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The most comprehensive and current textbook on gang research, gang policy, and gang responses,Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community,Third Edition, offers a full and unbiased assessment of the characteristics of gang members and gang behavior. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES Strong focus on the community contextsthat contribute to gang activity Quotes from real-life gang membersprovide students with a realistic portrait of gang life NEW TO THIS EDITION New chapterson criminological theory (Ch. 2), gang structure (Ch. 3), gang membership throughout the life course (Ch. 4), and gangs across the world (Ch. 7) Completely rewritten chapterson the impact of gang membership on crime (Ch. 5) and the relationship between gangs and the juvenile and criminal justice system (Ch. 9) Expanded coverageof the Spergel model, gang response strategies, female gangs, and more
G. David Curry is Professor Emeritus of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Scott H. Decker is Foundation Professor and Director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. David C. Pyrooz is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements Preface CHAPTER 1. WHAT IS A GANG AND WHY DOES IT MATTER? Defining a Gang Defining Gangs and Gang Members Counting Gangs, Gang Members, and Gang Crimes Walter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-75) Walter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-82) Needle and Stapleton, Police Handling of Youth Gangs (1983) Spergel and Curry, The National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program (1988) Curry, Ball, and Fox, The National Assessment of Law Enforcement Anti-Gang Information Resources (1992) Curry, Ball, and Decker, The NIJ Extended National Assessment Survey (1994) Malcolm Klein, The Study of Gang Problem Cities (pre-1990-95) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's National Youth Gang Survey (1995-Present) History and Trends in Gangs and Gang Behaviors Summary of Key Points Demographic Correlates of Gang Involvement Age Gender Race and Ethnicity Socioeconomic Status Region and Urban Residence How Does the National Survey Data Compare to Police Data? Summary CHAPTER 2. EXPLAINING GANGS AND GANG MEMBERSHIP Why Do Some Places Have Gang Problems and Others Do Not? Macro-Level Theories Structural Control Structural Adaptation Macro-Level Evidence Gang Violence Across Places Gangs and Gang Membership Across Places Why Do Some People End Up in Gangs and Others Do Not? Micro-Level Theories Criminal Propensity Theory Social Bond Theory General Strain Theory Social Learning Theory Gang Membership Trait Theory Integrated Gang Membership Theories Micro-Level Evidence Major Findings Summary CHAPTER 3. FROM PLAY GROUPS TO AL-QAEDA: HOW ARE GANGS STRUCTURED? Gangs and Organization Gang Typologies and Gang Member Behavior Organizational Features of Gangs Gang Leaders Gang Rules Gang Roles Gang Meetings Gang Money Gangs in Relation to Other Criminal Groups Gangs and Terrorist Groups Transnational Organized Crime Groups and Their Activities Comparing Criminal Groups Summary CHAPTER 4. GANG MEMBERSHIP IN THE LIFE COURSE Key Life-Course Concepts for Understanding Gang Membership Joining the Gang Why Do Adolescents Join Gangs? How Do Adolescents Join Gangs? Life in the Gang Are All Gang Members Equally Involved in Gangs? How Long Do Adolescents Remain in Gangs? Leaving the Gang Why Do Gang Members Leave the Gang? How Do Gang Members Leave the Gang? Summary CHAPTER 5. THE LINK BETWEEN GANGS AND CRIME: WHY IS "GANG" SYNONYMOUS WITH CRIME? Models of Gang Membership, Criminal Behavior, and Victimization Theory Evidence What Types of Crime Do Gang Members Commit? Drug Use Drug Dealing Gun Ownership and Gun Carrying Serious Violence Violence, Victimization, and Group Process What Is Group Process? And How Does It Apply to Gangs? Group Process and the Cycle of Gang Violence Coping with Gang Violence Summary CHAPTER 6. GIRLS, WOMEN, AND GANGS: DOES GANG MEMBERSHIP DIFFER FOR FEMALES? The Scope of Female Gang Involvement Perspectives on Females and Gangs: Liberated, Exploited, or Marginalized? The Marginalization Hypothesis: Frederic Thrasher and Female Invisibility The Liberation Hypothesis: Anne Campbell and Female Autonomy The Social Injury Hypothesis: Joan Moore and Female Exploitation So Where Do the Molls Stand? Girls in the Gang Pathways to Gang Membership The Serious Consequences of Life in the Gang Leaving the Gang Summary CHAPTER 7. GANG MEMBERS, GANGS, AND GANG CRIME AROUND THE WORLD Defining Gangs in a Global Context The Global Scope of Gang Activity Canada Europe Gangs in Great Britain Gangs in Scandinavia European Summary Latin America and the Caribbean Gangs in Mexico Gangs in Trinidad and Tobago Africa, the Asia Pacific Region, and Elsewhere Gangs in Africa Gangs in Asia Gangs in Israel and Russia Gangs in Australia Summary CHAPTER 8. GANGS AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES Traditional Social Institutions Family Schools Labor Market Politics Emerging Social Institutions The Internet The Gang Summary CHAPTER 9. GANGS AND THE JUVENILE AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS Addressing Gangs in Street Settings The Police Police Gang Units Gang Databases Civil Gang Injunctions Specialized Gang Prosecution Anti-Gang Legislation Specialized Gang Probation and Parole Addressing Gangs in Incarcerated Settings Gang Members and Jails Gangs and Prison Structure and Organization Prison Gang Types Prison Gangs and Offending Behind Bars Correctional Responses to Prison Gangs Gang Members, Reentry, and Recidivism Comprehensive Criminal Justice-Based Gang Interventions The Office of Community Oriented Policing Anti-Gang Initiative, 1996 Boston Ceasefire Massachusetts Shannon Grant Program Summary CHAPTER 10. RESPONDING TO GANGS: COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMS AND A LOOK TO THE FUTURE Categories of Response Strategies Community Organization The Chicago Area Project Mobilization for Youth, New York City Crisis Intervention Network, Philadelphia Social Intervention Midcity Project, Boston Chicago Youth Development Project The Group Guidance Project and the Ladino Hills Program, Los Angeles Opportunities Provision Homeboy Industries (HBI) Los Angeles Gang Reduction Youth Development (GRYD) Suppression Organizational Development and Change Gang Crime Prevention Center, Illinois The Legacy of Irving Spergel and The Comprehensive Gang Strategy The Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI) Prevention Gang Resistance Education and Training Program Continuing Issues in Responding to Gangs Delinquency Programs or Gang Programs? National Versus Local Responses Denial Definitional Issues Linking Causes and Responses Evaluation The Role of Gang Members in Responding to Gang Crime Problems Variations in Gang Crime Problems Continually Evaluate and Improve Evaluation Itself Link Response to Theory What Is the Future of Gangs? Summary