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Construction Planning and Scheduling,9780130928610
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Construction Planning and Scheduling

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130928610

ISBN10:
0130928615
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $105.80
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Summary

This straightforward text is unique in that it presents a comprehensive introduction to the techniques of construction scheduling as well as broad coverage on all major scheduling subjects. Some of the key features include: bull; bull;Includes a detailed discussion of contract provisions and their relationship to construction scheduling. bull;Presents a discussion of the effects of management decisions intENDed to benefit production on a construction schedule. bull;Presents a treatise on short interval scheduling, also known as "look ahead" schedules, a subject vital to project success. bull;Explains the concept of linear scheduling in easily understood and straightforward terms. bull;Presents problems intENDed to be solved manually, but at the same time allows for the use of computer applications to solve these problems. bull;Problems have been kept simple to allow students to focus on the key points under discussion.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1(16)
Bar Charts
2(8)
Shortcomings of Bar Charts
3(4)
The Sports Facility Project
7(1)
Value of Bar Charts
7(3)
Other Scheduling Approaches
10(1)
Work Breakdown Structure
11(3)
Reasons for Planning and Scheduling in Construction
14(1)
Review Questions
15(2)
CHAPTER 2 DEVELOPING A NETWORK MODEL 17(13)
Steps in Building a Network Model
17(11)
Defining Activities
18(2)
Ordering Activities
20(3)
Drawing the Network Diagram
23(3)
Assigning Durations to Activities
26(1)
Assigning Resources and Costs
27(1)
Calculating Early and Late Start/Finish Times
27(1)
Identify the Critical Path
27(1)
Scheduling Activity Start/Finish Times
28(1)
Final Comments
28(1)
Review Questions
28(2)
CHAPTER 3 PRECEDENCE DIAGRAMS 30(35)
Precedence (Activity-on-Node) Networks
30(1)
Activity Relationships
31(13)
Basics about Precedence Diagrams
40(4)
Calculations on a Precedence Network
44(6)
Independent Float and Interfering Float
50(3)
Final Comments
53(1)
Review Problems
54(11)
CHAPTER 4 DETERMINING ACTIVITY DURATIONS 65(18)
Estimating
65(1)
Types of Estimates
66(1)
Conceptual Estimates
66(1)
Detailed Estimates
66(1)
Conducting a Detailed Estimate
66(6)
Estimating Durations
72(3)
Scheduling Issues
75(1)
Factors Influencing Choice of Activity Schedules
76(5)
Weather and the Schedule
77(1)
Uncertainty in Duration Estimates
78(3)
Final Comments
81(1)
Review Problems
81(2)
CHAPTER 5 TIME IN CONTRACT PROVISIONS 83(27)
Time Is of the Essence
84(1)
Requirements for Project Coordination
84(1)
Cooperation
85(1)
Progress Schedule
85(6)
Ownership of Float
91(2)
Notice to Proceed
93(1)
Time of Completion
94(1)
Units of Time: Working Days or Calendar Days
95(3)
Liquidated Damages-Damages for Late Completion
98(1)
Weather
99(1)
Use of Completed Portions of the Work
99(1)
Substantial Completion
100(1)
Notice of Delays
101(1)
Avoidable Delays
101(1)
Unavoidable Delays
102(1)
Extension of Time (Avoidable Delays)
102(1)
Extension of Time (Unavoidable Delays)
102(2)
Submittals
104(1)
Progress Payments
105(2)
Payment for Materials
107(1)
Final Payment
107(1)
Suspension
107(1)
Termination by Contractor
108(1)
Final Comments
109(1)
Review Questions
109(1)
CHAPTER 6 RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND RESOURCE LEVELING 110(47)
The Management of Resources
110(1)
When Resources Are Limited (Resource Allocation)
111(11)
The Manual Solution for Resource Allocation
113(9)
The Brooks Method of Resource Allocation
122(7)
When Project Duration Is Fixed (Resource Leveling)
129(2)
