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Construction Safety and Health

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130932150

ISBN10:
0130932159
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/30/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $179.60

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Summary

The field of construction safety and health is undergoing significant changes in technology and regulations. This test teas written to fill the need for up-to-date information. Construction Safety and Health is an invaluable source of information for both the construction professional and those studying construction engineering, construction technology, and construction management. This practical and up-to-date text covers all sections of OSHA's 29 CFR 1926, OSHA's Construction Standard. Some key features include: bull; bull;Coverage of critical topics not found in 29 CFR 1926, such as cost of accidents, ethics and safety, bloodborne pathogens, and ISO 14000 bull;Safety Facts & Fines-real-world cases that shoes what can happen if contractors fail to observe safety requirements and practices bull;Key terms, review questions, and critics! thinking/discussion activities reinforce the important concepts learned in each chapter

Author Biography

David L. Goetsch is provost of the joint campus of the University of West Florida and Okaloosa-Walton Community College in Fort Walton Beach and professor of safety and quality. In addition, Dr. Goetsch is president of The Management Institute (TMI), a private consulting firm dedicated to the continual improvement of organizational performance, safety, and quality. He teaches construction safety and occupational safety in both the traditional and distance learning formats.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Safety Movement and the Construction Industry 1(1)
Overview of the Construction Industry
2(2)
Liability in the Construction Industry
4(1)
Competent Person Requirement
5(1)
Milestones in the Safety Movement
5(3)
Role of Organized Labor
8(1)
Role of Specific Health Problems
8(2)
Development of Accident Prevention Programs
10(1)
Development of Safety Organizations
11(1)
Safety and Health Movement Today
12(2)
Summary
14(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
15(1)
Review Questions
15(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
15(1)
Application Activities
16(1)
Endnotes
16(1)
Part 1 Theories and Concepts 17(126)
Cost of Accidents: Why Safety is Important
18(15)
Cost of Accidents
19(1)
Accidental Deaths in the United States
20(1)
Accidents Versus Other Causes of Death
21(1)
Work Accident Costs and Rates
22(1)
Time Lost Because of Work Injuries
23(1)
Deaths in Work Accidents
23(1)
Work Injuries by Type of Accident
23(1)
Death Rates by Industry
24(1)
Parts of the Body Injured on the Job
25(1)
Chemical Burn Injuries
25(1)
Heat Burn Injuries
26(1)
Estimating the Cost of Accidents
27(2)
Summary
29(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
30(1)
Review Questions
30(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
30(1)
Application Activities
31(1)
Endnotes
31(2)
Role of Construction Personnel in Safety and Health
33(12)
Safety and Health Team in Construction
34(1)
Contractors and Safety
34(1)
Managers and Other Professionals and Safety
34(1)
Supervisors and Safety
35(2)
Employees and Safety
37(1)
Safety and Health Professionals
38(1)
Certification of Safety and Health Personnel
38(4)
Summary
42(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
43(1)
Review Questions
43(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
44(1)
Application Activities
44(1)
Endnotes
44(1)
Accident Causation Theories
45(20)
Domino Theory of Accident Causation
45(4)
Human Factors Theory of Accident Causation
49(2)
Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation
51(3)
Epidemiological Theory of Accident Causation
54(2)
Systems Theory of Accident Causation
56(2)
Combination Theory of Accident Causation
58(2)
Behavioral Theory of Accident Causation
60(1)
Summary
61(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
62(1)
Review Questions
62(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
63(1)
Application Activities
63(1)
Endnotes
63(2)
Ethics and Safety
65(15)
An Ethical Dilemma
66(1)
Ethics Defines
66(3)
Ethical Behavior in Organizations
69(1)
Construction Professionals' Role in Ethics
69(2)
Company's Role in Ethics
71(1)
Handling Ethical Dilemmas
72(1)
Questions to Ask When Making Decisions
73(1)
Ethics and Whistle-Blowing
74(3)
Summary
77(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
78(1)
Review Questions
78(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
78(1)
