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Conducting Research : Social and Behavioral Science Methods,9781884585609

Conducting Research : Social and Behavioral Science Methods

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ISBN13:

9781884585609

ISBN10:
1884585604
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Pyrczak Pub
List Price: $105.06

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Table of Contents

Introduction xi
Off to an Early Start xi
Presentation of Statistical Material xi
About the End-of-Chapter Exercises xi
About the Model Literature Reviews xii
Contacting the Author xii
Part A Getting Started
1(88)
Selecting Tentative Topics for Empirical Research
3(10)
Everyday Observations As a Source of Research Topics
3(1)
Theories As a Source of Research Topics
4(1)
Availability of Participants and Topic Selection
5(1)
Ethical Considerations in Topic Selection
5(1)
The Audience's Expectations Regarding Topics
6(1)
Personal Needs and Topic Selection
6(1)
Published Research As a Source of Topics
6(2)
Using Demographics to Narrow a Topic
8(1)
Using Demographics to Make a Topic More Complex
8(1)
Staying Open to Other Topics
9(1)
Exercise for Chapter 1
10(3)
Locating Literature and Refining a Research Topic
13(6)
Identifying Appropriate Databases
13(1)
Using a Database Thesaurus
14(1)
Using Boolean Operators (Not, And, and Or) to Refine a Search
14(1)
Searching for Theoretical Literature
14(1)
Searching for an Exact Phrase Match
15(1)
Searching in Only the Title and/or Abstract Fields
15(1)
Using a Citation Index
15(1)
Locating Statistics at www.FedStats.gov
16(1)
Using a Coding System When Reading the Literature
16(1)
Considering Literature When Selecting and Refining Topics
17(1)
Exercise for Chapter 2
17(2)
Preparing a Literature Review
19(10)
Preparing a Table That Shows the Key Features of Each Article
19(2)
Writing an Essay About the Literature
21(1)
Naming a Specific Topic Near the Beginning of a Review
21(1)
Writing a Critical Literature Review
22(2)
Avoiding Statements of ``Facts'' and ``Truths''
24(1)
Pointing Out Gaps in the Literature
25(1)
Using Subheadings in a Long Review
25(1)
Placement of Surnames for In-Text Citations
26(1)
Explicit Discussions of Relevant Theories
26(1)
Relationship of the Review to the Research Questions, Purposes, or Hypotheses
26(1)
Using the Model Literature Reviews at the End of This Book
26(1)
Exercise for Chapter 3
27(2)
Writing Research Hypotheses, Purposes, and Questions
29(6)
Writing Research Hypotheses
29(1)
Writing Research Purposes
30(1)
Writing Research Questions
31(1)
Identifying Populations in Research Hypotheses, Purposes, and Questions
32(1)
Referring to Measurement Methods in Research Hypotheses, Purposes, and Questions
32(1)
Concluding Comments
32(1)
Exercise for Chapter 4
33(2)
Selecting a Research Approach
35(10)
Experimental Versus Nonexperimental Research
35(1)
Major Types of Nonexperimental Research
36(4)
Causal--Comparative Research
36(1)
Surveys
37(1)
Correlational Studies
38(1)
Document/Content-Analysis Research
39(1)
Program Evaluation: A Hybrid
40(1)
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research
40(3)
Exercise for Chapter 5
43(2)
Looking Ahead to Participant Selection
45(6)
Determining the Number of Participants to Use
45(1)
Random Sampling for Quantitative Research
46(1)
Stratified Sampling for Quantitative Research
46(1)
Convenience Sampling for Quantitative and Qualitative Research
47(1)
Purposive Sampling for Qualitative Research
48(1)
Using Literature When Making Plans for Participant Selection
48(1)
Exercise for Chapter 6
49(2)
Looking Ahead to Instrumentation
51(8)
Using Instruments Employed in Previous Research
51(1)
Locating Existing Instruments
52(1)
Issues in Devising New Instruments
53(1)
Validity of Instrumentation in Quantitative Research
53(1)
Reliability of Instrumentation in Quantitative Research
54(1)
