9780133767698

Constitutional Law Governmental Powers and Individual Freedoms

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780133767698

  • ISBN10:

    0133767698

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/21/2016
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

For courses in constitutional law.

 

Introduces the core principles of constitutional law in relevant and readable style using real world scenarios and contemporary topics to bring the constitution alive for today’s student!

Relevant and readable, this Third Edition of Constitutional Law: Governmental Powers and Individual Freedoms remains the most up-to-date constitutional law textbook on the market. The text introduces readers to the core principles, cases, and doctrines surrounding the major issues of constitutional law, with an emphasis on governmental powers and civil liberties. Considering real-world cases and contemporary legal scenarios, along with ample visual aids, the text brings the constitution alive, making constitutional law seem relevant rather than remote and theoretical. Modern challenges, cases outside of the Supreme Court, and historical context are also considered, and the Third Edition has been updated with dozens of new cases and contemporary topics.

Author Biography

Daniel E. Hall, a native of Indiana, earned his bachelor’s degree at Indiana University, Juris Doctor at Washburn University, and Doctor of Education in higher education curriculum and instruction at the University of Central Florida. He worked as an intern in the U.S. House of Representatives and at the Brookings Institution before attending law school, as law clerk to both the Honorable Gene E. Brooks, Chief Judge, U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Indiana and the Supreme Court of the Federated States of Micronesia immediately following law school.

 

He has practiced law in both the United States and the Federated State of Micronesia, where he served as Assistant Attorney General following his judicial clerkship with the Supreme Court of Micronesia. In this capacity, he litigated some of the young nation’s first cases addressing important constitutional and traditional law issues.

 

He has been a member of the faculties of the University of Central Florida, the University of Toledo, and Miami University, where he is currently professor and chairperson of Justice and Community Studies. He is also visiting professor of law at Sun Yatsen University in Goungzhou, China. He is the author or coa-uthor of twenty-one textbooks, including revisions, and a dozen journal articles on public law subjects. He is father of Grace Kathryn Hall and Eva Joan Hall. You can learn more about Daniel at danielhall.org. He welcomes your comments and suggestions for this book, which may be sent to hallslawbooks@gmail.com.

 

John P. Feldmeier earned his bachelor’s degree in political science from Ohio Dominican College, Juris Doctor from Capital University Law School, and M.A. and Ph.D. in political science from Miami University. Before joining the academy, Dr. Feldmeier practiced law in Ohio, handling numerous cases involving important constitutional issues, including one that reached the U.S. Supreme Court. Dr. Feldmeier has published several articles on constitutional subjects in law reviews and political science journals. He is currently a Professor of Political Science at Wright State University. John resides in Cincinnati, Ohio, with his wife, Melissa, and his two children, Emma and Jack.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND RULE OF LAW 1

1.1 Constitutions and Rule of Law 1

1.2 Articles of Confederation 6

1.3 Philadelphia Convention 8

1.3(a) The Delegates and Their Mandate 8

1.3(b) The Debates 11

1.3(c) Individual Rights and Slavery 15

1.3(d) Women and the Franchise 17

1.4 Ratification 17

1.5 Amendments 20

1.5(a) Original Copies of the Constitution and Bill of Rights 21

1.6 Values, Politics, and Constitutional Law 22

1.7 Judicial Review 24

1.7(a) Historical Basis 24

1.7(b) Congressional Action 26

Marbury v. Madison 29

1.7(c) Executive Action 33

United States v. Nixon 34

1.7(d) State Action 36

Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee 36

1.7(e) Shield or Sword? 39

1.7(f) A Diffused Model 41

1.7(g) An International Model 42

1.8 Judicial Eras 43

1.8(a) Early Court: The Least Dangerous Branch 43

1.8(b) Marshall Court: Expanding Federal Authority 43

1.8(c) Taney Court: States’ Rights 44

1.8(d) Reconstruction Era: Federal Authority Expands 44

1.8(e) Pre–New Deal Era: Protecting Commercial Interests 45

1.8(f) New Deal Era: Expanding Federal Authority 45

1.8(g) Warren Court: Expanding Individual Rights 46

1.8(h) Burger Court: A Moderate Approach 46

1.8(i) Rehnquist Court: Protecting States’ Rights 47

1.8(j) Roberts Court: An Unfolding Story 47

1.9 The Court Today 48

1.10 Modern Challenges 52

1.11 Summary 52 • Review Questions 53 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in

Action 54 • Notes 55

 