Application Activities
79(1)
Endnotes
79(1)
Workers' Compensation
80(32)
Overview of Workers' Compensation
81(2)
Historical Perspective
83(2)
Workers' Compensation Legislation
85(1)
Modern Workers' Compensation
86(2)
Workers' Compensation Insurance
88(2)
Resolution of Workers' Compensation Disputes
90(1)
Injuries and Workers' Compensation
91(5)
Monetary Benefits of Workers' Compensation
96(1)
Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation
97(1)
Medical Management of Workplace Injuries
98(1)
Administration and Case Management
99(2)
Cost Allocation
101(1)
Problems with Workers' Compensation
101(1)
Spotting Workers' Compensation Fraud or Abuse
102(1)
Future of Workers' Compensation
103(1)
Cost Reduction Strategies
104(3)
Summary
107(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
108(1)
Review Questions
109(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
109(1)
Application Activities
110(1)
Endnotes
110(2)
OSHA Compliance
112(31)
Rationale of the OSH Act
113(1)
OSHA: Mission and Purpose
113(1)
OSH Act Coverage
114(1)
OSHA Standards
115(4)
Record Keeping and Reporting
119(1)
Keeping Employees Informed
120(1)
Workplace Inspections
120(1)
Citations and Penalties
121(1)
Appeals Process
122(1)
State-Level OSHA Programs
123(2)
Services Available from OSHA
125(2)
Employer Rights and Responsibilities
127(2)
Employee Rights and Responsibilities
129(1)
Keeping Up to Date on OSHA Standards
130(1)
Problems with OSHA
131(1)
Other Federal Agencies and Organizations
132(3)
Standards and Codes
135(1)
Laws and Liability
135(2)
OSHA Construction Standards
137(1)
Summary
138(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
140(1)
Review Questions
140(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
141(1)
Application Activities
141(1)
Endnotes
142(1)
Part 2 OSHA's Construction Standard and Related Safety Practices 143(230)
Subparts A through E and Related Safety Practices
144(61)
Subpart A: General Requirements
145(1)
Subpart B: General Interpretations
145(1)
Subpart C: General Safety and Health Problems
146(1)
Subpart D: Occupational Health and Environmental Controls
146(1)
Medical Services and First Aid
147(2)
Occupational Noise
149(13)
Ionizing Radiation
162(7)
Non-Ionizing Radiation
169(2)
Airborne Toxic Substances
171(3)
Hazard Communications
174(1)
Hazardous Waste Operations
175(3)
Lead in Construction
178(2)
Subpart E: Personal Protective and Lifesaving Equipment
180(1)
Head Protection
180(2)
Eye and Face Protection
182(4)
Hearing Protection Devices
186(1)
Torso Protection
186(1)
Hand and Arm Protection
187(1)
Foot and Leg Protection
188(2)
Fall Protection, Lifelines, and Safety Nets
190(4)
Guidelines for Respirators
194(2)
Protecting Workers from Heat Hazards
196(4)
Summary
200(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
201(1)
Review Questions
202(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
203(1)
Application Activities
204(1)
Endnotes
204(1)
Subparts F through J and Related Safety Practices
205(41)
Subpart F: Fire Protection and Prevention
206(1)
Fire Protection and Prevention
206(1)
Sources of Fire Hazards
207(3)
Fire Safety Programs
210(1)
Fire Protection Strategies
211(1)
Fire Extinguishing Systems
211(4)
Fire Prevention Strategies
215(3)
Subpart G: Signs, Signals, and Barricades and Related Safety Practices
218(1)
Signs and Signals
218(2)
Barricades and Barriers
220(2)
Subpart H: Material Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal and Related Safety Practices
222(1)
Handling and Storing Materials
222(4)
Rigging of Materials
226(2)
Disposal of Waste Materials
228(1)
Subpart I: Hand and Power Tools and Related Safety Practices
229(1)
Pneumatic Tools
229(1)
Power-Actuated Guns
230(2)
Power Tools (General)
232(1)
Power Tools (Electrical)
233(1)
Power Tools (Hydraulic)
233(1)
Woodworking Tools
233(1)
Subpart J: Welding and Cutting and Related Safety Practices
234(1)
General Precautions
235(2)
Specific Precautions: Gas Welding and Cutting
237(1)
Specific Precautions: Arc Welding and Cutting
238(2)
Specific Precautions: Fire Prevention
240(1)
Specific Precautions: Ventilation
240(1)
Summary
241(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
243(1)
Review Questions
243(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
244(1)
Application Activities
244(1)
Endnotes
245(1)
Subparts K through O and Related Safety Practices
246(52)
Subpart K: Electrical Requirements and Related Safety Practices
247(1)
Overview of Electricity
248(4)
Installation Safety Requirements
252(4)
Safety-Related Work Practices
256(1)
Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations
257(1)
Safety Requirements for Special Equipment
257(1)
