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Table of Contents
PsychSmart, 1st edition
1. Introduction to Psychology
COPING WITH DISASTER
PSYCHOLOGISTS AT WORK
The Subfields of Psychology
Working at Psychology
A SCIENCE EVOLVES
The Roots of Psychology
Founding Mothers of Psychology
Key Issues in Psychology
THE RESEARCH PROCESS IN PSYCHOLOGY
The Scientific Method
Theories: Broad Explanations
Hypotheses: Testable Predictions
Psychological Research Methods
The Ethics of Research
Should Animals Be Used in Research?
2. Neuroscience and Behavior
NEURONS: THE BASIC UNITS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Structure of the Neuron
How Neurons Fire
Bridging the Gap Between Neurons
Neurotransmitters: Chemical Couriers
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: LINKING NEURONS
Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Evolution of the Nervous System
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: HORMONES AND GLANDS
Spying on the Brain
The Central Core: Our “Old Brain”
The Limbic System: Beyond the Central Core
The Cerebral Cortex: Our “New Brain”
The Adaptable Brain
Two Brains or One?
Human Diversity and Brain Lateralization
The Split Brain: Exploring the Two Hemispheres
Controlling Your Heart—and Mind—Through Biofeedback
3. Sensation and Perception
MET ONCE, RECOGNIZED FOREVER
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION: TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN
SENSING THE WORLD AROUND US
VISION: SHEDDING LIGHT ON THE EYE
Illuminating the Eye
Color Vision and Color Blindness
HEARING AND THE OTHER SENSES
Smell and Taste
The Skin Senses: Touch, Pressure, Temperature, and Pain
How Our Senses Interact
PERCEPTION: CONSTRUCTING OUR IMPRESSIONS OF THE WORLD
The Gestalt Laws of Organization
Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing
Culture and Perception
4. States of Consciousness
OUT OF CONTROL
SLEEP AND DREAMS
The Stages of Sleep
REM Sleep: The Paradox of Sleep
Why Do We Sleep and How Much Sleep is Necessary?
The Function and Meaning of Dreaming
HYPNOSIS AND MEDITATION
Hypnosis: A Trance-Forming Experience?
Meditation: Regulating Our Own Consciousness
Cross-Cultural Routes to Altered States of Consciousness
DRUG USE: THE HIGHS AND LOWS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Stimulants: Drug Highs
Depressants: Drug Lows
Identifying Drug and Alcohol Problems
I WAS A BLACKBERRY ADDICT
What is Classical Conditioning?
How Do Conditioning Principles Apply to Human Behavior?
Extinction of a Conditioned Response
Generalization and Discrimination
How Operant Conditioning Works
Behavior Analysis and Behavior
COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO LEARNING
Observational Learning: Learning Through Imitation
Violence in Television and Video Games: Does the Media’s Message Matter?