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In Conflict and Order : Understanding Society,9780205306442
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In Conflict and Order : Understanding Society

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205306442

ISBN10:
0205306446
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $69.80

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Summary

This conflict perspective introductory paperback text emphasizes four themes: diversity, the struggle to achieve social justice, economic and global transformations in the U.S., and a global perspective. In Conflict and Order studies the forces that lead to both stability and change in society. As it examines the standard topics in an introductory course, the authors show how social problems are structural in origin. While the pace of social change is increasing, society's institutions are resistant to change. Eitzen and Baca Zinn challenge students to develop a sociological perspective by questioning their own basic beliefs, and to debate the facts rather than merely accepting the authors' way of looking at the world.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part ONE The Sociological Approach
The Sociological Perspective
3(24)
Sociology
4(1)
Assumptions of the Sociological Perspective
4(3)
Problems with the Sociological Perspective
7(3)
The Historical Development of Sociology
10(2)
The Science of Society
10(1)
Auguste Comte
Social Facts and the Social Bond
10(1)
Emile Durkheim
Economic Determinism
11(1)
Karl Marx
A Response to Marx
11(1)
Max Weber
Sociological Methods: The Craft of Sociology
12(2)
Sociological Questions
12(2)
A Closer Look: Sociological Questions
14(4)
Problems in Collecting Data
14(4)
Research Methods: Minimizing Bias
18(9)
Sources of Data
20(7)
The Structure of Social Groups
27(26)
The Micro Level
27(1)
The Process of Social Organization
27(1)
Technology and Social Life: The Effects of the New Technology on Social Interaction
28(6)
Norms
31(1)
Status and Role
31(3)
Other Societies, Other Ways: Women in Moslem Societies
34(11)
Social Control
36(1)
Primary and Secondary Groups
37(2)
Bureaucracy: The Ultimate Secondary Group
39(1)
Power of the Social Group
40(5)
The Societal Level
45(3)
Society as a Social System
46(1)
The Culture of Society
46(1)
Social Classes
47(1)
Social Institutions
47(1)
Diversity: The Societal Reaction to Gay Marriages
48(5)
The Duality of Social Life: Order and Conflict
53(28)
Social Systems: Order and Conflict
54(1)
The Order Model
54(1)
Research Methods: Social Scientists and Values
55(4)
The Conflict Model
56(1)
The Duality of Social Life
57(2)
Synthesis of the Order and Conflict Models
59(7)
Division and Violence
61(5)
Other Societies, Other Ways: Division and Violence in India
66(10)
Violence and the Myth of Peaceful Progress
68(4)
The Integrative Forces in Society
72(4)
Diversity: The Media's Selective Perception of Race and Class
76(1)
The Use of the Order and Conflict Models in This Book
77(4)
Part TWO The Individual in Society: Society in the Individual
Culture
81(34)
Introduction to Culture
82(1)
Culture: The Knowledge That People Share
83(3)
Characteristics of Culture
83(3)
A Closer Look: Is the United States Culturally Superior?
86(7)
Types of Shared Knowledge
87(5)
The Social Construction of Reality
92(1)
Other Societies, Other Ways: Cultural Time
93(3)
Values
96(6)
Values as Sources of Societal Integration and Social Problems
97(5)
A Closer Look: The Negative Consequences of Overemphasizing Competition in Sport
102(7)
Values and Behavior
106(2)
Cultural Diversity
108(1)
Research Methods: Participant Observation
109(6)
Values from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
110(5)
Socialization
115(20)
Introduction to Socialization
115(3)
The Personality as a Social Product
118(5)
The Looking-Glass Self
119(1)
Charles H. Cooley
Taking the Role of the Other
119(2)
George Herbert Mead
The Psychoanalytic View
121(1)
Sigmund Freud
Society's Socialization Agents
122(1)
A Closer Look: Learning to Hate
123(4)
Similarities and Differences among the Members of society
127(8)
Modal Personality Type
127(2)
Why We Are Not All Alike
129(6)
Social Control
135(28)
Introduction to Social Control
135(1)
Agents of Ideological Social Control
136(4)
Family
138(1)
Education
138(1)
Religion
139(1)
Diversity: The Amish and Social Control
140(4)
Sport
141(1)
Media
142(2)
Government
144(1)
Agents of Direct Social Control
144(4)
Welfare
145(1)
Science and Medicine
145(3)
A Closer Look: Big Money, Bad Science?