Chapter 2 Dividing Governmental Power 57

2.1 Federalism 57

2.1(a) Dual, Hierarchical, and Cooperative Federalism 59

2.1(b) State and National Powers Compared 63

2.2 Separation of Powers 65

2.3 Checks and Balances 67

2.4 Forms of State and Federal Law 69

2.5 Modern Challenges 70

2.6 Summary 70 • Review Questions 71 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 71 • Notes 73

 

Chapter 3 THE JUDICIARY: ITS ROLE AND JURISDICTION 74

3.1 The Federal Court System 74

3.2 Federal Judges 77

3.3 Formal and Informal Controls on the Federal Judiciary 82

3.3(a) Formal Constraints 83

3.3(b) Informal Constraints 84

3.4 The Role of the Federal Judiciary 85

3.5 Federal Judicial Jurisdiction 87

3.5(a) Case-or-Controversy Requirement 87

Nashville, Cincinnati, and St. Louis Railway v. Wallace 89

3.5(b) Federal Question and Diversity Jurisdiction 90

Federal Question Jurisdiction 90

Grable & Sons v. Darue Engineering 91

Diversity of Citizenship Jurisdiction 93

3.5(c) Pendent Jurisdiction, Removal, and Other Practice Issues 94

Pendent Jurisdiction 94

Removal 94

3.5(d) Supreme Court Jurisdiction 95

Original Jurisdiction 95

Appellate Jurisdiction 97

Ex Parte McCardle 101

United States v. Klein 103

3.5(e) Lower Courts’ Jurisdictions 105

Article III Courts 105

Article I and Article II Courts 107

Administrative Tribunals 108

3.6 Limitations on Federal Judicial Power 109

3.6(a) Ripeness and Mootness 109

Ripeness 109

Mootness 109

Exceptions to Mootness 110

3.6(b) Standing 111

Injury in Fact 111

Sierra Club v. Morton 111

Causation 113

Administrative Law Standing 113

Citizen and Taxpayer Standing 114

Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation, Inc. 115

Association Standing 119

Government Standing and Parens Patriae 119

Congressperson Standing 119

Third-Party Standing 120

Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow 120

Hollingsworth v. Perry 122

Credible Threat of Prosecution 123

Susan B. Anthony List v. Driehaus 123

3.6(c) Political Questions 125

Foreign Affairs, National Security, and Military 128

Tenet v. Doe 128

Exceptions 130

Nixon v. United States 130

3.6(d) Abstention 132

Unsettled State Law 132

Traditional State Law Issues 132

Younger Doctrine 133

3.6(e) Sovereign Immunity and the Eleventh Amendment 133

Coleman v. Court of Appeals of Maryland 136

3.6(f) Other Limitations 137

3.7 State Court Jurisdiction 138

3.8 Constitutional Interpretation 139

3.8(a) Originalism 139

3.8(b) Modernism 141

3.8(c) Historical and Contemporary Literalism 143

3.8(d) Democratic Reinforcement 143

3.8(e) The Interpretation Process 144

3.8(f) Stare Decisis, Canons, and Practices Affecting Interpretation 145

3.8(g) Political Values and Judicial Decisions 150

3.9 Modern Challenges 150

3.10 Summary 151 • Review Questions 152 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 152 • Notes 153

 

Chapter 4 CONGRESS 158

4.1 Legislatures Generally 158

4.2 The Structure and Organization of Congress 160

4.3 Membership in Congress 161

4.3(a) Qualifications and Election 161

4.3(b) Leadership and Rules 165

4.3(c) Discipline and Punishment 166

Expulsion 166

Censorship and Other Discipline 166

4.3(d) Immunity 167

Gravel v. United States 167

U.S.A v. Rayburn House Office Building, Room 2113,

Washington, D.C. 20515 170

4.3(e) Vacancies 175

4.4 Congressional Authority Generally 175

4.5 Commerce Power 176

Gibbons v. Ogden 176

4.5(a) Early Commerce Clause Cases 177

4.5(b) The New Deal and the Commerce Clause 178

4.5(c) The Commerce Clause Today 178

Affectation and Cumulative Affects 179

Wickard v. Filburn 179

The Outer Limit 180

United States v. Lopez 181

United States v. Morrison 184

Gonzales v. Raich 186

4.6 Taxing, Spending, and Borrowing Powers 189

4.7 International, War, and Military Powers 191

4.8 Emergency Powers 191

4.9 Investigatory Powers 192

4.10 Confirmation and Impeachment Powers 193

4.10(a) Appointment and Confirmation 193

4.10(b) Impeachment 194

4.11 Initiation of Constitutional Amendments 199

4.12 Power Over Federal Courts 200

4.13 Federal Property, Territories, and Native Americans 201

4.14 Enforcement of Civil Rights 202

 Katzenbach v. Morgan 202

United States v. Morrison 204

4.15 Other Powers 205

Association of Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics 569 U.S. (2013) 205

