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Conflict : From Theory to Action,9780205290307
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Conflict : From Theory to Action

by
ISBN13:

9780205290307

ISBN10:
0205290302
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Providing the most complete coverage of conflict available, this book represents a total approach to the study of conflict. Solid research and theory help readers better understand the nature of conflict, while practical material helps them make better communication choices. In addition to considering what people bring into a conflict in terms of their attitudes, beliefs, values, and personal characteristics, the book offers new ideas and attitudes to help readers approach conflict more effectively. The extensive use of suggestions, applications, narratives and case studies makes this volume an accessible and useful resource. The book deals with conflict from beginning to end -- from perception of the problem to agreement that it has been resolved or managed. It introduces the idea that conflict is inevitable, explores its consequences, then looks at conflict in the context of values, attitudes, and beliefs, followed by gender and culture. Next the book describes types of conflict; its phases and cycles; and conflict styles, strategies, and tactics, with special attention to collaboration as the preferred strategy. The last half of the book covers social psychological and communication perspectives, research on conflict and intimacy, choosing among the communication options available, effectively confronting others, cooperative negotiation in win-lose situations, the escalation of conflict into anger and stress, and impression management. The book ends with a discussion of conflict, forgiveness, and reconciliation. For anyone interested in understanding and dealing with conflict more effectively.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART I Understanding the Nature of Conflict 1(54)
1 Introduction to the Study of Conflict
2(19)
Objectives
2(1)
Key Terms
2(1)
A Perspective on Conflict
3(6)
Defining Conflict
3(3)
Conflict Is Generally Viewed Negatively
6(3)
The Inevitability of Conflict
9(3)
Conflict Is a Fact of Life
9(2)
Interpersonal Violence Is Not a Fact of Life
11(1)
The Consequences of Conflict
12(5)
Functions of Conflict
12(1)
Conflict Communication as Productive or Destructive
13(4)
From Theory to Action
17(4)
2 People in Conflict: Values, Attitudes, and Beliefs
21(18)
Objectives
21(1)
Key Terms
21(1)
Socialization and Conflict
22(1)
Attitudes toward Communication and Conflict
23(5)
Rhetorical Sensitivity and Communicator Style
23(1)
Influences on Interpersonal Perception
24(4)
Functional Beliefs for Managing and Resolving Conflict
28(7)
Functional Belief One
28(1)
Functional Belief Two
29(1)
Functional Belief Three
30(1)
Functional Belief Four
31(1)
Functional Belief Five
32(1)
Functional Belief Six
32(1)
Functional Belief Seven
33(1)
Functional Belief Eight
34(1)
Functional Belief Nine
34(1)
Attitudes Fostering Conflict Resolution
35(2)
From Theory to Action
37(2)
3 Culture and Gender in Conflict
39(16)
Objectives
39(1)
Key Terms
39(3)
A Hierarchical Model of Cultural Understanding
42(2)
The Hierarchical Model and Cultural Variability
44(3)
The Challenge of Diversity
47(1)
Sex, Gender, and Conflict
48(4)
From Theory to Action
52(3)
PART II Understanding How Conflict Works 55(66)
4 Types of Conflict
56(18)
Objectives
56(1)
Key Terms
56(1)
Types of Conflict
57(9)
Real versus Unreal Conflicts
58(4)
Substantive versus Nonsubstantive Conflicts
62(2)
Real and Substantive Conflicts
64(1)
Mere Disagreements versus Interpersonal Conflicts
65(1)
Issues as Indicators of Real and Substantive Conflicts
66(3)
Behavioral Conflicts
66(1)
Normative Conflicts--Issues of Relationships
67(1)
Personality Conflicts--Dispositions and Values