148(2)
Government
148(2)
Other Societies, Other Ways: Government Control in Singapore
150(5)
Implications for Contemporary Social Life
155(1)
Technology and Social Life: The Internet and the Shrinking Zone of Privacy
156(3)
Social Control from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
159(4)
Deviance
163(32)
What Is Deviance?
163(5)
Other Societies, Other Ways: Deviance in Afghanistan
165(3)
Traditional Theories for the Causes of Deviance
168(3)
The Individual as the Source of Deviance
168(3)
Other Societies, Other Ways: Capitalism and Crime in the Former Soviet Bloc Countries
171(5)
The Blaming-the-Victim Critique of the Individual-Oriented Explanations for Deviance
172(4)
Society as the Source of Deviance
176(2)
Labeling Theory
176(2)
Diversity: The Criminal Justice System: Unreasonable Stops and Searches by Race
178(6)
Human Agency: The Gay Rights Movement
184(4)
Conflict Theory
186(2)
A Closer Look: Corporate Perjury and Obstruction of Justice
188(2)
Deviance from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
190(5)
Part THREE The Study of Society
Structural Sources of Societal Change: Economic and Demographic
195(38)
The Structural Transformation of the Economy
196(5)
The Interrelated Forces Transforming the U.S. Economy
196(4)
The Economic Transformation and Jobs
200(1)
Technology and Social Life: Technological Change and Changing Jobs
201(10)
The Consequences of the Economic Transformation
204(5)
Human Agency: Coping Strategies
209(2)
The New Immigration and the Changing Racial Landscape
211(7)
Immigration Patterns
211(4)
The Consequences of the New Immigration
215(3)
Human Agency: Immigrants Fight Back through Workers Centers
218(5)
The Aging Society
223(10)
The Demographics of an Aging Society
223(1)
Problems of an Aging Society
224(3)
Responses by the Elderly: Human Agency
227(1)
The Three Structural Transformations of Society
228(5)
Social Stratification
233(22)
Other Societies, Other Ways: The Caste System in India
234(1)
Major Concepts
235(4)
Class
236(1)
Race and Ethnicity
237(1)
Gender
238(1)
The Intersection of Class, Race, and Gender
238(1)
Theories of Stratification
239(2)
Order Theory
239(1)
Conflict Theory
240(1)
Deficiency Theories
241(3)
Biological Inferiority
241(3)
Research Methods: How Science is Affected by the Political Climate
244(4)
Cultural Inferiority
246(2)
Structural Theories
248(2)
Institutional Discrimination
248(1)
The Political Economy of Society
249(1)
Diversity: Who Benefits from Poverty?