The Manual Solution for Resource Leveling
131(9)
The Sports Facility Project
139(1)
Final Comments
140(2)
Review Problems
142(15)
CHAPTER 7 MONEY AND NETWORK SCHEDULES 157(35)
Cash Flow
158(11)
The Time Value of Money
158(1)
Interest Rates
158(1)
Contractor Cash Disbursements
159(2)
Contract Provisions That Impact Cash Flow
161(2)
Owner Policies and Practices That Impact Cash Flow
163(1)
The Cash-Flow Analysis
163(2)
The Sports Facility Project
165(1)
The Present Worth of Cash Flow
165(1)
The Value of Cash-Flow Analysis
166(3)
Time-Cost Trade-Offs
169(17)
Direct Costs
170(1)
Indirect Job Costs (Job Overhead)
170(1)
Overhead (Company Overhead)
170(1)
Profit
170(4)
Four Different Solutions for Each Network
174(1)
Logically Reducing Project Duration
175(11)
Final Comments
186(1)
Review Problems
187(5)
CHAPTER 8 PROJECT MONITORING AND CONTROL 192(17)
Construction Time
192(2)
Effective Scheduling
194(1)
Monitoring Project Status
195(4)
Difficulties in Assessing Progress
199(1)
Updating the Schedule
200(1)
Controlling the Project
201(3)
The Sports Facility Project
203(1)
As-Built Schedules
204(3)
Final Comments
207(1)
Review Questions
207(2)
CHAPTER 9 COMPUTER SCHEDULING 209(16)
Computer Scheduling Terms
211(2)
Scheduling Software
213(2)
Primavera (P3)
214(1)
SureTrak Project Manager
215(1)
Microsoft Project
215(1)
Creating a Schedule
215(4)
Updating a Schedule
219(1)
Presenting a Schedule
219(2)
Useful Software Features
221(1)
Sorting and Filtering
221(1)
Global Editing
222(1)
Cash-Flow Analysis
222(1)
Resource Leveling
222(1)
Linking to Other Project Management Software
222(2)
Final Comments
224(1)
Review Questions
224(1)
CHAPTER 10 EARNED VALUE: A MEANS FOR INTEGRATING COSTS AND SCHEDULE 225(14)
The Earned Value Concept
226(5)
Difficulties in Integrating Cost and Schedule Systems
231(3)
Final Comments
234(1)
Review Questions and Problems
235(4)
CHAPTER 11 THE IMPACT OF SCHEDULING DECISIONS ON PRODUCTIVITY 239(24)
Working Overtime
239(3)
Increasing the Workforce (Crowding)
242(2)
Increasing the Number of Starting Points
244(2)
Identifying the Causes of Delays
246(1)
Interruption of Work on Multiple Units (Impact of Lost Learning)
247(3)
Learning Applied to Individual Units
250(3)
Learning Applied to Cumulative Average Units
253(2)
What Happens When Work Is Interrupted?
255(3)
Other Sources of Lost Productivity
258(1)
Final Comments
259(1)
Review Problems
259(4)
CHAPTER 12 CPM IN DISPUTE RESOLUTION AND LITIGATION 263(11)
Going to Court
263(7)
Types of Schedules
270(1)
Impact of Changes
271(1)
Impact of Delays
272(1)
Final Comments
273(1)
Review Questions
273(1)
CHAPTER 13 SHORT-INTERVAL SCHEDULES 274(16)
Short-Interval Schedules in the Literature
276(1)
How Contractors Use Short-Interval Schedules
276(5)
Other Short-Interval Schedules
281(5)
Final Comments
286(3)
Review Questions
289(1)
CHAPTER 14 LINEAR SCHEDULING 290(16)
What Is Linear Scheduling?
293(4)
Example 1: Project to Replace a State Park Walkway
297(3)
Production Rate Diagrams
297(2)
Buffers
299(1)
Generating the Linear Schedule
299(1)
Example 2: Project to Construct
300(6)
Tract Housing Units
301(4)
Final Comments
305(1)
Review Questions
305(1)
CHAPTER 15 PERT: PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE 306(13)
Uncertainty in Activity Duration Estimates
306(5)
Uncertainty in the Duration Estimates of an Activity Chain
311(2)
Uncertainty in the Duration Estimates of Projects
313(1)
Monte Carlo Simulation
314(2)
Final Comments
316(1)
Practice Problems
316(3)
CHAPTER 16 ARROW DIAGRAMS 319(36)
Activity Relationships
320(3)
The i-j Notation of Activities
323(6)
Dummies
323(6)
Performing Time Calculations with Arrow Diagrams
329(7)
Float Values
336(6)
Understanding Free Float and Total Float
342(3)
Final Comments
345(1)
Review Problems
346(9)
REFERENCES 355(2)
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES 357(4)
INDEX 361