4.16 Necessary and Proper Powers 207

United States v. Comstock 208

4.17 Modern Challenges 210

4.18 Summary 211 • Review Questions 211 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 212 • Notes 213

 

Chapter 5 THE PRESIDENCY 215

5.1 Models of Presidential Authority 215

5.2 Selection, Tenure, and Succession 219

Bush v. Gore 222

5.3 Shared Powers 225

5.4 Domestic Powers 225

5.4(a) Legislation 225

5.4(b) Signing Statements 226

5.4(c) Executive Orders, Proclamations, Memoranda 228

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer 229

5.4(d) Impoundment, Nondefense, and

Nonenforcement of Laws 231

5.4(e) Appointment and Removal of Officials 232

National Labor Relations Board v. Canning 235

Myers v. United States 240

Humphrey’s Executor v. United States 241

Free Enterprise Fund v. Public Corporation Accounting Oversight Board 244

5.4(f) Reprieves and Pardons 245

5.4(g) Chief Administrative Officer 248

5.4(h) Emergency Powers 248

Korematsu v. United States 252

Ex Parte Endo 254

5.5 Foreign Affairs Powers 256

5.6 Treaties and Executive Agreements 257

5.6(a) Treaty Power 257

5.6(b) Executory and Self-Executing Treaties 259

5.6(c) Executive Agreements 259

Dames & Moore v. Regan 261

5.7 War Powers 264

5.7(a) War Against Terrorism 266

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld 267

5.8 Presidential Privilege 271

5.9 Presidential Immunity 274

Jones v. Clinton 276

5.10 Modern Challenges 278

5.11 Summary 279 • Review Questions 279 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 280 • Notes 280

 

Chapter 6 ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL SCHEME 283

6.1 Introduction 283

6.2 Agencies and Separation of Powers Principles 284

6.3 Appointment and Control of Federal Officers 285

6.4 Delegation 286

6.5 Nondelegation Doctrine 286

6.5(a) Quasi-Legislative Powers 287

6.5(b) Quasi-Adjudicative Powers 290

6.5(c) Criminal Law Powers 293

Touby v. United States 294

6.5(d) Administrative Procedure Act 295

6.6 Legislative Veto 296

Immigration & Naturalization Service v. Chadha 296

6.7 Modern Challenges 299

6.8 Summary 299 • Review Questions 299 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 300 • Notes 300

 

Chapter 7 CONTEMPORARY FEDERALISM: THE STATE AND FEDERAL RELATIONSHIP 302

7.1 State Authorities 303

7.2 Congressional Action: Preemption and Validation 306

Preston v. Ferrer 309

7.3 Congressional Inaction: The Dormant Commerce Clause 310

American Trucking Associations, INC. v. Michigan Public Service Commission 311

7.3(a) Discriminatory State Laws 312

7.3(b) Burdensome State Laws 315

7.3(c) Liquor Laws 316

7.3(d) State Taxation as Discriminatory and Burdensome 317

7.3(e) State as Market Participant 319

7.3(f) Privileges and Immunities 320

McBurney v. Young 320

7.4 Intergovernmental Immunity 322

Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority 323

7.5 Compacts, Interstate Comity, Full Faith and Credit 326

7.6 G uarantee and Militia Clauses 327

7.7 State Constitutionalism and the New Federalism 328

7.7(a) Approaches to Dual Constitutionalism 330

United States v. Leon 332

Commonwealth v. Edmunds 333

7.8 Modern Challenges 334

7.9 Summary 334 • Review Questions 335 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 335 • Notes 336

 

Chapter 8 THE BILL OF RIGHTS 339

8.1 Why Do We Have a Bill of Rights? 339

8.2 Who Is Protected by the Bill of Rights? 343

United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez 345

8.3 Who Is Limited by the Bill of Rights? 347

Hurtado v. California 349

Palko v. State of Connecticut 350

McDonald et al. v. City of Chicago, Illinois, et al. 354

8.4 What Rights Are Protected? 355

Griswold v. Connecticut 357

8.5 What Does the Bill of Rights Require of the Government? 358

8.6 Modern Challenges 359

8.7 Summary 361 • Review Questions 361 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 362 • Notes 363

 