250(5)
Class
255(40)
Introduction
256(1)
Dimensions of Inequality
256(9)
Wealth
256(2)
Income
258(2)
Education
260(2)
Occupation
262(1)
The Consequences of Increasing Inequality for Society
263(2)
Social Classes
265(7)
The Order Model's Conception of Social Class
266(1)
The Conflict Model's Conception of Social Class
267(3)
Summary: Class from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
270(2)
The Consequences of Social Class Positions
272(3)
Physical Health
272(2)
Family Instability
274(1)
The Draft
274(1)
Justice
275(1)
Education
275(1)
Social Mobility
275(5)
Education and Social Mobility
277(1)
The New Downward Mobility and the Shrinking Middle Class
278(2)
Poverty in the United States
280(2)
Racial Minorities
281(1)
Human Agency: Coping Strategies among the Poor
282(4)
Women
283(1)
Children
284(1)
The Elderly
284(1)
The Geography of Poverty
284(2)
The Poor-Poor
286(1)
Myths about Poverty
286(2)
Refusal to Work
286(1)
Welfare Dependency
287(1)
A Closer Look: The New Welfare Policy: A Critique
288(7)
The Poor Get Special Advantages
290(1)
Welfare Is a Black and Latino Program
291(4)
Racial Inequality
295(32)
Introduction
295(1)
Racial and Ethnic Minorities
296(2)
Racial Categories
297(1)
Research Methods: Measuring Race and Ethnicity
298(6)
Differences among Racial and Ethnic Groups
300(4)
Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Inequality
304(6)
Deficiency Theories
304(2)
Bias Theories
306(1)
Structural-Discrimination Theories
307(3)
Racial Stratification from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
310(1)
Discrimination against Blacks and Hispanics: Continuity and Change
311(5)
Income
312(2)
Education
314(1)
Unemployment
315(1)
Human Agency: Erase---A Model for School Reform
316(3)
Type of Employment
316(1)
Health
317(2)
Contemporary Trends and Issues in U.S. Racial and Ethnic Relations
319(2)
Growing Racial Strife
320(1)
Technology and Social Life: Racist Web Sites
321(6)
Economic Polarization in U.S. Inner Cities
322(1)
Racial Policies at Century's End
323(4)
Gender Inequality
327(42)
Diversity: Is a Gender-Free World Possible?
328(1)
The Differentiation and Ranking of Women and Men
329(2)
Is Gender Based on Biological or Social Differences?
329(1)
Gender and Power
330(1)
Other Societies, Other Ways: Smart Women Are Ugly?
331(3)
Gender Stratification from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
334(2)
The Order Perspective
334(1)
The Conflict Perspective
334(1)
The Implications of the Order and Conflict Perspectives
335(1)
Learning Gender
336(4)
Children at Home
336(2)
Children at Play
338(2)
Technology and Social Life: Where Are the Girls.Com?
340(6)
Formal Education
342(3)
Socialization as Blaming the Victim
345(1)
Reinforcing Male Dominance
346(6)
Language
346(1)
Interpersonal Behavior
346(1)
Mass Communications Media
347(1)
Religion
348(2)
The Law
350(1)
Lawmaking and Politics
351(1)
Structured Gender Inequality
352(9)
Occupational Distribution
352(4)
Earnings Discrimination
356(1)
Race, Gender, and Workplace Segregation
357(1)
Pay Equity
358(1)
How Workplace Inequality Operates
359(2)
Women and Men in Families
361(1)
The Costs and Consequences of Sexism
361(1)
Who Benefits?
361(1)
The Social and Individual Costs
361(1)
A Closer Look: A Square Peg in a Round Hole: Women's Resistance in Traditionally Male-Dominated Fields
362(2)
Fighting the System
364(5)
Feminist Movements in the United States
364(1)
Women's Struggles at Century's End
365(4)
Part FOUR Social Institutions
The Economy
369(30)
Introduction
369(1)
Capitalism and Socialism
370(3)
Capitalism
370(2)
Socialism
372(1)
The Corporation-Dominated Economy
373(3)
Monopolistic Capitalism
373(2)
Multinational Corporations
375(1)
Capitalism and Inequality
376(2)
Concentration of Corporate Wealth
377(1)
Concentration of Private Wealth
377(1)
Concentration of Want and Misery
377(1)
Work in U.S. Society
378(7)
The Problems of Work
378(7)
Human Agency: Sweatshop Workers Organize and Win
385(6)
Unemployment
390(1)
A Closer Look: The Real Un(der)employment Rate
391(1)
Capitalism in Crisis
392(7)