68(1)
Moral Conflict
69(4)
From Theory to Action
73(1)
5 The Process of Conflict: Phases and Cycles
74(25)
Objectives
74(1)
Key Terms
74(1)
Phase Theories of Conflict
75(1)
Patterns and Cycles in Conflict
76(11)
The Conflict Avoidance Cycle
77(2)
The Chilling Effect: A Diminished Communication Cycle
79(2)
The Competitive Conflict Escalation Cycle
81(6)
Conflict as a Process
87(10)
The Prelude to Conflict
88(3)
The Triggering Event
91(1)
The Initiation of Conflict
92(1)
The Differentiation of Conflict
93(3)
The Resolution of Conflict
96(1)
From Theory to Action
97(2)
6 Conflict Styles, Strategies, and Tactics
99(22)
Objectives
99(1)
Key Terms
99(1)
Conflict Styles, Strategies, and Tactics
100(4)
Conflict Strategies and Tactics
104(5)
Collaboration, Competition, and Avoidance
104(3)
Other Strategies and Tactics
107(2)
Collaboration: The Preferred Style
109(5)
Low Personal and Relationship Stress
109(1)
High Personal and Relationship Growth and Satisfaction
110(2)
Phases of Collaboration
112(2)
Case Studies of Cultural Differences in Conflict Resolution Styles
114(4)
Criticisms of the Japanese, American, and Yugoslav Approaches to Conflict Resolution
118(1)
From Theory to Action
118(3)
PART III Analyzing Conflict: Theory and Reseach in Interpersonal Conflict 121(66)
7 Social-Psychological Perspectives of Conflict
123(25)
Objectives
123(1)
Key Terms
123(1)
Psychodynamic and Attribution Theories
124(5)
Psychodynamic Theory
124(2)
Attribution Theory
126(3)
Relationship Theories
129(7)
Social Exchange Theory
129(3)
Game Theory
132(1)
Systems Theory
133(3)
Structural Theory
136(8)
Trust
137(2)
Uncertainty
139(1)
Power
140(4)
From Theory to Action
144(4)
8 A Communication Perspective on Conflict Behavior
148(20)
Objectives
148(1)
Key Terms
148(1)
Linear versus Transactional Views of Communication and Conflict
149(2)
The Linear Model: Message Senders and Receivers
149(1)
The Transactional Model: People Communicating Together
150(1)
Rules and Conflict Communication
151(2)
Communication Competence and Conflict Behavior
153(4)
Examining Goals and Effects in Conflict Situations
157(7)
Instrumental Goals and Effects of Communication in Conflict
158(1)
Relational Goals and Effects of Communication in a Conflict
159(2)
Identity Goals and Effects of Communication in Conflict
161(2)
Interrelationship of the Three Types of Goals and Effects
163(1)
From Theory to Action
164(4)
9 Research on Intimacy and Conflict
168(19)
Objectives
168(1)
Key Terms
168(2)
Intimate and Marital Conflict Issues
170(8)
Relationship Life Cycle, Aging, and Conflict Style
178(5)
Couple Type and Conflict Styles
178(2)
Distressed and Nondistressed Couples and Conflict Styles
180(2)
Couple Complaints and Conflict Style
182(1)
Family Strengths and Conflict Style
183(1)
From Theory to Action
183(4)
PART IV Effective Communication Behavior 187(86)
10 Using the S-TLC System
189(17)
Objectives
189(1)
Key Terms
189(1)
The S-TLC System
190(2)
Stop
190(1)
Think
190(1)
Listen
191(1)
Communicate
191(1)
Thinking about Conflict: Analyzing Conflict Situations
192(11)
The Goal of Analysis
193(1)
Dimensions of the Conflict Situation
194(2)
Conflict Pollutants
196(2)
Cooperation versus Competition
198(1)
Trained Incapacities
199(2)
Models for Analysis
201(2)
Listening in Conflict Situations
203(1)
From Theory to Action
204(2)
11 Choosing among the Communication Options in Conflict Situations
206(19)
Objectives
206(1)
Key Terms
206(1)
Conflict Communication Options
207(13)
Nonassertive Communication (Avoidance or Accommodation) as an Option
207(1)
Aggressive Communication as an Option
208(2)
Nonverbal Aggression (Physical Violence) as an Option
210(1)
Verbal Aggression as an Option
211(3)
Passive-Aggressive Communication as an Option
214(2)
Assertive Communication as an Option
216(4)
Communication Considerations: Which Conflict Communication Option Is Best?
