Health Care Professionals Involved in Injury Prevention and Rehabilitationp. 378
Injury Classificationp. 380
Phases of Tissue Healing: Clinical Treatment and Exercise Considerationsp. 381
Inflammatory Phasep. 381
Repair Phasep. 383
Remodeling Phasep. 385
Return-to-Activity Phase: The Role of the Interval Programp. 386
The Interval Sport-Return Programp. 387
Warm-upp. 387
Alternate-Day Performance Schedulingp. 387
Integration with Conditioningp. 387
Progressive Stages of Intensityp. 388
Proper Biomechanics and Evaluation of Mechanicsp. 388
Cool-Down or Aftercarep. 388
Overview of Joint Biomechanics and Exercise Applicationsp. 389
Overview of Knee Biomechanics and Exercise Applicationsp. 389
Overview of Shoulder Biomechanics and Exercise Applicationsp. 392
Overview of Spine Biomechanics and Exercise Applicationsp. 394
Summaryp. 401
Ergogenic Aidsp. 404
Introductionp. 404
Branched-Chain Amino Acidsp. 405
Caffeinep. 405
Colostrump. 406
Creatinep. 406
Essential Amino Acidsp. 408
Glucosaminep. 408
Glutaminep. 408
Glycerolp. 410
Green Tea Extractp. 410
HMBp. 410
Hydrationp. 411
Pre- and Postworkout Nutritionp. 412
Other Potential Ergogenic Aidsp. 412
Summaryp. 414
Implement Trainingp. 423
Introductionp. 423
Similarity in Training Programsp. 424
Relying on Sciencep. 424
Lack of Implement-Training Researchp. 424
Training Principlesp. 424
Transferability of Implement Training to Sports Performancep. 425
Water-Filled Implementsp. 425
Implement Training Should Supplement Traditional Methodsp. 426
Program Designp. 426
Description of Suggested Training Implementsp. 427
Kegsp. 428
Logsp. 430
Water-Filled Dumbbellsp. 430
Tiresp. 430
Kettlebellsp. 430
Chainsp. 431
Sandbagsp. 432
Description of Implement Exercises and Examples of Workoutsp. 432
Summaryp. 451
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