The Negative Consequences of Private Profitability over Social Need
392(1)
Declining Wages, Jobs, Consumerism, and Profits
393(1)
The Lack of Economic Planning
394(5)
Power and Politics
399(34)
Models of the National Power Structure
400(2)
Pluralist Models
400(2)
A Closer Look: Structural Barriers to Democracy
402(2)
A Closer Look: Mischievous Myths about Money in Politics
404(15)
Elitist Models
408(11)
The Consequences of Concentrated Power
419(3)
Subsidies to Big Business
421(1)
Human Agency: The Use of the Courts to Achieve Racial Equality
422(6)
Foreign Policy for Corporate Benefit
425(1)
The Powerless Pay the Burden
426(2)
Trickle-Down Solutions
428(1)
Conclusion
428(5)
Families
433(32)
The Mythical Family in the United States
433(2)
Families in Contemporary U.S. Society
435(10)
The Family in Capitalism
435(1)
Stratification and Family Life
436(3)
Structural Transformation and Family Life
439(3)
The Changing Composition of Households and Families
442(3)
Technology and Social Life: Making a Baby Ten Different Ways
445(1)
Changing Family Roles
445(7)
Marriage
445(3)
Divorce and Remarriage
448(2)
The Worlds of Work and Family
450(2)
Research Methods: Researching Families
452(5)
Children and Adolescents
453(2)
The Aged
455(2)
Violence in Families
457(1)
The Modern Family from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
458(1)
Families of the Future
459(1)
Diversity: Why Family Issues Matter for Lesbians and Gays
460(5)
Education
465(28)
Introduction
465(1)
The Characteristics of U.S. Education
466(4)
Education as a Conserving Force
466(1)
Mass Education
467(1)
Local Control of Education
467(2)
The Competitive Nature of U.S. Education
469(1)
The Sifting and Sorting Function of Schools
469(1)
The Preoccupation with Order and Control
469(1)
Diversity: Cooling Out the Failures
470(2)
The Political Economy of Education in Corporate Society
472(2)
The Role of Education in Corporate Society
472(1)
Social Class Biases of the Educational System
473(1)
Education and Inequality
474(4)
The Relation between School Success and Socioeconomic Status
475(3)
Diversity: Inequality and Education of the Urban Poor
478(2)
Other Societies, Other Ways: U.S. Expenditures on Education
480(10)
Tracking and Teachers' Expectations
486(4)
Education from the Order and Conflict Perspectives
490(3)
Religion
493(32)
Introduction
493(2)
A Closer Look: Holy Tortilla
495(2)
Classical Sociology's Differing Interpretations of Religion
497(1)
Religion from the Order Perspective of Emile Durkheim
497(1)
Religion from the Conflict Perspective of Karl Marx
497(1)
Max Weber's View of Religion and Social Change
498(1)
Some Distinctive Features of U.S. Religion
498(3)
Civil Religion
498(2)
The Variety of Religious Belief
500(1)
Religious Organization
500(1)
Diversity: Islam in the United States
501(4)
A Closer Look: The Heaven's Gate Cult
505(1)
Class, Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Religion
506(4)
The Relationship between Social Class and Religion
506(2)
Religion and Race: The Case of African Americans
508(1)
Religion and Gender
509(1)
Diversity: Religion and Patriarchy
510(2)
Religion and Sexuality
511(1)
Religious Trends
512(4)
Decline of the Mainline Denominations
513(1)
Rise of Christian Fundamentalism
514(1)
The Electronic Church
515(1)
Contemporary Christianity and Politics
516(4)
The Religious Right
516(2)
The Role of Mainline Churches: Comfort or Challenge?
518(2)
Religion from the Order and the Conflict Perspectives
520(5)
Part FIVE Human Agency
Human Agency: Individuals and Groups in Society Changing Social Structures
525(18)
The Sociological Paradox: Social Structure and Agency
525(1)
Social Movements
526(2)
Types of Social Movements
527(1)
A Closer Look: Winning Civil Rights for People with Disabilities
528(2)
The Life Course of Social Movements
528(2)
A Closer Look: Students against Sweatshops
530(1)
Agency: Social Change from the Bottom Up
531(9)
The Civil Rights Movement
532(4)
Gender Equity in Sports
536(4)
Conclusion
540(3)
Glossary 543(10)
References 553(18)
Name Index 571(8)
Subject Index 579


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