Chapter 9 FIRST AMENDMENT FREEDOMS OF EXPRESSION, ASSOCIATION, AND PRESS 364

9.1 The Values Served by the Freedom of Expression 364

9.2 The Scope and Substance of the First Amendment 367

9.3 Basic Approaches to Freedom of Speech 368

9.3(a) Conduct Versus Expression 369

Texas v. Johnson 369

9.3(b) Balancing Tests for Regulating Speech 371

Schenck v. United States 371

Brandenburg v. Ohio 373

9.4 Freedom of Speech: Other Factors to Consider 374

9.4(a) Content Versus Conduct 374

9.4(b) Vagueness and Overbreadth 374

9.4(c) Ban Versus Regulation 375

Republican Party of Minnesota v. White 376

9.4(d) Public Versus Nonpublic Forum 377

9.4(e) Content and Viewpoint Neutrality 378

9.4(f) Types of Speech 379

Sexual Expression 379

Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition 381

Fighting Words 382

Elonis v. United States 383

Offensive Speech and Hate Speech 385

Defamation 387

Commercial Speech 387

United States v. Alvarez 388

9.4(g) Assessing Governmental Limitations on Speech 391

9.5 Speech and Political Campaigns 392

Citizens United, Appellant v. Federal Election Commission 395

9.6 Freedom of Association 397

Boy Scouts of America v. Dale 398

9.7 Freedom of the Press 399

9.8 Modern Challenges 403

9.9 Summary 403 • Review Questions 404 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 405 • Notes 406

 

 

Chapter 10 RELIGION AND THE CONSTITUTION 409

10.1 The Founding of the Religion Clauses 410

10.2 The Textual Meaning of the Religion Clauses 411

10.3 Competing Interpretations of the Establishment Clause 414

10.4 Tests Used to Interpret and Apply the Establishment Clause 414

Lemon v. Kurtzman 415

Newdow v. United States Congress 417

Rev’d Sub Nom. Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow 417

Perry v. Van Orden 421

McCreary County, Kentucky, v. ACLU 422

Town of Greece v. Galloway 425

10.5 The Free Exercise Clause 426

Sherbert v. Verner 428

Employment Division v. Smith 430

10.6 Continuing the Debate Over the Free Exercise of Religion 431

Hobby Lobby v. Burwell 432

10.7 Modern Challenges 436

10.8 Summary 437 • Review Questions 438 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 439 • Notes 440

 

Chapter 11 SUBSTANTIVE DUE PROCESS: PRIVACY, PERSONAL AUTONOMY, AND OTHER LIBERTIES 442

11.1 Substantive Due Process 443

11.2 The Right to Privacy 445

11.2(a) Defining Privacy 445

11.2(b) Balancing Privacy Against Competing Interests 445

11.2(c) Constitutional Sources of Privacy 446

11.3 Reproductive Liberties 448

Roe v. Wade 449

Planned Parenthood v. Casey 451

11.4 Personal Autonomy and Human Sexuality 455

Lawrence v. Texas 457

11.5 The Liberty of Marriage: The Same-Sex Marriage Cases 460

11.5(a) State Bans on Same-Sex Marriage 460

Obergefell v. Hodges 461

11.5(b) The Federal Defense of Marriage Act 464

United States v. Windsor 466

11.6 The Right to Die 468

Washington v. Glucksberg 469

Gonzales v. Oregon 470

11.7 Modern Challenges 472

11.8 Economic Liberties 472

11.8(a) Due Process and the Liberty of Contract 472

Lochner v. New York 473

11.8(b) The Contract Clause 475

11.8(c) The Takings Clause 476

Kelo v. City of New London 478

11.9 Modern Challenges 479

11.10 Summary 479 • Review Questions 481 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 481 • Notes 482

 

Chapter 12 EQUAL PROTECTION 484

12.1 Equality as a Constitutional Value 484

Dred Scott v. Sandford 485

12.2 Setting the Stage for Equal Protection 488

12.2(a) State and Federal Sources for Equal Protection 488

Bolling v. Sharpe 489

12.2(b) The Need for “State” Action 489

12.2(c) Nongovernmental Discrimination 490

12.3 The Equal Protection Clause 492

12.3(a) How Suspicious Is the Discrimination? 493

12.3(b) What Constitutional Standard Applies? 494

12.3(c) Putting It All Together: State Action, Civil Rights Laws, and Equal Protection 495