Excerpts

Many textbooks have been published on the subject of construction scheduling. Many of them provide excellent information on a variety of scheduling subjects. Unfortunately, they are often limited in their scope, often omitting scheduling subjects that might be of particular interest to the reader. This text is written to provide broad coverage on all major scheduling subjects. My first employment with a construction contractor was a summer job in the 1960s. Although I was given many different assignments, I have vivid memories of the arrow diagram network that I was asked to draw by hand. Of course, I just had a class on the fundamentals of arrow diagramming, so the scheduling assignment was reasonably easy for me. A few years later while working for a different firm, my primary responsibility was scheduling. The scheduling effort was largely focused on the coordination of subcontractors on several different projects for which I used the precedence diagramming method. It was during this period that I developed a strong appreciation for the value of effective scheduling and the use of precedence diagrams. There are many approaches to providing scheduling information. Some of these are described briefly in Chapter 1. This textbook is written with a major emphasis on precedence diagramming, with only the last chapter addressing arrow diagramming. Although I recognize that most scheduling is done with precedence diagrams, I also feel that an introduction to the subject of arrow diagramming is appropriate. In academic settings, I have found that students can grasp arrow diagramming more easily if they have not already been exposed to precedence diagrams. For this reason, instructors who plan to lecture on arrow diagrams should consider jumping to Chapter 16 after the first two chapters are covered. Chapter 3 explains the fundamentals of precedence diagrams. Regardless of the scheduling technique used, successfully using scheduling information is rooted in beginning with accurate time estimates for activity durations as discussed in Chapter 4. One scheduling topic seldom addressed in scheduling texts, especially in detail, is that of contract provisions related to scheduling. This text devotes an entire chapter to this subject (Chapter 5). Resource leveling and resource allocation are described in Chapter 6. The impact of scheduling provisions on cash flow is also addressed (Chapter 7). Manual solutions are described for solving problems related to resource utilization and cash flow. Although such problems are often solved by computer, it is helpful for schedulers to understand the process of arriving at a solution in order to fully comprehend computer solutions. Schedules are management tools and, as such, they should be used. It is through the proper use of schedules that management is able to make informed decisions about scheduling activities. This use includes updating the schedules when the schedule information ceases to be useful for making informed decisions. This process is described in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 addresses computer applications. This chapter is not a user's manual, nor is it a proponent for any particular scheduling software. The more widely used software programs are described to some extent, but this is not to be construed as an endorsement of any particular product. The purpose of the chapter is to familiarize the reader with some of the basic scheduling concepts that are addressed by computer software. Chapter 10 describes earned value concepts. Project schedules are generally adversely impacted by changes in the project. Chapter 11 provides information for quantifying such impacts. Such information is often required when a claim is prepared. Chapter 12 presents a brief discussion of the value of schedules in litigation. Short-interval schedules are addressed in Chapter 13. This treatise is far more extensive than any known writings or papers on the subject. The us


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