Subpart L: Scaffolding Requirements and Related Safety Practices
258(1)
Rationale for Scaffolding Requirements
258(2)
General Requirements for Scaffolding
260(7)
Aerial Lifts
267(3)
Training Requirements Related to Scaffolds
270(1)
Subpart M: Fall Protection Requirements and Related Safety Practices
270(2)
Requirements of the Standard
272(2)
Fall Protection Systems
274(3)
Protection from Falling Objects
277(1)
Fall Protection Plan
278(1)
Fall Protection Training
278(2)
Subpart N: Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, Conveyors, and Related Safety Practices
280(1)
Cranes and Derricks
280(5)
Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors
285(1)
Helicopters
286(1)
Aerial Lifts
287(2)
Subpart O: Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, Marine Operations, and Related Safety Practices
289(1)
Motor Vehicles and Mechanized Equipment
289(4)
Marine Operations and Equipment
293(1)
Summary
293(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
294(1)
Review Questions
294(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
295(1)
Application Activities
296(1)
Endnotes
297(1)
Subparts P through U and Related Safety Practices
298(47)
Subpart P: Excavations and Related Safety Practices
299(1)
Excavations
299(2)
Cave-Ins
301(3)
Other Hazards
304(2)
Subpart Q: Concrete and Masonry Construction and Related Safety Practices
306(1)
Concrete Work
307(3)
Cast-in-Place Concrete
310(1)
Pre-Cast Concrete
311(3)
Lift-Slab Concrete
314(1)
Masonry Construction
314(2)
Subpart R: Steel Erection and Related Safety Practices
316(1)
Structural Steel Construction
316(1)
Site Layout, Site-Specific Erection Plan, and Construction Sequence
317(1)
Hoisting and Rigging
318(3)
Structural Steel Erection
321(1)
Column Anchorage
321(2)
Beams and Columns
323(1)
Open Web Steel Joists
323(1)
Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings
324(1)
Falling Object Protection
324(2)
Fall Protection
326(1)
Training
327(1)
Subpart S: Tunnels, Shafts, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air and Related Safety Practices
327(1)
Underground Construction
327(4)
Caissons
331(1)
Cofferdams
331(1)
Compressed Air
332(1)
Subpart T: Demolition
333(1)
Preparatory Operations
334(1)
Other Requirements in Demolition Operations
334(3)
Subpart U: Blasting and Use of Explosives and Related Safety Practices
337(1)
Blasting: General Provisions
337(1)
Other Requirements in Blasting Operations
338(2)
Summary
340(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
341(1)
Review Questions
341(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
342(1)
Application Activities
343(1)
Endnotes
343(2)
Subparts V through Z and Related Safety Practices
345(28)
Subpart V: Power Transmission, Distribution, and Related Safety Practices
346(1)
General Requirements
346(1)
Tools and Protective Equipment
347(1)
Mechanical Equipment
348(1)
Material Handling
348(1)
Grounding for Protection of Employees
349(1)
Overhead Lines
349(1)
Underground Lines
349(1)
Construction in Energized Substations
350(1)
External Load Helicopters
350(1)
Lineman's Body Belts, Safety Straps, and Lanyards
350(1)
Subpart W: Rollover Protective Structures and Overhead Protection
351(1)
Rollover Protective Structures, Overhead Protection, and Test Procedures and Criteria
352(2)
Subpart X: Stairways and Ladders
354(1)
Ladders and Training
355(1)
Subpart Y: Commercial Diving Operations
356(1)
Diving Requirements
357(4)
Subpart Z: Toxic and Hazardous Substances
361(1)
Asbestos
362(4)
Model for Taking Appropriate Precautions with Chemicals
366(2)
Summary
368(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
368(1)
Review Questions
369(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
370(1)
Application Activities
370(1)
Endnotes
371(2)
Part 3 Application on the Job 373(92)
Construction Safety and Health: Program and Policies
374(18)
Rationale for Written Safety and Health Plans
375(1)
Components of the Plan
376(10)
Communicating the Plan to Employees
386(1)
Evaluating the Program
386(3)
Summary
389(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
389(1)
Review Questions
390(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
390(1)
Application Activities
391(1)
Endnotes
391(1)
Job Safety and Hazard Analysis
392(19)
Overview of Hazard Analysis
393(1)
Preliminary Hazard Analysis
394(2)
Detailed Hazard Analysis
396(9)
Hazard Prevention and Reduction
405(2)
Risk Assessment
407(1)
Summary
408(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
409(1)
Review Questions
409(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
409(1)
Application Activities
410(1)
Endnotes
410(1)
Accident Investigation, Reporting, and Record Keeping
411(20)
When to Investigate
412(1)
What to Investigate