Credibility of Instrumentation in Qualitative Research
54(1)
Dependability of Instrumentation in Qualitative Research
55(1)
Exercise for Chapter 7
56(3)
Looking Ahead to Data Analysis for Quantitative Research
59(10)
Analysis of Nominal Data
59(2)
Percentages
59(1)
Chi Square
60(1)
Analysis of Group Differences on Interval Variables
61(3)
Means and Standard Deviations for One Group
61(1)
Means and Standard Deviations for Two or More Groups
62(1)
t Test for Two Means
63(1)
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for More Than Two Means
63(1)
Analysis of Change on Interval Variables
64(1)
Analysis for the Relationship Between Two Interval Variables
65(1)
Concluding Comments
66(1)
Exercise for Chapter 8
66(3)
Looking Ahead to Data Analysis for Qualitative Research
69(8)
The Intermingling of Data Collection and Data Analysis
69(1)
Selecting a General Approach to Data Analysis
69(2)
The Grounded Theory Approach
70(1)
Consensual Qualitative Approach
71(1)
Specific Techniques for Analysis of Qualitative Data
71(4)
Enumeration
71(1)
Selecting Quotations
72(1)
Intercoder Agreement
72(1)
Diagramming
73(1)
Peer Debriefing
73(1)
Auditing
74(1)
Member Checks
74(1)
Identifying the Range of Responses
74(1)
Discrepant Case Analysis
75(1)
Exercise for Chapter 9
75(2)
Preparing a Preliminary Research Proposal
77(12)
The Title of a Proposal
77(1)
The Introduction and Literature Review
78(2)
The Introduction and Literature Review in Qualitative Research
79(1)
The Method Section of a Proposal
80(4)
Participants
80(1)
Instrumentation
81(3)
Procedures
84(1)
The Analysis Section of a Proposal
84(1)
The Discussion Section of a Proposal
85(1)
References at the End of a Proposal
86(1)
The Major Components of a Proposal
86(1)
Concluding Comments
87(1)
Exercise for Chapter 10
87(2)
Part B Issues in Participant Selection
89(20)
Participant Selection in Quantitative Research
91(8)
Populations and Bias in Sampling
91(1)
Simple Random Sampling
92(1)
Stratified Random Sampling
93(1)
Systematic Sampling
94(1)
Cluster Sampling
95(1)
Sample Size in Quantitative Research
95(2)
Potential for Harm to Participants
95(1)
The Need for Pilot Studies
96(1)
Number of Subgroups to Be Examined
96(1)
Importance of Precise Results
96(1)
Statistical Significance
97(1)
A Table of Suggested Sample Sizes
97(1)
Exercise for Chapter 11
97(2)
Participant Selection in Qualitative Research
99(10)
Purposive Sampling
99(5)
Criterion Sampling
99(1)
Random Purposive Sampling
100(1)
Typical Case Sampling
100(1)
Extreme or Deviant Sampling
101(1)
Intensity Sampling
101(1)
Maximum Variation Sampling
102(1)
Homogeneous Sampling
102(1)
Opportunistic Sampling
102(1)
Stratified Purposive Sampling
103(1)
Snowball Sampling
103(1)
Combination Purposive Sampling
104(1)
Improving Convenience Sampling
104(2)
Sample Size in Qualitative Research
106(1)
Exercise for Chapter 12
107(2)
Part C Issues in Instrumentation
109(26)
Instrumentation in Quantitative Research
111(10)
Standardization and Objectivity of Instrumentation
111(1)
Social Desirability
111(1)
Reliability and Internal Consistency
111(3)
The Concept of Reliability in Measurement
111(1)
Test-Retest Reliability
112(1)
Internal Consistency
113(1)
Comparison of Test--Retest and Internal Consistency Methods
113(1)
Interobserver Reliability
114(1)
Validity and Its Relationship to Reliability
114(1)
Judgmental Validity
115(1)
Content Validity
115(1)
Face Validity
115(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
116(1)
Construct Validity
117(2)
Distinguishing Between Construct Validity and Criterion-Related Validity
119(1)
Exercise for Chapter 13
119(2)
Writing Objective Instruments
121(8)
Attitude Scales
121(2)
Planning an Attitude Scale
121(1)
Writing an Attitude Scale
122(1)
Pilot Testing an Attitude Scale
123(1)
Observation Checklists
123(2)
Planning an Observation Checklist
123(1)
Writing Observation Checklists
124(1)
Pilot Testing an Observation Checklist