220(2)
The Occasion (Including Time and Location)
221(1)
The Other Person
221(1)
Your Needs
221(1)
From Theory to Action
222(3)
12 Effectively Confronting Others
225(21)
Objectives
225(1)
Key Terms
225(1)
The Interpersonal Conflict Ritual: Six Steps to Successful Confrontation
226(7)
Preparation: Identify Your Problem, Needs, and Issues
227(1)
Make a "Date" to Sit Down and Talk
228(1)
Interpersonal Confrontation: Talk to the Other about Your Problem
228(4)
Consider Your Partner's Point of View
232(1)
Resolve the Problem: Make an Agreement
233(1)
Follow Up on the Solution: Set a Time Limit for Reevaluation
233(1)
Doing Conflict Messages: Using I-Statements
233(6)
Components of I-Statements
236(2)
General Tips on Being Assertive
238(1)
Advantages of Using I-Statements
238(1)
Challenges Associated with I-Statements
239(1)
Dealing with People Who Play Games
239(1)
Confronting Difficult People
240(3)
From Theory to Action
243(3)
13 Cooperative Negotiation in Win-Lose Conflicts
246(27)
Objectives
246(1)
Key Terms
246(1)
Conflicts over Two Types of Resources
247(3)
Bargaining and Negotiation
250(6)
The Nature of Bargaining in Formal Situations
250(2)
Research on Formal Bargaining
252(2)
Informal Negotiation
254(1)
Research on Tactics and Strategies in the Negotiation Situation
254(2)
Strategies for Tangible-Issue Conflicts
256(14)
Principles of Reconciliation
261(4)
Separate People from the Problem
265(1)
Focus on Interests Rather Than Positions
265(1)
Generate More Options
266(2)
Base Decisions on Objective Criteria
268(1)
Converting Competition into Cooperation
268(2)
From Theory to Action
270(3)
PART V Escalating and De-Escalating Conflict 273(68)
14 The Escalation of Conflict: Anger and Stress
274(19)
Objectives
274(1)
Key Terms
274(1)
The Emotion of Anger
275(6)
General Irritability
275(1)
Anger as a Secondary Emotion
276(1)
The Process of Anger
277(1)
Controlling Anger
278(1)
Understanding Sources of Anger
279(2)
Responding to Another's Anger
281(1)
Containing Escalation
281(1)
Stress and the Escalation of Conflict
282(10)
Sources of Stress
284(4)
Facing the Expected Event
288(1)
Facing Unexpected Events
288(1)
Facing Decision-Making Events
289(1)
Facing a Situation of Competing or Difficult Roles
290(1)
Ways to Alleviate Stress
291(1)
From Theory to Action
292(1)
15 Impression Management in Conflict Situations
293(22)
Objectives
293(1)
Key Terms
293(1)
Understanding the Demands of Face
294(5)
Defining Face
294(1)
Positive and Negative Face
295(1)
Preventing Face Threats
296(3)
Reasons to Avoid Face Issues in Conflict
299(1)
Embarrassment as a Face-Threatening Situation
299(4)
Methods for Correcting One's Impression
303(9)
Accounts
304(3)
Apologies
307(2)
Relationship Outcomes When Accounts and Apologies Are Used
309(3)
From Theory to Action
312(3)
16 After the Conflict: Forgiveness and Reconciliation
315(26)
Objectives
315(1)
Key Terms
315(2)
Conflicts and Relational Transgressions
317(1)
Relational Transgressions
317(8)
Transgressions and Their Effects
318(2)
Regrettable Messages
320(1)
Deception and Lies
320(4)
When Conflict Turns to Violence
324(1)
Conflict, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation
325(13)
Part of the Social Fabric
326(1)
Why People Don't Forgive or Restore Relationships
327(2)
What Is Forgiveness?
329(2)
What Forgiveness Is Not
331(1)
Strategizing for Forgiveness
332(1)
The Importance of Creating Reconciliation
333(3)
Receiving Forgiveness
336(1)
Moving beyond Victimization
336(2)
From Theory to Action
338(3)
Appendix A Mediation as Third-Party Intervention
341(19)
Setting Disputes through the Intervention of a Third Party
341(2)
Mediation Compared to Adjudication
343(2)
Who Are the Mediators?
345(2)
When Should a Third Party Intervene?
347(1)
Mediator Skills
348(1)
Basic Communication Skills
348(1)
Structuring the Process of Mediation
348(1)
Reframing the Disputants' Statements and Positions
349(1)
Expanding the Information Resource
349(1)
Mediators as Communication Rules Enforcers
349(1)
The Mediation Process: Step by Step
350(5)
The Mediator's Opening Statement: Setting the Rules
351(1)
The Disputants' Opening Statement: Identifying the Issues
352(1)
Exchange: Clarifying the Issues
352(1)
Building an Agreement: Identifying Goals
353(1)
The Written Agreement
354(1)
The Closing
355(1)
Code of Ethics
355(1)
Mediation in Educational Settings
356(2)
School-Based Mediation Models
356(1)
College-Based Mediation Models
357(1)
In Summary
358(2)
Appendix B Example of a Conflict Assessment
360(4)
References 364(17)
Index 381


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