412(2)
Who Should Investigate
414(1)
Conducting the Investigation
414(3)
Interviewing Witnesses
417(3)
Reporting Accidents
420(4)
Record Keeping
424(4)
Summary
428(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
429(1)
Review Questions
429(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
429(1)
Application Activities
430(1)
Endnotes
430(1)
Emergency Response Plan
431(17)
Rationale for Emergency Preparation
431(1)
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
431(3)
Organization and Coordination
434(1)
OSHA Standard and Employee Emergency Action Plans
434(1)
Customizing Plans to Meet Local Needs
435(3)
First Aid in Emergencies
438(2)
Emergency Response
440(1)
Computers and Emergency Response
440(2)
Dealing with the Psychological Trauma of Emergencies
442(2)
Summary
444(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
445(1)
Review Questions
445(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
446(1)
Application Activities
446(1)
Endnotes
447(1)
Total Safety Management
448(17)
What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
449(1)
How Does TQM Relate to Safety?
450(2)
Safety Management in a TQM Setting
452(1)
What Is Total Safety Management (TSM)?
452(2)
Translating TSM into Action
454(1)
Fundamental Elements of TSM
455(5)
Rationale for TSM
460(1)
Implementing TSM: The Model
460(2)
Summary
462(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
462(1)
Review Questions
463(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
463(1)
Application Activities
463(1)
Endnotes
463(2)
Part 4 Other Safety and Health Issues and Practices 465(110)
Preventing Violence in the Workplace
466(25)
Occupational Safety and Workplace Violence: The Relationship
467(1)
Workplace Violence: Definitions
467(1)
Size of the Problem
468(1)
Legal Considerations
469(3)
Contributing Social and Cultural Factors
472(10)
Conflict Resolution and Workplace Violence
482(4)
Guidelines for Supervisors
486(1)
Emergency Preparedness Plan
487(1)
Summary
487(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
488(1)
Review Questions
488(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
489(1)
Application Activities
489(1)
Endnotes
489(2)
Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace
491(24)
Facts about HIV Infection and AIDS
492(1)
Symptoms of AIDS
492(2)
HIV in the Workplace
494(2)
Legal Concerns
496(3)
AIDS Education
499(1)
Counseling Infected Employees
500(2)
Easing Employee Fears about AIDS
502(1)
Protecting Employees from AIDS
503(1)
Safety Needles
504(1)
Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus
504(2)
OSHA Standard on Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens
506(5)
Summary
511(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
512(1)
Review Questions
512(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
513(1)
Application Activities
513(1)
Endnotes
513(2)
Stress in the Workplace
515(12)
Workplace Stress Defined
516(1)
Sources of Workplace Stress
516(2)
Human Reaction to Workplace Stress
518(1)
Measurement of Workplace Stress
519(1)
Shift Work, Stress, and Safety
520(1)
Improving Safety by Reducing Workplace Stress
521(1)
Stress and Safety Professionals
522(1)
Stress and Workers' Compensation
523(1)
Summary
523(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
524(1)
Review Questions
525(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
525(1)
Application Activities
525(1)
Endnotes
526(1)
Environmental Safety and ISO 14000
527(29)
Safety, Health, and the Environment
528(1)
Legislation and Regulation
529(1)
OSHA/EPA Partnership
529(2)
Types of Environments
531(2)
Role of Construction Professionals
533(1)
Environment Management Systems (EMS)
533(5)
International Standards Organization (ISO)
538(1)
ISO 14000
539(1)
ISO 14000 Series of Standards
539(1)
ISO 14001 Standard
540(12)
Summary
552(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
553(1)
Review Questions
553(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
554(1)
Application Activities
554(1)
Endnotes
554(2)
Promoting Safety
556(19)
Company Safety Policy
557(1)
Safety Rules and Regulations
558(1)
Employee Participation in Promoting Safety
559(1)
Safety Training
559(1)
Suggestion Programs
559(2)
Visual Awareness
561(1)
Safety Committees
562(2)
Gaining a Personal Commitment
564(1)
Employee and Management Participation
565(1)
Incentives
566(1)
Competition
567(1)
Company-Sponsored Wellness Programs
567(2)
Teamwork Approach to Promoting Safety
569(3)
Summary
572(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
573(1)
Review Questions
573(1)
Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities
573(1)
Application Activities
574(1)
Endnotes
574(1)
Glossary 575(12)
Index 587