124(1)
Achievement Tests
125(1)
Planning an Achievement Test
125(1)
Writing Achievement Test Items
125(1)
Pilot Testing an Achievement Test
126(1)
Concluding Comments
126(1)
Exercise for Chapter 14
127(2)
Instrumentation in Qualitative Research
129(6)
Issues in Interviewer Selection and Behavior
129(1)
Matching Interviewers and Participants
129(1)
Interviewer Self-Disclosure
130(1)
Devising Interview Protocols
130(4)
Semi-Structured, Open-Ended Interviews
131(1)
Initial Questions to Establish Rapport
131(1)
Using Previously Developed Interview Protocols
131(1)
Having Interview Protocols Reviewed
132(1)
Pilot Testing Interview Protocols
132(1)
Formulating Questions about Demographics
132(1)
Recording Responses and Note Taking
133(1)
Exercise for Chapter 15
134(1)
Part D Techniques for Data Analysis
135(34)
Descriptive Statistics for Quantitative and Qualitative Research
137(10)
Describing Nominal Data
137(1)
Describing Ordinal Data
138(1)
Describing Ratio and Interval Data
139(5)
The Mean and Median
139(2)
The Standard Deviation and Interquartile Range
141(3)
Exercise for Chapter 16
144(3)
Correlational Statistics for Quantitative Research
147(6)
Describing the Strength of a Relationship
149(1)
Exercise for Chapter 17
150(3)
Inferential Statistics for Quantitative Research
153(8)
Margins of Error
153(1)
The Null Hypothesis
154(1)
The Chi Square Test
155(1)
The t Test
156(1)
The t Test for Means
156(1)
The t Test for Correlation Coefficients
157(1)
The F Test (ANOVA)
157(2)
Statistical Versus Practical Significance
159(1)
Exercise for Chapter 18
159(2)
A Closer Look at Data Analysis in Qualitative Research
161(8)
Self-Disclosure and Bracketing in Data Analysis
161(1)
A Closer Look at the Grounded Theory Approach
162(2)
A Closer Look at Consensual Qualitative Approach
164(2)
Exercise for Chapter 19
166(3)
Part E Conducting Experiments
169(26)
Introduction to Experimentation and Threats to External Validity
171(8)
Controlling the Hawthorne Effect in Experimentation
171(1)
Using Multiple Independent and Dependent Variables
172(1)
External Validity of Experiments
173(3)
Selection Bias
173(1)
Reactive Effects of Experimental Arrangements
174(1)
Reactive Effects of Testing
175(1)
Obtrusiveness of Measurement
175(1)
Multiple-Treatment Interference
176(1)
Concluding Comments about External Validity
176(1)
Exercise for Chapter 20
176(3)
Threats to Internal Validity and True Experiments
179(8)
History
179(1)
Controlling History with a True Experiment
180(1)
Maturation
180(1)
Instrumentation
181(1)
Testing
181(1)
Statistical Regression
181(1)
Selection
182(1)
True Experimental Designs
183(1)
Concluding Comments
184(1)
Exercise for Chapter 21
184(3)
Pre-Experiments and Quasi-Experiments
187(8)
Pre-Experiments
187(5)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
189(3)
Concluding Comments
192(1)
Exercise for Chapter 22
192(3)
Part F Putting It Together
195(10)
Writing Reports of Empirical Research
197(8)
The Abstract
198(1)
The Introduction and Literature Review
198(1)
The Method Section
199(1)
The Results Section
199(2)
The Discussion Section
201(2)
References
203(1)
Exercise for Chapter 23
203(2)
Appendix A Increasing the Response Rates to Mailed Surveys 205(2)
Appendix B A Closer Look at Interpreting Correlation Coefficients 207(4)
Appendix C Alternative Approaches to Qualitative Research 211(4)
Appendix D An Overview of Program Evaluation 215(4)
Appendix E Ethical Issues in Conducting Research 219(2)
References 221(6)
Model Literature Review 1 Happiness of Mexican Americans 227(4)
Model Literature Review 2 Factors Influencing Evaluations of Web Site Information 231(4)
Model Literature Review 3 The Significance of Parental Depressed Mood for Young Adolescents' Emotional and Family Experiences 235(4)
Table 1: Table of Random Numbers 239(1)
Table 2: Table of Recommended Sample Sizes 240(1)
Index 241


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