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The most comprehensive and current textbook on gang research, gang policy, and gang responses,Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community,Third Edition, offers a full and unbiased assessment of the characteristics of gang members and gang behavior. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES Strong focus on the community contextsthat contribute to gang activity Quotes from real-life gang membersprovide students with a realistic portrait of gang life NEW TO THIS EDITION New chapterson criminological theory (Ch. 2), gang structure (Ch. 3), gang membership throughout the life course (Ch. 4), and gangs across the world (Ch. 7) Completely rewritten chapterson the impact of gang membership on crime (Ch. 5) and the relationship between gangs and the juvenile and criminal justice system (Ch. 9) Expanded coverageof the Spergel model, gang response strategies, female gangs, and more
G. David Curry is Professor Emeritus of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.
Scott H. Decker is Foundation Professor and Director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University.
David C. Pyrooz is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1. WHAT IS A GANG AND WHY DOES IT MATTER?
Defining a Gang
Defining Gangs and Gang Members
Counting Gangs, Gang Members, and Gang Crimes
Walter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-75)
Walter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-82)
Needle and Stapleton, Police Handling of Youth Gangs (1983)
Spergel and Curry, The National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program (1988)
Curry, Ball, and Fox, The National Assessment of Law Enforcement Anti-Gang Information Resources (1992)
Curry, Ball, and Decker, The NIJ Extended National Assessment Survey (1994)
Malcolm Klein, The Study of Gang Problem Cities (pre-1990-95)
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's National Youth Gang Survey (1995-Present)
History and Trends in Gangs and Gang Behaviors
Summary of Key Points
Demographic Correlates of Gang Involvement
Race and Ethnicity
Region and Urban Residence
How Does the National Survey Data Compare to Police Data?
CHAPTER 2. EXPLAINING GANGS AND GANG MEMBERSHIP
Why Do Some Places Have Gang Problems and Others Do Not?
Gang Violence Across Places
Gangs and Gang Membership Across Places
Why Do Some People End Up in Gangs and Others Do Not?
Criminal Propensity Theory
Social Bond Theory
General Strain Theory
Social Learning Theory
Gang Membership Trait Theory
Integrated Gang Membership Theories
CHAPTER 3. FROM PLAY GROUPS TO AL-QAEDA: HOW ARE GANGS STRUCTURED?
Gangs and Organization
Gang Typologies and Gang Member Behavior
Organizational Features of Gangs
Gangs in Relation to Other Criminal Groups
Gangs and Terrorist Groups
Transnational Organized Crime Groups and Their Activities
Comparing Criminal Groups
CHAPTER 4. GANG MEMBERSHIP IN THE LIFE COURSE
Key Life-Course Concepts for Understanding Gang Membership
Joining the Gang
Why Do Adolescents Join Gangs?
How Do Adolescents Join Gangs?
Life in the Gang
Are All Gang Members Equally Involved in Gangs?
How Long Do Adolescents Remain in Gangs?
Leaving the Gang
Why Do Gang Members Leave the Gang?
How Do Gang Members Leave the Gang?
CHAPTER 5. THE LINK BETWEEN GANGS AND CRIME: WHY IS "GANG" SYNONYMOUS WITH CRIME?
Models of Gang Membership, Criminal Behavior, and Victimization
What Types of Crime Do Gang Members Commit?
Gun Ownership and Gun Carrying
Violence, Victimization, and Group Process
What Is Group Process? And How Does It Apply to Gangs?
Group Process and the Cycle of Gang Violence
Coping with Gang Violence
CHAPTER 6. GIRLS, WOMEN, AND GANGS: DOES GANG MEMBERSHIP DIFFER FOR FEMALES?
The Scope of Female Gang Involvement
Perspectives on Females and Gangs: Liberated, Exploited, or Marginalized?
The Marginalization Hypothesis: Frederic Thrasher and Female Invisibility
The Liberation Hypothesis: Anne Campbell and Female Autonomy
The Social Injury Hypothesis: Joan Moore and Female Exploitation
So Where Do the Molls Stand?
Girls in the Gang
Pathways to Gang Membership
The Serious Consequences of Life in the Gang
Leaving the Gang
CHAPTER 7. GANG MEMBERS, GANGS, AND GANG CRIME AROUND THE WORLD
Defining Gangs in a Global Context
The Global Scope of Gang Activity
Gangs in Great Britain
Gangs in Scandinavia
Latin America and the Caribbean
Gangs in Mexico
Gangs in Trinidad and Tobago
Africa, the Asia Pacific Region, and Elsewhere
Gangs in Africa
Gangs in Asia
Gangs in Israel and Russia
Gangs in Australia
CHAPTER 8. GANGS AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
Traditional Social Institutions
Emerging Social Institutions
CHAPTER 9. GANGS AND THE JUVENILE AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS
Addressing Gangs in Street Settings
Police Gang Units
Civil Gang Injunctions
Specialized Gang Prosecution
Specialized Gang Probation and Parole
Addressing Gangs in Incarcerated Settings
Gang Members and Jails
Gangs and Prison
Structure and Organization
Prison Gang Types
Prison Gangs and Offending Behind Bars
Correctional Responses to Prison Gangs
Gang Members, Reentry, and Recidivism
Comprehensive Criminal Justice-Based Gang Interventions
The Office of Community Oriented Policing Anti-Gang Initiative, 1996
Massachusetts Shannon Grant Program
CHAPTER 10. RESPONDING TO GANGS: COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMS AND A LOOK TO THE FUTURE
Categories of Response Strategies
The Chicago Area Project
Mobilization for Youth, New York City
Crisis Intervention Network, Philadelphia
Midcity Project, Boston
Chicago Youth Development Project
The Group Guidance Project and the Ladino Hills Program, Los Angeles
Homeboy Industries (HBI)
Los Angeles Gang Reduction Youth Development (GRYD)
Organizational Development and Change
Gang Crime Prevention Center, Illinois
The Legacy of Irving Spergel and The Comprehensive Gang Strategy
The Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI)
Gang Resistance Education and Training Program
Continuing Issues in Responding to Gangs
Delinquency Programs or Gang Programs?
National Versus Local Responses
Linking Causes and Responses
The Role of Gang Members in Responding to Gang Crime Problems
Variations in Gang Crime Problems
Continually Evaluate and Improve Evaluation Itself
Link Response to Theory
What Is the Future of Gangs?