Excerpts

BACKGROUND The field of construction safety and health has undergone significant change over the past two decades. There are many reasons for this. Some of the more prominent ones include the following: technological changes that have introduced new hazards at construction sites; proliferation of health and safety legislation and corresponding regulations; increased pressure from regulatory agencies; realization that productivity is increased in a safe and healthy environment; rising healthcare and workers' compensation costs; a growing interest in ethics and corporate responsibility; increased pressure from labor organizations, workers, and the public in general; and an increasing number of incidents of workplace violence. All of these factors, when taken together, have made the job of the modern construction professional more challenging and important than ever. These factors have also created the need for an up-to-date book on construction safety and health that contains the latest information needed by people who are responsible for safety and health in one of the most dangerous industries--the construction industry. WHY WAS THIS BOOK WRITTEN AND FOR WHOM? This book was written to fulfill the need for an up-to-date practical teaching resource that focuses specifically on the needs of modern construction professionals and on the construction requirements set forth by OSHA and other regulatory agencies. The book is intended for use in universities, colleges, community colleges, technical schools, and corporate training settings where programs, courses, or seminars in construction safety and health are offered. Educators in disciplines such as construction engineering, construction technology, construction management, and the various construction-related trades (e.g., carpentry, HVAC, electricity, plumbing) will find this book both valuable and easy to use. The direct, straightforward presentation of material focuses on making the theories and principles of construction safety and health practical and useful in a real-world setting. Up-to-date research has been integrated throughout in a down-to-earth manner. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK The text contains 21 chapters, each focusing on a major area of concern for modern construction professionals. The chapters are presented in an order that is compatible with the typical organization of a college-level construction safety and health course. A standard chapter format is used throughout the book. Each chapter begins with a list of major topics covered therein and ends with a comprehensive summary. After the summary, each chapter contains review questions, key terms and concepts, critical thinking or discussion activities, application activities, and endnotes. Within each chapter are two or moreSafety Facts & Finesboxes, which are brief real-world cases that show what can happen when safety regulations and safety practices are ignored. Fictitious Names The author occasionally uses fictitious names of both companies and individuals in the Critical Thinking and Discussion Activities that appear at the end of each chapter. Such names are also used occasionally in figures within chapters. These fictitious companies and individuals are used to illustrate principles and concepts explained in the chapters in question. Although the situations described are all based on actual events, the names and the companies and individuals are fictitious. Any similarities to actual companies or individuals is purely coincidental.


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