12.4 Race-Based Classifications 497

12.4(a) The Separate but Equal Doctrine 497

Plessy v. Ferguson 498

12.4(b) Ignoring Plessy: Brown v. Board of Education 499

Brown v. Board of Education I 499

12.4(c) Implementing Brown’s Mandate: School Desegregation Cases 500

Brown v. Board of Education II 500

12.4(d) Race as a Suspect Form of Discrimination 502

Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist. No. 1 and Meredith v. Jefferson

County Board of Education 503

12.4(e) Affirmative Action 504

Grutter v. Bollinger 506

Gratz v. Bollinger et al. 507

Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin 508

12.5 Modern Challenges 510

12.6 Sex-Based Classifications 511

Frontiero v. Richardson 511

United States v. Virginia 513

12.7 Sexual Orientation and Identity 515

Romer v. Evans 516

In The Supreme Court of Iowa No. 07–1499 517

12.8 Modern Challenges 520

12.9 Other Characteristic-Driven Classifications 521

12.9(a) Alienage 521

12.9(b) Parents’ Marital Status at Birth (“Illegitimacy”) 522

12.9(c) Age 522

12.9(d) Wealth 522

San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez 523

12.10 Classifications that Interfere with Fundamental Rights 525

Shapiro v. Thompson 527

12.11 Voting Rights 528

12.11(a) Legislative Redistricting 529

12.11(b) National Standards Versus States’ Rights 530

Shelby County, Alabama v. Holder 531

12.11(c) State Restrictions on Individual Voting 534

12.12 Modern Challenges 535

12.13 Summary 536 • Review Questions 537 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 537 • Notes 538

 

Chapter 13 CIVIL LIBERTIES IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM 541

13.1 Constitutional Values in the Criminal Context 542

13.2 Unreasonable Searches and Seizures 543

13.2(a) The Arrest, Seizure, and Detention of Persons 544

Seizure of Persons 544

Arrests 544

13.2(a)(2)(A) The Need for Probable Cause 545

13.2(a)(2)(B) Use of Deadly or Excessive Force 546

13.2(a)(3)(A) Need for Reasonable Suspicion 548

13.2(a)(3)(B) Detention Must Be Relatively Brief 549

13.2(a)(3)(C) Police Patdowns or Frisks 549

13.2(a)(3)(D) Stop and Identify Laws 550

13.2(a)(3)(E) Motor Vehicle Stops 550

Brendlin v. California 551

13.2(a)(3)(F) Traffic Checkpoints 552

13.2(a)(3)(G) Other Motor Vehicle Stops 552

13.2(b) Evidentiary Searches and Seizures 552

Governmental Conduct 552

Reasonable Expectation of Privacy 553

Government Occupation of a Person’s Property 554

United States v. Jones, 565 U.S. ___ 2012 555

The Process for Evaluating Evidentiary Searches and Seizures 556

13.2(c) Warrant-Based Searches and Seizures 557

Validity of a Search Warrant 557

Execution of Warrant 558

Good Faith Exception 559

13.2(d) Warrantless Evidentiary Searches and Seizures 559

Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement 559

13.2(d)(1)(A) Search Incident to a Lawful Arrest 559

Riley v. California, 573 U.S. ___ (2014) 560

13.2(d)(1)(B) Consent Searches 562

13.2(d)(1)(C) Plain View Searches 563

13.2(d)(1)(D) Terry Searches (Stop and Frisk) 563

13.2(d)(1)(E) Exigent Circumstances 564

13.2(d)(1)(F) Vehicle Searches 564

13.2(d)(1)(G) Administrative and Border Searches 565

13.2(d)(1)(H) School Searches 565

Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding 566

13.3 Modern Challenges 569

13.4 The Right Against Self-Incrimination 569

13.4(a) Custodial Interrogation Requirement 570

13.4(b) Miranda Warnings 571

13.4(c) Basic Framework for Self-Incrimination Issues 572

13.5 The Exclusionary Rule 573

13.6 The Right to Counsel 574

Padilla v. Kentucky 575

13.7 The Right Against Double Jeopardy 576

13.8 The Right to a Fair Trail 577

Public Trial 578

Speedy Trial 578

Jury Trial 578

Juries and Sentencing Factors 579

United States v. Booker and United States v. Fanfan 580

Right to Confront Witnesses 581

Due Process and the Disclosure of Evidence 582

Equal Protection and Prosecutorial Prejudice 582

13.9 Cruel and Unusual Punishment 582

Kennedy v. Louisiana 586

13.10 Modern Challenges 587

13.11 Summary 587 • Review Questions 589 • Assignments: Constitutional Law in Action 589 • Notes 591

Appendix A Constitution of the United States of America 595

Glossary 609

Index 621

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